La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department; the city is connected to the Île de Ré by a 2.9-kilometre bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into the Pertuis d'Antioche; the area of La Rochelle was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes. The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, re-exported throughout the Empire. Roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period. La Rochelle became an important harbour in the 12th century; the establishment of La Rochelle as a harbour was a consequence of the victory of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine over Isambert de Châtelaillon in 1130 and the subsequent destruction of his harbour of Châtelaillon.
In 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years Eleanor of Aquitaine upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, for the first time in France, a city mayor was appointed for La Rochelle, Guillaume de Montmirail. Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Under the communal charter, the city obtained many privileges, such as the right to mint its own coins, to operate some businesses free of royal taxes, factors which would favour the development of the entrepreneurial middle-class. Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet in 1152, who became king of England as Henry II in 1154, thus putting La Rochelle under Plantagenet rule, until Louis VIII captured it in the 1224 Siege of La Rochelle. During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, remains of which are still visible in the Place de Verdun.
The main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, wealthy bourgeois Alexandre Auffredi sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa seeking wealth, he went bankrupt awaiting the return of his ships. The Knights Templar had a strong presence in La Rochelle since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter. La Rochelle was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean, where they stationed their main fleet. From La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean. A popular thread of conspiracy theory originating with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships which had brought Jacques de Molay from Cyprus to La Rochelle to escape arrest in France; the fleet left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307.
During the Hundred Years' War in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle again came under the rule of the English monarch. La Rochelle however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, between Castilian-French and English fleets; the French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, which were deployed by the French and Spanish against the English. Having recovered freedom, La Rochelle refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372. In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt left La Rochelle and sailed along the coast of Morocco to conquer the Canary islands; until the 15th century, La Rochelle was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing in wine and cheese. During the Renaissance, La Rochelle adopted Protestant ideas.
Calvinism started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two "heretics" in La Rochelle in 1552. Conversions to Calvinism however continued, due to a change of religious beliefs, but to a desire for political independence on the part of the local elite, a popular opposition to royal expenses and requisitions in the building projects to fortify the coast against England. On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived attempt of France Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil, resolved to make a stand in La Rochelle itself. Pierre Richier became "Ministre de l'église de la Rochelle" when he returned from Brazil in 1558, was able to increase the Huguenot presence in La Rochelle, from a small base of about 50 souls, secretly educated in the Lutheran faith by Charles de Clermont the previous year.
He has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as "le père de l'église de La Rochelle". La Rochelle was the first French city, with Rouen, to experience iconoclastic riots in 1560, at the time of the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, before the riots spread to many other cities. Further cases of Reformation iconoclasm were recorded in L
Ilkley is a spa town and civil parish in West Yorkshire, in Northern England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Ilkley civil parish includes the adjacent village of Ben Rhydding and is a ward within the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council. 12 miles north of Bradford and 17 miles northwest of Leeds, the town lies on the south bank of the River Wharfe in Wharfedale, one of the Yorkshire Dales. Ilkley's spa town heritage and surrounding countryside make tourism an important local industry; the town centre is characterised by wide streets and floral displays. Ilkley Moor, to the south of the town, is the subject of a folk song described as the unofficial anthem of Yorkshire, "On Ilkla Moor Baht'at"; the song's words are written in Yorkshire dialect, its title translated as "On Ilkley Moor without a hat." The earliest evidence of habitation in the Ilkley area is from flint arrowheads or microliths, dating to the Mesolithic period, from about 11,000 BC onwards. The area around Ilkley has been continuously settled since at least the early Bronze Age, around 1800 BC.
A druidical stone circle, the Twelve Apostles Stone Circle, was constructed 2,000 years ago. Serious interest in the rock art of Ilkley began after the publication in 1879 of the "Prehistoric Rock Sculptures of Ilkley" by Romilly Allen in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association; the remains of a Roman fort occupy a site near the town centre. Some authorities believe it is Olicana, dating to 79 AD. A number of Roman altars have been discovered from the reigns of Antoninus Pius, Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla. Three Anglo-Saxon crosses from the 8th century that stood in the churchyard of All Saints' Church have been moved inside to prevent erosion; the church site, as a centre for Christian worship, extends to 627 AD, the present Victorian-era church incorporates medieval elements. The Domesday Book, of 1086, records Ilkley as being in the possession of William de Percy 1st Baron Percy; the land was acquired by the Middelton family of Myddelton Lodge, from about a century after the time of William the Conqueror.
The family lost possession through a series of land sales and mortgage repossessions over a period of about a hundred years from the early 19th century. The agents of William Middelton were responsible for the design of the new town of Ilkley to replace the village which had stood there before. In the 17th and 18th centuries the town gained a reputation for the efficacy of its water. In the 19th century it became established as a fashionable spa town, with the construction of Ben Rhydding Hydro, a hydropathic establishment at Wheatley, a mile to the east, between 1843 and 1844. Charles Darwin underwent hydropathic treatment at Wells House when his book On the Origin of Species was published on 24 November 1859, whilst staying with his family at North View House. Tourists flocked to bathe in the cold-water spring. Wheatley was renamed Ben Rhydding after the Hydro, demolished. Development based on the Hydro movement, on the establishment of convalescent homes and hospitals, was accelerated in August 1865 by the construction of the Otley and Ilkley Joint Railway, which linked to the Leeds and Bradford Railway and the North Eastern Railway.
The Midland Railway built a connection to Skipton via Bolton Abbey in May 1888. Other Victorian visitors to the town included Madame Tussaud; the only remaining hydro building is the white cottage known as White Wells House. The cottage can be visited on the edge of the moor overlooking the town; the town has a parish council and although it is a town and has a town hall, the parish council has not exercised its right to be called a town council. The parish consists of four wards and elects 14 councillors: Ilkley North, Ilkley South, Ilkley West and Ben Rhydding; the parish council precept is collected with the annual Council Tax to fund its running and to aid the development of local projects. Ilkley is in the Keighley UK Parliament constituency whose seat is held by John Grogan, Labour MP, he replaced Conservative MP, in the 2017 election. Kris Hopkins was elected in the 2010 general election. Ann Cryer was elected in the General Election of 1997, her late husband Bob Cryer held the seat between 1974 and 1983.
Ilkley is in the Humber European constituency. Before 1974 Ilkley was a type of local government district. Ilkley Urban District Council shared local government responsibilities with the West Riding County Council; the Local Government Act 1972 dissolved urban districts and in 1974 Ilkley adopted its current status as a ward of the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford. Services provided by the urban district council are now run centrally by the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council; until 2006 Ilkley civil parish consisted of Ilkley ward, which includes Ben Rhydding, the north half of Rombalds ward. The latter ward housed the villages of Menston; the population of the parish in 2001 was therefore higher than it is today, consisting of 24,954 residents. In 2006 Burley-in-Wharfedale and Menston established their own parishes and today Ilkley consists only of Ilkley ward. CouncillorsThe parish is a ward in the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford and is represented by two Conservative councillors, Mike Gibbon
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC, was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he was executed for treason. Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, Lettice Knollys, his maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn, the mother of Queen Elizabeth I, making him a first-cousin-twice-removed of the Queen. He was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley Castle, at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, in Wales, his father died in 1576, the new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley. In 1577, he was admitted as a fellow-commoner at Cambridge. On 21 September 1578, Essex's mother married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth I's long-standing favourite and Robert Devereux's godfather. Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour.
In 1590, he married Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Sidney, by whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, Leicester's nephew, had died in 1586 at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex had distinguished himself. In October 1591, Essex's mistress, Elizabeth Southwell, gave birth to a son who survived into adulthood. Essex first came to court in 1584, by 1587 had become a favourite of the Queen, who relished his lively mind and eloquence, as well as his skills as a showman and in courtly love. In June 1587 he replaced the Earl of Leicester as Master of the Horse. After Leicester's death in 1588, the Queen transferred the late Earl's royal monopoly on sweet wines to Essex, providing him with revenue from taxes. In 1593, he was made a member of her Privy Council. Essex underestimated the Queen and his behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal secretary, Robert Cecil.
On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, the Queen cuffed an insolent Essex round the ear, prompting him to half draw his sword on her. In 1589, he took part in Francis Drake's English Armada, which sailed to Spain in an unsuccessful attempt to press home the English advantage following the defeat of the Spanish Armada, although the Queen had ordered him not to take part. In 1591, he was given command of a force sent to the assistance of King Henry IV of France. In 1596, he distinguished himself by the capture of Cádiz. During the Islands Voyage expedition to the Azores in 1597, with Walter Raleigh as his second-in-command, he defied the Queen's orders, pursuing the Spanish treasure fleet without first defeating the Spanish battle fleet. So when the 3rd Spanish Armada first appeared off the English coast in October 1597, the English fleet was far out to sea, with the coast undefended, panic ensued; this further damaged the relationship between the Queen and Essex though he was given full command of the English fleet when he reached England a few days later.
A storm dispersed the Spanish fleet - a number of ships were captured by the English and though there were a few landings, the Spanish withdrew. Essex's greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post which he talked himself into in 1599; the Nine Years' War was in its middle stages, no English commander had been successful. More military force was required to defeat the Irish chieftains, led by Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone and supplied from Spain and Scotland. Essex led the largest expeditionary force sent to Ireland—16,000 troops—with orders to put an end to the rebellion, he departed London to the cheers of the Queen's subjects, it was expected the rebellion would be crushed but the limits of Crown resources and of the Irish campaigning season dictated otherwise. Essex had declared to the Privy Council. Instead, he led his army into southern Ireland, where he fought a series of inconclusive engagements, wasted his funds, dispersed his army into garrisons, while the Irish won two important battles in other parts of the country.
Rather than face O'Neill in battle, Essex entered a truce that some considered humiliating to the Crown and to the detriment of English authority. The Queen herself told Essex that if she had wished to abandon Ireland it would scarcely have been necessary to send him there. In all of his campaigns Essex secured the loyalty of his officers by conferring knighthoods, an honour the Queen herself dispensed sparingly, by the end of his time in Ireland more than half the knights in England owed their rank to him; the rebels were said to have joked that, "he never drew sword but to make knights." But his practice of conferring knighthoods could in time enable Essex to challenge the powerful factions at Cecil's command. He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, serving from 1598 to 1601. Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September 1599, reached London four days later; the Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace, before she was properly wigged or gowned.
On that day, the Privy Council met three times, it seemed his disobedience might go unpunished, although the Queen did confine him to his rooms with the co
Frankenthal is a town in southwestern Germany, in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankenthal was first mentioned in 772. In 1119 an Augustinian monastery was built here, the ruins of which — known, after the founder, as the Erkenbertruine — still stand today in the town centre. In the second half of the 16th century, people from Flanders, persecuted for their religious beliefs, settled in Frankenthal, they brought economic prosperity to the town. Some of them were important carpet weavers and artists whose Frankenthaler Malerschule acquired some fame. In 1577 the settlement was raised to the status of a town by the Count Palatine Johann Casimir. In 1600 Frankenthal was converted to a fortress. In 1621 it was besieged by the Spanish during the Thirty Years' War, successively occupied by troops of the opposing sides. Trade and industry were ruined and the town was not reconstructed until 1682. In 1689 the town was burnt to the ground by French troops in the War of the Grand Alliance; the town did not recover from this for more than fifty years.
However, in 1750, under the rule of the Elector Charles Theodore, Frankenthal was established as a centre of industry. Numerous factories were opened and mulberry trees were planted for silk production. In 1755 the famous Frankenthal porcelain factory was opened, which remained in production until 1800. In 1797 the town came under French occupation during the French Revolutionary Wars, it passed into the rule of Bavaria in 1816. The beginning of modern industrialisation is dated from 1859. In 1938 the Jewish synagogue, built in 1884, was burnt to the ground during the Kristallnacht. In 1943 during a bombing raid the centre of the town was completely destroyed. In 1945, at the end of World War II, its industries in ruins, it was occupied first by the Americans and by the French. From 1946 Frankenthal has been part of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Today the town is again the site of some medium-sized industries. 1850: 4.767 1900: 16.899 2000: around 50.000 2015: 48.363 Frankenthal is twinned with: Colombes, France since October 26, 1958 Strausberg, Germany since October 16, 1990 Sopot, Poland since April 17, 1991Partnership: Community of Butamwa, Rwanda since December 15, 1982Associated towns: Berlin-Neukölln, Germany Pushkin, Russia Blumenau, Brazil Abraham Heidanus, a reformed theologian Esther Moscherosch née Ackermann, wife of the statesman and baroque poet Johann Michael Moscherosch Jacob Marrel, still life painter Johann Philipp Becker, revolutionary Georg Vierling, composer Konrad Maurer, a Bavarian legal historian Julius von Michel, ophthalmologist Richard Reverdy, civil engineer Karl Wendling and music pedagogue Karl Perron, opera singer Franz Nissl and psychiatrist August von Parseval, designer of airships Hermann Wilker, rower Oskar Perron, mathematician Ludwig Marum and politician, victims of the Holocaust Arnold Fanck and pioneer of the mountain film Paul Martini, medical doctor Carl Neubronner, politician Georg Gehring, wrestler Karl Huber and trade unionist Josef Frank, politician Werner Knab, jurist and SS leader Hans Carste and conductor Adolf Metzner, Leichtathlet Rudi Fischer, Football goalkeeper The family name "Frankenthal" is attested among people scattered in many countries - among Jews - and indicates an ultimate origin of the family in the town, though it might be centuries old and leaving no memory other than the name.
"Frankenthal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Frankenthal". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
Lincoln (UK Parliament constituency)
Lincoln is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Karen Lee, a Labour Party politician. Since the split of the seat City of York with effect from the 2010 general election, Lincoln has been the oldest constituency in continuous existence in the UK – established in 1265. Lincoln was a bellwether between 1974 and 2017; the seat bucked the national Conservative victory in 1970 by electing a Labour MP, as it did in 2017. Lincoln is the only seat won by a Labour candidate in 2017 among seven covering its county. Lee's 2017 win was one of 30 net gains of the Labour Party; the seat has been considered relative to others an ultra-marginal seat, as well as a swing seat, since 2005 as its winner's majority has not exceeded 3.2% of the vote since the 12.5% majority won in 2005 and the seat has changed hands twice since that year. 1918-1950: The County Borough of Lincoln, the Urban District of Bracebridge. 1950-1974: The County Borough of Lincoln. 1974-1983: As prior but with redrawn boundaries.
1983-1997: The City of Lincoln, the District of North Kesteven wards of Bracebridge Heath, North Hykeham Central, North Hykeham North, North Hykeham South and Waddington West. 1997-2010: The City of Lincoln, the District of North Kesteven ward of Bracebridge Heath. 2010-present: The City of Lincoln, the District of North Kesteven wards of Bracebridge Heath and Waddington East, Skellingthorpe. The constituency, as its name suggests, covers the cathedral city of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, most of its directly adjoining villages. Lincoln first sent Members to Parliament in 1265, thirty years before the first all-over coverage of cities and qualifying towns was introduced in the Model Parliament, has done so since, although no records exist from before the end of the 13th century; the early elections were held at the Guildhall and the burgesses elected were officials of the borough. The representation two Members, was reduced to one Member in 1885; the seat was represented for five years by the future Cabinet minister Margaret Jackson Margaret Beckett.
Lincoln became the oldest constituency in the country in 2010 when the City of York constituency was divided. The seat includes the University of Lincoln. From 1945 to 1972 Lincoln was continuously held by the Labour Party as a safe seat; the city has good transport links with Nottingham and the smaller ancient market towns in Lincolnshire, such as Spalding, Market Rasen and Boston. Lincoln was a bellwether constituency from October 1974 to 2015, voting for the party which would form the government in each election. In 2017 Labour took the seat despite being the 2nd largest party nationwide. General Election 1939/40 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
Caused by Heneage's resignation. Caused by Sibthorp's death. Caused by Sibthorp's death. Caused by Seely's election being declared void on petition, due to bribery by his agent, on 10 March 1848 List of Parliamentary constituencies in Lincolnshire Guardian Unlimited Politics http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/ Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1832–1885. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 187. ISBN 978-0-900178-26-9. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1885–1918. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 137. ISBN 978-0-900178-27-6. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 172. ISBN 978-0-900178-06-1