The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty. The name of the corresponding field is actuarial science; these risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management, valuation skills. Actuaries provide assessments of financial security systems, with a focus on their complexity, their mathematics, their mechanisms. While the concept of insurance dates to antiquity, the concepts needed to scientifically measure and mitigate risks have their origins in the 17th century studies of probability and annuities. Actuaries of the 21st century require analytical skills, business knowledge, an understanding of human behavior and information systems to design and manage programs that control risk; the actual steps needed to become an actuary are country-specific. The profession has been ranked as one of the most desirable. In various studies, being an actuary was ranked number one or two multiple times since 2010.
Actuaries use skills in mathematics calculus-based probability and mathematical statistics, but economics, computer science and business. For this reason, actuaries are essential to the insurance and reinsurance industries, either as staff employees or as consultants. Actuaries assemble and analyze data to estimate the probability and cost of the occurrence of an event such as death, injury, disability, or loss of property. Actuaries address financial questions, including those involving the level of pension contributions required to produce a certain retirement income and the way in which a company should invest resources to maximize its return on investments in light of potential risk. Using their broad knowledge, actuaries help design and price insurance policies, pension plans, other financial strategies in a manner that will help ensure that the plans are maintained on a sound financial basis. Most traditional actuarial disciplines fall into two main categories: life and non-life. Life actuaries, which include health and pension actuaries deal with mortality risk, morbidity risk, investment risk.
Products prominent in their work include life insurance, pensions and long term disability insurance, health insurance, health savings accounts, long-term care insurance. In addition to these risks, social insurance programs are influenced by public opinion, budget constraints, changing demographics, other factors such as medical technology and cost of living considerations. Non-life actuaries known as property and casualty or general insurance actuaries, deal with both physical and legal risks that affect people or their property. Products prominent in their work include auto insurance, homeowners insurance, commercial property insurance, workers' compensation, malpractice insurance, product liability insurance, marine insurance, terrorism insurance, other types of liability insurance. Actuaries are called upon for their expertise in enterprise risk management; this can involve dynamic financial analysis, stress testing, the formulation of corporate risk policy, the setting up and running of corporate risk departments.
Actuaries are involved in other areas of the financial services industry, such as analysing securities offerings or market research. On both the life and casualty sides, the classical function of actuaries is to calculate premiums and reserves for insurance policies covering various risks. On the casualty side, this analysis involves quantifying the probability of a loss event, called the frequency, the size of that loss event, called the severity; the amount of time that occurs before the loss event is important, as the insurer will not have to pay anything until after the event has occurred. On the life side, the analysis involves quantifying how much a potential sum of money or a financial liability will be worth at different points in the future. Since neither of these kinds of analysis are purely deterministic processes, stochastic models are used to determine frequency and severity distributions and the parameters of these distributions. Forecasting interest yields and currency movements plays a role in determining future costs on the life side.
Actuaries do not always attempt to predict aggregate future events. Their work may relate to determining the cost of financial liabilities that have occurred, called retrospective reinsurance, or the development or re-pricing of new products. Actuaries design and maintain products and systems, they are involved in financial reporting of companies' liabilities. They must communicate complex concepts to clients who may not share their language or depth of knowledge. Actuaries work under a code of ethics that covers their communications and work products (ASB 20
Greyfriars Kirkyard is the graveyard surrounding Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located at the southern edge of the Old Town, adjacent to George Heriot's School. Burials have been taking place since the late 16th century, a number of notable Edinburgh residents are interred at Greyfriars; the Kirkyard is operated by City of Edinburgh Council in liaison with a charitable trust, linked to but separate from the church. The Kirkyard and its monuments are protected as a category A listed building. Greyfriars takes its name from the Franciscan friary on the site, dissolved in 1559; the churchyard was founded in 1561 to replace the churchyard at St Giles. The Kirkyard was involved in the history of the Covenanters; the Covenanting movement began with signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriars Kirk on 28 February 1638. Following the defeat of the militant Covenanters at Bothwell Brig in 1679, some 1200 Covenanters were imprisoned in a field to the south of the churchyard. When, in the 18th century, part of this field was amalgamated into the churchyard as vaulted tombs the area became known as the "Covenanters' Prison".
During the early days of photography in the 1840s the kirkyard was used by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson as a setting for several portraits and tableaux such as The Artist and The Gravedigger. The graveyard is associated with the loyal dog who guarded his master's grave. Bobby's headstone at the entrance to the Kirkyard, erected by the Dog Aid Society in 1981, marks his actual burial place in an unconsecrated patch of the Kirkyard - a peculiarity which has led to many misunderstandings and fictions about his burial; the dog's statue is opposite the graveyard's gate, at the junction of George IV Bridge and Candlemaker Row. The grave of Edinburgh police officer John Gray, where the dog famously slept for 13 years, lies on the eastern path, some 30m north of the entrance; the stone is modern, the grave being unmarked. Enclosed vaults are found on the south edge of the graveyard and in the "Covenanters' Prison"; these either have solid stone walls or iron railings and were created as a deterrent to grave robbing, which had become a problem in the eighteenth century.
Greyfriars has two low ironwork cages, called mortsafes. These were leased, protected bodies for long enough to deter the attentions of the early nineteenth-century resurrection men who supplied Edinburgh Medical College with corpses for dissection; the kirkyard displays some of Scotland's finest mural monuments from the early 17th century, rich in symbolism of both mortality and immortality such as the Death Head, Angel of the Resurrection and the King of Terrors. These are found along the east and west walls of the old burial yard to the north of the kirkyard. Notable monuments include the Martyr's Monument; the Italianate monument to Sir George Mackenzie was designed by the architect James Smith, modelled on the Tempietto di San Pietro, designed by Donato Bramante. Duncan Ban MacIntyre's memorial was renovated in 2005, at a cost of about £3,000, raised by a fundraising campaign of over a year; the monument of John Byres of Coates, 1629, was one of the last works of the royal master mason William Wallace.
William Adam, with his son John Adam William Adam of Blair Adam, judge Alexander Adie FRSE optical instrument maker David Aikinhead, twice Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 1620–22 and 1625–30 William Annand and Dean of St Giles Cathedral John Bayne of Pitcairlie, Writer to the Signet Leslie Balfour-Melville golfer John Beugo, engraver Joseph Black, physician Rev Hugh Blair Sir James Hunter Blair, 1st Baronet Robert Blair, Lord Avontoun judge Very Rev Andrew Brown minister and historian of Nova Scotia George Buchanan and reformer James Buchanan of Drumpellier twice Lord Provost of Glasgow after whom Buchanan Street is named James Burnett, Lord Monboddo judge Sir John Byres of Coates Robert Cadell, publisher Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, nobleman General Duncan Campbell of Lochnell Sir Hugh Campbell of Cesnock, convenanter and MP for Ayrshire Aglionby Ross Carson FRSE, rector of the High School 1820-1845, author William Carstares and statesman Colonel Francis Charteris, notorious rake and member of the "Hell-fire" club Robert Chieslie Lord Provost who lost a fortune in the Darien scheme and died in Darien House - buried in MacKenzie's mausoleum alongside his murderer brother John Chiesley.
Prof Alexander Christison FRSE William Coulter, Lord Provost of Edinburgh Bishop William Cowper James Craig and designer of Edinburgh's New Town William Creech and Lord Provost of Edinburgh Andrew Crosbie and founding Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Sir Hugh Cunningham of Bonnington, Lord Provost of Edinburgh 1702-4 Prof Andrew Dalzell, FRSE Professor of Greek at Edinburgh University Charles Kemp Davidson, Lord Davidson Senator of the College of Justice Forrest Dewar surgeon, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 1786/88 Alexander Donaldson and publisher. Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, 1st Baronet James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, Regent
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Kensal Green Cemetery
Kensal Green Cemetery is a cemetery in the Kensal Green area of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. Inspired by Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, it was founded by the barrister George Frederick Carden; the cemetery opened in 1833 and comprises 72 acres of grounds, including two conservation areas, adjoining a canal. The cemetery is home to at least 33 species of bird and other wildlife; this distinctive cemetery has memorials ranging from large mausoleums housing the rich and famous to many distinctive smaller graves and includes special areas dedicated to the young. It has three chapels, serves all faiths; the cemetery was immortalised in the lines of G. K. Chesterton's poem "The Rolling English Road" from his book The Flying Inn: "For there is good news yet to hear and fine things to be seen. Due to this atmosphere, the cemetery was the chosen location of several scenes in movies, notably in Theatre of Blood; the cemetery is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.
It remains in use. The cemetery is in London's Royal Borough of Chelsea, its main entrance is on Harrow Road. Its other entrance, Alma Place is on the north side. Alma Place leads to the West London Crematorium and St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, which are in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham; the cemetery lies between Harrow Road and the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal to the south which has long been separated by a wall. A set of defunct gates is set in the southern wall which adjoins the canal where barges took a proportion of earth from excavating graves and coffins carried by barge were unloaded. George Frederick Carden had failed with an earlier attempt to establish a British equivalent to Paris's Père Lachaise Cemetery in 1825, but a new committee established in February 1830, including Andrew Spottiswoode, MP for Saltash, sculptor Robert William Sievier, banker Sir John Dean Paul, Charles Broughton Bowman, architects Thomas Willson and Augustus Charles Pugin, gained more financial and public support to fund the "General Cemetery Company".
Public meetings were held in June and July 1830 at the Freemasons' Tavern, Carden was elected treasurer. Paul, a partner in the London banking firm of Strahan, Paul and Bates, found and conditionally purchased the 54 acres of land at Kensal Green for £9,500; however and Carden were embroiled in a dispute regarding the design of the cemetery, where Paul favoured the Grecian style and Carden the Gothic style. A succession of architects were contemplated, including Benjamin Wyatt, Charles Fowler, Francis Goodwin, a Mr Lidell, a pupil of John Nash, before an architectural competition was launched in November 1831; this attracted 46 entrants, in March 1832 the premium was awarded, despite some opposition, for a Gothic Revival design by Henry Edward Kendall. On 11 July 1832, the Act of Parliament establishing a "General Cemetery Company for the interment of the Dead in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis" gained Royal Assent; the Act authorised it to raise up to £45,000 in shares, buy up to 80 acres of land and build a cemetery and a Church of England chapel.
Company directors appointed after the Bill received Royal Assent asserted their control and preference for a different style. One of the competition judges and a company shareholder, John William Griffith, who had produced working drawings for a boundary wall designed the cemetery's two chapels and the main gateway and 15,000 trees were supplied and planted by Hugh Ronalds from his nursery in Brentford. Founded as the General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, the cemetery was the first of the "Magnificent Seven" garden-style cemeteries in London, it was consecrated on 24 January 1833 by Charles James Blomfield, the Bishop of London, receiving its first funeral the same month. In the early 1850s, after a series of cholera epidemics in London caused an examination of London's burial facilities, health commissioner Edwin Chadwick proposed the closure of all existing burial grounds in the vicinity of London other than the owned Kensal Green Cemetery, northwest of the city, to be nationalised and enlarged to provide a single burial ground for west London.
The Treasury was sceptical that Chadwick's scheme would be financially viable, it was unpopular. Although the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 authorised the scheme, it was abandoned in 1852; the overall layout is on an east-west axes, with a central path leading to a raised chapel towards the west. The entrance is to the largest monuments line the central path to the chapel; the Church of England was allotted 39 acres and the remaining 15 separated, acres were given over to Dissenters, a distinction deemed crucial at the time. There was a division between the Dissenters’ part of the cemetery and the Anglican section; this took the form of a "sunk fence" from the canal to the gate piers on the path. There were decorative iron gates; the small area designated for non-Anglican burials is oval in shape and was made prominent by a wide