English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su
The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the Bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, an individual must belong to one of these Inns, it is located in the wider Temple area of the capital, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. The Inn is a professional body that provides legal training and regulation for members, it is ruled by a governing council called "Parliament", made up of the Masters of the Bench, led by the Treasurer, elected to serve a one-year term. The Temple takes its name from the Knights Templar, who leased the land to the Temple's inhabitants until their abolition in 1312; the Inner Temple was a distinct society from at least 1388, although as with all the Inns of Court its precise date of founding is not known. After a disruptive early period it flourished, becoming the second-largest Inn during the Elizabethan period; the Inner Temple expanded during the reigns of James I and Charles I, with 1,700 students admitted between 1600 and 1640.
The First English Civil War's outbreak led to a complete suspension of legal education, with the Inns close to being shut down for four years. Following the English Restoration the Inner Templars welcomed Charles II back to London with a lavish banquet. After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with buildings constructed or restored, such as the Hall and the Library. Much of this work was destroyed during The Blitz, when the Hall, Temple Church, many sets of chambers were devastated. Rebuilding was completed in 1959, today the Temple is a flourishing and active Inn of Court, with over 8,000 members; the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court, along with Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Middle Temple. The Inns are responsible for training and selecting barristers within England and Wales, are the only bodies allowed to call a barrister to the Bar and allow him or her to practice; the Temple is an independent, unincorporated organisation, works as a trust.
It has 8,000 members and around 450 apply to join per year. Although the Inn was a disciplinary and teaching body, these functions are now shared between the four Inns, with the Bar Standards Board acting as a disciplinary body and the Inns of Court and Bar Educational Trust providing education; the history of the Inner Temple begins in the early years of the reign of Henry II, when the contingent of Knights Templar in London moved from the Old Temple in Holborn to a new location on the banks of the River Thames, stretching from Fleet Street to what is now Essex House. The original Temple covered much of what is now the northern part of Chancery Lane, which the Knights created to provide access to their new buildings; the old Temple became the London palace of the Bishop of Lincoln. After the Reformation it became the home of the Earl of Southampton, the location is now named Southampton Buildings; the first group of lawyers came to live here during the 13th century, although as legal advisers to the Knights rather than as a society.
The Knights fell out of favour, the order was dissolved in 1312, with the land seized by the king and granted to the Knights Hospitaller. The Hospitallers did not live on the property, but rather used it as a source of revenue through rent. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy. During the 13th century, two events happened; as a result, the Church ceased to have a role in legal education in London. The secular, common law lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, as it was easy to get to the law courts at Westminster Hall and was just outside the City. Two groups occupied the Hospitaller land, became known as the "inner inn" and the "middle inn"; these became the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple, were distinct societies by 1388, when they are mentioned in a year book. The Hospitallers leased the land to the Inner Temple for £10 a year, with students coming from Thavie's Inn to study there. There are few records of the Inner Temple from the 14th and 15th centuries—indeed, from all the societies, although Lincoln's Inn's records stretch back to 1422.
The Temple was sacked by Wat Tyler and his rebels during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, with buildings pulled down and records destroyed. John Stow wrote that, after breaking into Fleet Prison the rebels: went to the Temple to destroy it, plucked down the houses, tooke off the tyles of the other buildings left; this house they spoyled for wrathe they bare to the prior of St. John's, unto whom it belonged, after a number of them had sacked this Temple, what with labour and what with wine being overcome, they lay down under the walls and housing, were slain like swyne, one of them killing another for old grudge and hatred, a
Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II. She was the daughter of King John IV, who became the first king of Portugal from the House of Braganza in 1640 after overthrowing the rule of the Spanish Habsburgs over Portugal. Catherine served as regent of Portugal during the absence of her brother in 1701 and during 1704–1705, after her return to her homeland as a widow. Owing to her devotion to the Roman Catholic faith in which she had been raised, Catherine was unpopular in England, she was a special object of attack by the inventors of the Popish Plot. In 1678 the murder of Edmund Berry Godfrey was ascribed to her servants, Titus Oates accused her of an intention to poison the king; these charges, the absurdity of, soon shown by cross-examination placed the queen for some time in great danger. On 28 November Oates accused her of high treason, the English House of Commons passed an order for the removal of herself and of all Roman Catholics from the Palace of Whitehall.
Several further depositions were made against her, in June 1679 it was decided that she should stand trial, which threat however was lifted by the king's intervention, for which she showed him much gratitude. She produced no heirs for the king, her husband kept many mistresses, most notably Barbara Palmer, whom Catherine was forced to accept as one of her Ladies of the Bedchamber. By his mistresses Charles fathered numerous illegitimate offspring, she is credited with introducing the British to tea-drinking, widespread among the Portuguese nobility. Catherine was born at the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, as the second surviving daughter of John, 8th Duke of Braganza and his wife, Luisa de Guzmán. Following the Portuguese Restoration War, her father was acclaimed King John IV of Portugal, on 1 December 1640. With her father's new position as one of Europe's most important monarchs, Portugal possessing a widespread colonial empire, Catherine became a prime choice for a wife for European royalty, she was proposed as a bride for John of Austria, François de Vendôme, duc de Beaufort, Louis XIV and Charles II.
The consideration for the final choice was due to her being seen as a useful conduit for contracting an alliance between Portugal and England, after the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in which Portugal was arguably abandoned by France. Despite her country's ongoing struggle with Spain, Catherine enjoyed a happy, contented childhood in her beloved Lisbon. Regarded as the power behind the throne, Queen Luisa was a devoted mother who took an active interest in her children's upbringing and supervised her daughter's education. Catherine is believed to have spent most of her youth in a convent close by the royal palace where she remained under the watchful eye of her protective mother, it appears to have been a sheltered upbringing, with one contemporary remarking that Catherine, "was bred hugely retired" and "hath hardly been ten times out of the palace in her life". Catherine's older sister, Princess of Beira, died in 1653, leaving Catherine as the eldest surviving child of her parents, her husband was chosen by Luisa, who acted as regent of her country following her husband's death in 1656.
Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of King Charles I, were renewed after the Restoration, on 23 June 1661, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed. England secured Tangier and the Seven Islands of Bombay, trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies and commercial freedom in Portugal, two million Portuguese crowns. In return Portugal obtained British military and naval support in her fight against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine, she arrived at Portsmouth on the evening of 13–14 May 1662, but was not visited there by Charles until 20 May. The following day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies – a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. On 30 September 1662 the married couple entered London as part of a large procession, which included the Portuguese delegation and many members of the court. There were minstrels and musicians, among them ten playing shawms and twelve playing Portuguese bagpipes, those being the new Queen’s favourite instruments.
The procession continued over a large bridge designed and built for the occasion, which led into the palace where Henrietta Maria, the Queen Mother waited, along with the British court and nobility. This was followed by firework displays. Catherine possessed several good qualities, but had been brought up in a convent, secluded from the world, was scarcely a wife Charles would have chosen for himself, her mother in law the Dowager Queen Henrietta Maria was pleased with her and Henrietta wrote that she is "The best creature in the world, from whom I have so much affection, I have the joy to see the King love her extremely. She is a Saint!". In reality, Catherine's personal charms were not potent enough to wean Charles away from the society of his mistresses, in a few weeks after her arrival she became aware of her painful and humiliating position as the wife of a licentious king. Little is known of Catherine's own thoughts on the match. While her mother plotted to secure an alliance with England and thus support in Portugal's fight for independence, her future husband celebrated his restoration by dallying with his mistresses, Catherine's time had been spent in the sombre seclusion of her convent home, with little opportunity fo
House of Commons of England
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom; the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium that advised the English monarch in medieval times. This royal council, meeting for short periods, included ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties; the chief duty of the council was to approve taxes proposed by the Crown. In many cases, the council demanded the redress of the people's grievances before proceeding to vote on taxation. Thus, it developed legislative powers; the first parliament to invite representatives of the major towns was Montfort's Parliament in 1265. At the "Model Parliament" of 1295, representatives of the boroughs were admitted. Thus, it became settled practice that each county send two knights of the shire, that each borough send two burgesses.
At first, the burgesses were entirely powerless. Any show of independence by burgesses would thus be to lead to the exclusion of their towns from Parliament; the knights of the shire were in a better position, although less powerful than their noble and clerical counterparts in what was still a unicameral Parliament. The division of the Parliament of England into two houses occurred during the reign of Edward III: in 1341 the Commons met separately from the nobility and clergy for the first time, creating in effect an Upper Chamber and a Lower Chamber, with the knights and burgesses sitting in the latter, they formed what became known as the House of Commons, while the clergy and nobility became the House of Lords. Although they remained subordinate to both the Crown and the Lords, the Commons did act with increasing boldness. During the Good Parliament of 1376, the Commons appointed Sir Peter de la Mare to convey to the Lords their complaints of heavy taxes, demands for an accounting of the royal expenditures, criticism of the King's management of the military.
The Commons proceeded to impeach some of the King's ministers. Although Mare was imprisoned for his actions, the benefits of having a single voice to represent the Commons were recognized, the office which became known as Speaker of the House of Commons was thus created. Mare was soon released after the death of King Edward III and in 1377 became the second Speaker of the Commons. During the reign of the next monarch, Richard II, the Commons once again began to impeach errant ministers of the Crown, they began to insist that they could control public expenditures. Despite such gains in authority, the Commons still remained much less powerful than the Lords and the Crown; the influence of the Crown was increased by the civil wars of the late fifteenth century, which destroyed the power of the great noblemen. Both houses of Parliament held little power during the ensuing years, the absolute supremacy of the Sovereign was restored; the domination of the monarch grew further under the House of Tudor in the sixteenth century.
This trend, was somewhat reversed when the House of Stuart came to the English throne in 1603. The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, provoked conflicts with the Commons over issues such as taxation and royal powers; the differences between Charles I and Parliament were great, resulted in the English Civil War, in which the armed forces of Parliament were victorious. In December 1648 the House of Commons was purged by the New Model Army, supposed to be subservient to Parliament. Pride's Purge was the only military coup in English history. Subsequently, King Charles I was beheaded and the Upper House was abolished; the unicameral Parliament that remained was referred to by critics as the Rump Parliament, as it consisted only of a small selection of Members of Parliament approved by the army - some of whom were soldiers themselves. In 1653, when leading figures in this Parliament began to disagree with the army, it was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell. However, the monarchy and the House of Lords were both restored with the Commons in 1660.
The influence of the Crown had been decreased, was further diminished after James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Bill of Rights 1689 was enacted. Duration of English Parliaments before 1660 History of borough status in England and Wales Lex Parliamentaria List of Acts of the Parliament of England List of Parliaments of England List of Speakers of the House of Commons of England Modus Tenendi Parliamentum John Cannon, Parliamentary Reform 1640-1832 J. E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons
Sir Arthur Ingram was an English investor and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1610 and 1642. The subject of an influential biography, he has been celebrated for his "financial skill and ruthless self-interest", characterized as "a rapacious, plausible swindler who ruined many during a long and successful criminal career". Of London birth but of Yorkshire background, he was a extensive landowner in Yorkshire, he acquired and rebuilt the former Lennox residence at Temple Newsam near Leeds, which became the principal seat of his family, including the Lords Ingram, Viscount Irvine and their descendants, for over 300 years. The date of Sir Arthur Ingram's birth is not known, he was the second of three sons of Hugh Ingram, a prosperous merchant and citizen Tallow Chandler of London who originated from Thorpe-on-the-Hill in Yorkshire. The eldest son, Sir William Ingram, was Doctor of Civil Law, became Secretary to the Council in the North, their mother was Anne, daughter of Richard Goldthorpe, Lord Mayor of York 1556-57 and M.
P. for the City of York in 1559. Little is known of Arthur Ingram's early years. A merchant in London, there are indications that he had been a factor in Italy, was at some time in Turkey. In the early 1600s he developed an association with Lionel Cranfield. Having been a Waiter in the Port of London, in 1603 he was appointed Comptroller of Customs, a role in which he made himself useful to the Earl of Suffolk and Earl of Nottingham. In 1605 he took over the management of the wine licence patent for Lord Admiral Nottingham, who remarked in 1610 that "the whole and many pains and scandals of the business did since the beginning thereof lie upon Mr. Arthur Ingram only, with an incessant trouble to him and his house." The Howards became somewhat dependent upon his services and assistance, he benefited from their patronage by advancement where opportunity arose. Ingram's first marriage belongs to this period: his wife Susan, daughter of Richard Brown of London, brought him four sons including his heir, the younger Arthur Ingram, a daughter.
In 1607 Ingram became, with Sir Walter Cope, contractor for the sale of Crown lands, through which office he acquired several excellent estates. The historian Thomas Birch wrote that, in buying land, Ingram's practice "was to pay the one half down and but the second half by a Chancery bill, that is, he would find some flaw, some incumbrance or other, to baulk the second payment, so call the seller into and hold him in the Chancery." At one time he had no fewer than 21 lawsuits in progress. These methods cost him friends. On the other hand it has been argued that the King, knowing him to be a pragmatic man, one discreet in speech and demeanour, advanced him at a time when many people were enriching themselves and had money to spend on great projects, knew that he would be useful in finding ways to accumulate revenue for the crown: and that by doing so, he was disliked and described as a "mean fellow" by those whom he had mulcted to the crown's advantage. Serving as collector for dyewood and starch duties in 1607-08, Ingram investigated revenues from the English alum refinery being established in Yorkshire.
In 1607 Sir Thomas Chaloner, Sir David Foulis, Sir John Bourchier and Lord Sheffield in partnership obtained a 31-year monopoly based upon the Chaloner estates at Guisborough and Redcar. The concession was leased to London merchants who made substantial losses, despite the use of expert workmen from Germany; as their investments failed, on Ingram's advice the Lord Treasurer Salisbury bought out the patent in 1609, upon Ingram's favourable report a new lease was issued, the dues of which however soon became onerous to the farmers of the industry. In November 1609 Ingram entered parliament as representative for Stafford under Salisbury's patronage in connection with the Great Contract, he served on several committees for bills touching his own knowledge and interest, that of his patrons, who by their continuing support taught him the advantage of a parliamentary career. As he became over-engaged in land transactions doubts over his liquidity emerged, but confidence in his credit-worthiness was restored by means of a declaration signed by the Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Northampton and the Lord Chancellor.
At this time he was operating from premises in Fenchurch Street. By 1612 the Alum Company was failing, went into insolvency shortly before the death of Lord Treasurer Salisbury. Following various proposals Ingram, with Walter Cope and Robert Johnson, persuaded the Lords Commissioners to grant them control as contractors under a new adjustment, in 1613, as the works passed into the King's hands, they became managers for the Crown, claimed to have invested large sums of their own money. In March 1613 Ingram obtained by purchase the position of Secretary and Keeper of the Signet of the Council in the North, a position he held until 1633, his elder brother Dr William Ingram serving as his Deputy until his death in 1623; this post was acquired for £ 5,200 from governor to Prince Charles. For his residence he remodelled two large houses including the ruined former Archbishop's palace in York between 1616 and 1623, he received the honour of knighthood on 9 July 1613, his brother in 1617. Following the death of his wife Susan in July 1613, Ingram remarried soon afterwards to a London city widow, Alice Halliday.
"She had withstoode an army of wooers, and
Browne Willis was an antiquary, author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1708. Willis was born at Blandford St Mary, the eldest Son of Thomas Willis of Bletchley and his wife Alice Browne, daughter of Robert Browne of Frampton, Dorset, he was grandson of the physician. He was educated at Westminster School, he attended Christ Church and entered the Inner Temple in 1700. In 1707 he married the daughter of Daniel Eliot, he joined the reformed Society of Antiquaries in 1717–18. In 1705, Willis was elected Member of Parliament for Buckingham, he held the seat until 1708. His published works are: Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 1 Survey of St David’s Cathedral Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 2 The Whole Duty of Man, Abridged for the Benefit of the Poorer Sort Mitred Abbies, vol. 1 An Survey of the Cathedral-Church of Landaff Mitred Abbies, vol. 2 Survey of St Asaph Reflecting Sermons Consider'd. He erected the church as a memorial to his grandfather Dr. Thomas Willis, a famous physician who lived in St. Martin's Lane in the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London and died on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1675.
To perpetuate his own memory Browne Willis arranged for a sermon to be preached at St. Martin's Church on each St. Martin's Day, for which a fee was payable. During his lifetime, he celebrated the occasion with a dinner attended by local clergy and gentry; the firing of the "Fenny Poppers", six small cannon, dates from this time, but there is no record of their first use. In 1740 Browne Willis bought a house in Aylesbury Street, Fenny Stratford and the rent from this was used to pay for the sermon and gunpowder for the Fenny Poppers. Following his death in 1760, the traditions were carried on and documented. All six poppers were re-cast by the Eagle Northampton in 1859 after one of them burst, they are still in use today, were examined and x-rayed to ensure there are no cracks. During their long history, many sites have been used for this battery; these include. The poppers each weigh about 19 pounds; the bore, 6" by 1.75" will take up to 1oz. of gunpowder, plugged with well-rammed newspaper. They are fired three times on St. Martin's Day: 2 pm and 4 pm.
There is of course no connection with Remembrance Day. In 1901 they were fired to mark the death of Queen Victoria; the 81 salvoes were heard as far away as Olney. On 1 January 2000 at 11 am the poppers were fired to mark the beginning of the second millennium. On 4 August 2000 at 2 pm a salute of six poppers was fired to celebrate the 100th birthday of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. On 5 June 2012 at 2 pm a salute was fired to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. "Willis, Browne". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Browne Willis's Library Survey of Bangor Cathedral 1721