Grenville County, Ontario
Grenville County is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. The county was created in 1792, named in honour of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Secretary of State in 1790, it consisted of five townships, which were settled by United Empire Loyalists in the late 1700s after the Revolutionary War. Prior to being settled by Europeans, the area was home to many generations of native cultures. Grenville County merged with Leeds County in 1850 to create Grenville County; the county covered an area of 272,261 acres. Prior to European settlement, numerous Native American villages were present in Grenville County; the French occupied this area at present-day Johnstown, in what was to become Edwardsburgh township, at Pointe au Baril in what would be Augusta township. These French settlements date back to 1759 respectively. In the late 1700s, land was surveyed in and around what would become Grenville County to be distributed as land grants to the United Empire Loyalists and their families for their loyalty to the Crown.
The first townships laid out were called the Royal Townships, were situated along the St. Lawrence River where land was most productive and travel was convenient. In the 1790s, three more townships were created further north of the existing townships which became part of Grenville County: Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford townships. Shortly after the Loyalists arrival and Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area as well; the European settlers dotted the new townships with small agricultural communities which were self-sustaining. These communities were established out of necessity, as roads in the area were not well-established during nineteenth century and people were travelling via horse and buggy, or on foot; every few kilometres, a village or hamlet was present. Most residents made their living through small-scale mixed farming operations. In 1850, Grenville county was amalgamated with the neighbouring county of Leeds, to become the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville; this occurred when the area ceased to be divided by districts, Canada began to be divided instead by province.
Prior to confederation, the area of Upper Canada was divided by districts, which held the counties, which held the townships. During the mid-1800s, counties began the districts were dropped. Grenville County consisted of five separate townships, two of which still exist, one under a different name; the five townships were Augusta, Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford. Augusta township, covers an area of 75,083 acres, it was first surveyed in 1783, was named in honour of Princess Augusta Sophia, second daughter of George III. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River. Edwardsburgh township, covers an area of 66,669 acres; the township was first surveyed in 1783. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River, east of Augusta township. Oxford-on-Rideau township, covered an area of 59,350 acres and was first surveyed in 1791; the township was amalgamated in the 1990s with South Gower township and the town of Kemptville to become North Grenville.
This township was located north of both Edwardsburgh and Augusta townships, between Wolford and South Gower. South Gower township, covered an area of 27,709 acres and was first surveyed in 1799; this township was located north of Edwardsburgh. Wolford township covered an area of 46,851 acres and was first surveyed in 1795, it was named for the Devonshire seat of John Graves Simcoe. This township was located west of Oxford-on-Rideau, north of Augusta. In the 1990s, Wolford township became known as its own municipality, was renamed Merrickville–Wolford. 1951 map of Grenville County
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Modern saw mills use a motorized saw to cut logs lengthwise to make long pieces, crosswise to length depending on standard or custom sizes; the "portable" saw mill is iconic and of simple operation—the logs lay flat on a steel bed and the motorized saw cuts the log horizontally along the length of the bed, by the operator manually pushing the saw. The most basic kind of saw mill consists of a chainsaw and a customized jig, with similar horizontal operation. Before the invention of the sawmill, boards were made in various manual ways, either rived and planed, hewn, or more hand sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and another in a saw pit below; the earliest known mechanical mill is the Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor dating back to the 3rd century AD. Other water-powered mills followed and by the 11th century they were widespread in Spain and North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, in the next few centuries, spread across Europe.
The circular motion of the wheel was converted to a reciprocating motion at the saw blade. Only the saw was powered, the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand. An early improvement was the development of a movable carriage water powered, to move the log through the saw blade. By the time of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the circular saw blade had been invented, with the development of steam power in the 19th century, a much greater degree of mechanisation was possible. Scrap lumber from the mill provided a source of fuel for firing the boiler; the arrival of railroads meant that logs could be transported to mills rather than mills being built besides navigable waterways. By 1900, the largest sawmill in the world was operated by the Atlantic Lumber Company in Georgetown, South Carolina, using logs floated down the Pee Dee River from the Appalachian Mountains. In the 20th century the introduction of electricity and high technology furthered this process, now most sawmills are massive and expensive facilities in which most aspects of the work is computerized.
Besides the sawn timber, use is made of all the by-products including sawdust, bark and wood pellets, creating a diverse offering of forest products. A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago. After trees are selected for harvest, the next step in logging is felling the trees, bucking them to length. Branches are cut off the trunk; this is known as limbing. Logs are taken by rail or a log drive to the sawmill. Logs are scaled either upon arrival at the mill. Debarking removes bark from the logs. Decking is the process for sorting the logs by species and end use. A sawyer uses a head saw to break the log into flitches. Depending upon the species and quality of the log, the cants will either be further broken down by a resaw or a gang edger into multiple flitches and/or boards. Edging will trim off all irregular edges leaving four-sided lumber. Trimming squares the ends at typical lumber lengths. Drying removes occurring moisture from the lumber; this can be done with kilns or air-dried.
Planing smooths the surface of the lumber leaving a uniform thickness. Shipping transports the finished lumber to market; the Hierapolis sawmill, a water-powered stone saw mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor, dating to the second half of the 3rd century, is the earliest known sawmill. It incorporates a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Water-powered stone sawmills working with cranks and connecting rods, but without gear train, are archaeologically attested for the 6th century at the Byzantine cities Gerasa and Ephesus; the earliest literary reference to a working sawmill comes from a Roman poet, who wrote a topographical poem about the river Moselle in Germany in the late 4th century AD. At one point in the poem he describes the shrieking sound of a watermill cutting marble. Marble sawmills seem to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia around 370/390 AD, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. By the 11th century, hydropowered sawmills were in widespread use in the medieval Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east.
Sawmills became widespread in medieval Europe, as one was sketched by Villard de Honnecourt in c. 1250. They are claimed to have been introduced to Madeira following its discovery in c. 1420 and spread in Europe in the 16th century. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived and planed, or more sawn by two men with a whipsaw, using saddleblocks to hold the log, a saw pit for the pitman who worked below. Sawing was slow, required strong and hearty men; the topsawer had to be the stronger of the two because the saw was pulled in turn by each man, the lower had the advantage of gravity. The topsawyer had to guide the saw so that the board was of thickness; this was done by following a chalkline. Early sawmills adapted the whipsaw to mechanical power driven by a water wheel to speed up the process; the circular motion of the wheel was changed to back-and-forth motion of the saw blade by a connecting rod known as a pitman arm. Only the saw was powered, the logs had to be lo
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Saratoga Springs, New York
Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census; the name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. Saratoga Springs was ranked tenth in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto; the picturesque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Natives before they were forced out by Dutch and British colonists. The Mahicans moved east, allied with other remnant peoples, settled near Stockbridge, where they became known as the Stockbridge Natives; the British built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. Shortly thereafter, British colonists settled the current village of Schuylerville about a mile south. Native Americans believed the springs about 10 miles west of the village — today called High Rock Spring — had medicinal properties. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier, a hero of the French and Indian War, was brought by Native American friends to the spring to treat his war wounds.
The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces; the Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater. A museum dedicated to the two battles sits on the former battlefields; the British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles east of the city, in Schuylerville, where several historical markers delineate points of interest. The surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville. Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a western portion of the Town of Saratoga, its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the entire region became a city in 1915. Tourism was aided by the 1832 arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, which brought thousands of travelers to the famous mineral springs.
Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. Patronage of the railroad increased after the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company assumed control in 1870 and began running the Empire State Express directly between New York City and the resort. In the 19th century, noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of mineral waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel and the Grand Union Hotel; the latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world. In 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened. Horse racing and its associated betting increased the city's attraction as a tourist destination at a time when horse racing was a popular national spectator sport. In addition, the Saratoga Springs area was known for its gambling, which after the first years of the 20th century was illegal, but still widespread. Most gambling facilities were located on the southeast side of the city.
During the 1950s, the state and city closed the famed gambling houses in a crackdown on illegal gambling. The closing and demolition in the 1950s of some premier hotels, including the Grand Union and United States hurt tourism to Saratoga Springs; the city started to prosper again in the 1960s with the completion of the Adirondack Northway, which allowed visitors from the north and south much easier access. In addition, the construction of the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in the late 1960s, which features classical and popular music and dance, furthered the city's renaissance; the New York City Ballet and the Philadelphia Orchestra have summer residencies there, together with other high-quality dance groups and musicians. Since the early 1990s, there has been a boom of building, both residential and retail, in the west side and downtown areas of the city. According to legend, the creation of the potato chip is associated with Saratoga Springs; the legend holds that a diner visiting the restaurant Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs in 1853 was unsatisfied with the texture of the fried potatoes he had ordered and sent them back to the kitchen multiple times in protest.
The chef, George Crum became so annoyed with the customer that he sliced the potatoes much thinner than he would, covered them in salt, deep fried them. The customer was satisfied. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.1 square miles, of which 28.4 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The Adirondack Northway and US Route 9 pass through the city, respectively. New York State Route 29, New York State Route 50, New York State Route 9N, New York State Route 9P lead into Saratoga Springs. NY 9N has its southern terminus and NY 9P has its northern terminus in the city. US 9 and NY 50 overlap in the city, joined by NY 29. Saratoga Lake is southeast of the city. According to the 2010 U. S. Census Bureau: 92.5% Whit
South Dundas, Ontario
South Dundas is a municipality in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, it is located 60 miles/100 kilometres south of Ottawa and is midway between Kingston and Montreal, Quebec. The township was established on January 1, 1998, with the amalgamation of the former Townships of Matilda and Williamsburg, along with the Villages of Iroquois and Morrisburg; the township of South Dundas comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Matilda Township: Brinston, Dixons Corners, Glen Stewart, Hulbert, Iroquois, Stampville. The county was named in 1792 to honour Henry Dundas, Lord Advocate for Scotland and Colonial Secretary at the time. Matilda and Williamsburgh were two of Upper Canada's original eight Royal Townships; the northern portions of Matilda and Williamsburg townships were separated in 1798 to form the new townships of Mountain and Winchester within Dundas County. The McIntosh apple was cultivated in South Dundas near Williamsburg.
John McIntosh's parents emigrated from Inverness, Scotland to the Mohawk Valley in New York, John moved to Upper Canada in 1796. In 1811 he acquired a farm in Dundela, while clearing the land of second growth discovered several apple seedlings, he transplanted these, one bore the superior fruit which became famous as the McIntosh Red apple. John's son Allan promoted this new species extensively, it was acclaimed in Ontario and the northern United States, was introduced into British Columbia about 1910. Its popularity in North America and propagation in many lands attest the initiative and industry of John McIntosh and his descendants. Morrisburg took its name from Canada's first postmaster general. Morris played an important role in canal-building in the area. James Pliny Whitney, Ontario's sixth premier, is buried here in the cemetery of Holy Trinity Anglican Church in Riverside Heights, just east of Morrisburg and north of County Road 2. Whitney was born in Williamsburg in 1843, represented Dundas County in the Legislature from 1888 to 1914 and served as Premier from 1905 to 1914.
Morrisburg and Iroquois were flooded by the creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958. Unlike the Lost Villages of Cornwall and Osnabruck Townships, the two towns were relocated to higher ground in the same area. There was an international design competition in 1954 to design the new Iroquois townsite. Canadian-British architect Wells Coates was among those. An artificial lake, Lake Saint Lawrence, now extends from a hydroelectric dam at Cornwall to the control structure at Iroquois, replaces the narrow and turbulent section of river, impassable to large vessels, it replaces, in part, the Long Sault rapids. Several buildings from the Lost Villages were moved to a site near Morrisburg to create Upper Canada Village, a living museum which depicts 19th century life in Upper Canada. In 1976, stuntman Ken Carter attempted to jump a one-mile portion of the Saint Lawrence River by taking a one million dollar Lincoln Continental rocket car off an eight-storey ramp; this was billed as The Super Jump.
The ramp and its runway were located in a field just west of Hanes Road, South of County road 2. The ramp has since been demolished, but the concrete runway still exists as of 2012. Charles A. Barkley, elected mayor of the municipality in the 2006 municipal elections, died unexpectedly on June 17, 2009, he was a municipal politician since 1981. He was succeeded by deputy mayor Robert Gillard; the only provincial highway directly serving the township is Highway 401. All other highway routes in the township, including Highway 2 and Highway 31, were decommissioned by the province in the 1990s, were folded into Stormont and Glengarry's county road system. Highway 416, the main route from the 401 to Ottawa, has its southern terminus at Johnstown in the neighbouring township of Edwardsburgh/Cardinal. Morrisburg is served by a unattended airport adjacent to Upper Canada Village. Iroquois is served by a small unattended airport near the locks; the Morrisburg Lions of the Eastern Ontario Junior B Hockey League play out of the Morrisburg Arena.
Thoroughbred racing pioneer Francine Villeneuve, grew up in the community of Winchester Springs. Morrisburg Leader List of townships in Ontario The Morrisburg Leader Municipality of South Dundas Historical Society of South Dundas
Stratherrick is a strath situated above the south-eastern shore of Loch Ness, in the Scottish Highlands, Scotland. Much of the strath is covered by Loch Mhòr; this is a shallow loch, which acts as a reservoir for the Foyers hydro electricity scheme. The area has a number of small settlements, these include Whitebridge, Gorthleck and Errogie. Stratherrick Primary School is in Gorthleck. There is a Catholic Church, Immaculate Conception Parish Church, Stratherrick near Whitebridge