Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, it threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, most of the buildings of the City authorities, it is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but was traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded; this reasoning has been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C; the Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, spread west across the City of London.
The major firefighting technique of the time was to create firebreaks by means of demolition. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm that defeated such measures; the fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires; the fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Coordinated firefighting efforts were mobilising; the social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. Evacuation from London and resettlement elsewhere were encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite several radical proposals, London was reconstructed on the same street plan used before the fire.
By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants. However, due to the Great Plague of London during the last winter, its population was lower than before it. John Evelyn, contrasting London to the Baroque magnificence of Paris, called it a "wooden and inartificial congestion of Houses", expressed alarm about the fire hazards posed by the wood and the congestion. By "inartificial", Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth and unregulated urban sprawl. London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall, it had pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch and Southwark, had reached far enough to include the independent City of Westminster. By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the River Thames—was only a part of London, covering some 700 acres, home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants.
The City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs where most Londoners lived. The City was as now, the commercial heart of the capital, was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes; the aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district, the site of King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the traffic-clogged, unhealthy City after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the Plague Year of 1665; the relationship was tense between the City and the Crown. The City of London had been a stronghold of republicanism during the Civil War, the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s; the City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma.
They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources. In such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was out of control; the City was medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used; the only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surroun
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
William Gouge was an English clergyman and author. He was a minister and preacher at St Ann Blackfriars for 45 years, from 1608, a member of the Westminster Assembly from 1643, he was born in Stratford-le-Bow and baptised on 6 November 1575. He was educated at Felsted, St. Paul's School, Eton College, King's College, Cambridge, he graduated B. A. in 1598 and M. A. in 1601. Before moving to London, he was a Fellow and lecturer at Cambridge, where he caused a near-riot by his advocacy of Ramism over the traditional methods of Aristotle. At Blackfriars, he was assistant to Stephen Egerton, taking over as lecturer, he proposed an early dispensational scheme. He took an interest in Sir Henry Finch's Calling of the Jews, published it under his own name. Nearly 70 years old, he attended the Westminster Assembly and was made chairman in 1644 of the committee set up to draft the Westminster Confession; the other original members of the committee were John Arrowsmith, Cornelius Burges, Jeremiah Burroughs, Thomas Gataker, Thomas Goodwin, Joshua Hoyle, Thomas Temple, Richard Vines He was appointed as an Assessor on 26 November 1647.
He was appointed prolocutor of the Provincial Assembly of London on 3 May 1647. Of Domesticall Duties was a thorough text of its time discussing family life, it argued that the wife although above the children is below the husband and the father figure "is a king in his owne house", was an important conduct book of its period, running to editions. Gouge himself was father to 13 children, his wife Elizabeth, née Calton, died shortly after the birth of the last of them. They had married in the early 17th century, in effect by arrangement, when Gouge was put under pressure by his family. Elizabeth had been brought up by the wife of an Essex minister, John Huckle, was eulogised after her death, his teaching on female submission may have caused some discomfort within his own congregation. He considered adultery bad in both genders, encouraged love matches. According to Ann Thompson, The Whole Armor of God illustrates the shift from "transcendent faith" in William Perkins and Samuel Ward, to "immanent faith" in a succeeding generation of Puritan writers.
In God's Three Arrows: Plague, Sword, he mentioned the idea that plague finds victims in poorer people, because they are more spared. They should not be allowed to flee affected areas, nor should magistrates and the aged. In common with other Protestant theologians of the time, he supported the idea of holy war, his massive Commentary on the Whole Epistle to the Hebrews appeared in 1655 in three volumes, replete with detail and sermon outlines. It was seen into print by his eldest son, Thomas Gouge, It was reprinted by James Nichol of Edinburgh in 1866; the Whole Armor of God Of Domestical Duties A Guide to Goe to God: or, an Explanation of the Perfect Patterne of Prayer, the Lords prayer. The dignitie of chiualrie sermon to the Artillery Company of London A Short Catechism A Recovery from Apostacy The Sabbath's Sanctification The Saint's Support fast sermon in Parliament The Progress of Divine Providence Commentary on the Whole Epistle to the Hebrews Commentary on'Hebrews Five of his uncles were noted Puritans: Laurence Chaderton and William Whitaker married sisters of his mother, while Nathaniel and Ezekiel Culverwell were her brothers.
His cousin, Mary Culverwell, married Ezekiel Cheever. Works by William Gouge at Post-Reformation Digital Library
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, his talent for administration, his influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy. The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, it provides a combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts of great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War, the Great Fire of London. Pepys was born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London on 23 February 1633, the son of John Pepys, a tailor, Margaret Pepys, daughter of a Whitechapel butcher, his great uncle Talbot Pepys was Recorder and Member of Parliament for Cambridge in 1625.
His father's first cousin Sir Richard Pepys was elected MP for Sudbury in 1640, appointed Baron of the Exchequer on 30 May 1654, appointed Lord Chief Justice of Ireland on 25 September 1655. Pepys was the fifth of eleven children, but child mortality was high and he was soon the oldest survivor, he was baptised at St Bride's Church on 3 March 1633. Pepys did not spend all of his infancy in London. In about 1644, Pepys attended Huntingdon Grammar School before being educated at St Paul's School, London, c. 1646–1650. He attended the execution of Charles I in 1649. In 1650, he went to the University of Cambridge, having received two exhibitions from St Paul's School and a grant from the Mercers' Company. In October, he was admitted as a sizar to Magdalene College. In 1654 or early in 1655, he entered the household of another of his father's cousins, Sir Edward Montagu, created the 1st Earl of Sandwich. Pepys married fourteen-year-old Elisabeth de St Michel, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, first in a religious ceremony on 10 October 1655 and in a civil ceremony on 1 December 1655 at St Margaret's, Westminster.
From a young age, Pepys suffered from bladder stones in his urinary tract—a condition from which his mother and brother John later suffered. He was never without pain, as well as other symptoms, including "blood in the urine". By the time of his marriage, the condition was severe. In 1657 Pepys decided to undergo surgery. Pepys consulted surgeon Thomas Hollier and, on 26 March 1658, the operation took place in a bedroom in the house of Pepys' cousin Jane Turner. Pepys' stone was removed and he resolved to hold a celebration on every anniversary of the operation, which he did for several years. However, there were long-term effects from the operation; the incision on his bladder broke open again late in his life. The procedure may have left him sterile, though there is no direct evidence for this, as he was childless before the operation. In mid-1658 Pepys moved near the modern Downing Street, he worked as a teller in the Exchequer under George Downing. On 1 January 1660, Pepys began to keep a diary.
He recorded his daily life for ten years. This record of a decade of Pepys' life is more than a million words long and is regarded as Britain’s most celebrated diary. Pepys has been called the greatest diarist of all time due to his frankness in writing concerning his own weaknesses and the accuracy with which he records events of daily British life and major events in the 17th century. Pepys wrote about the contemporary court and theatre, his household, major political and social occurrences. Historians have been using his diary to gain greater insight and understanding of life in London in the 17th century. Pepys wrote on subjects such as personal finances, the time he got up in the morning, the weather, what he ate, he talked at length about his new watch which he was proud of, a country visitor who did not enjoy his time in London because he felt that it was too crowded, his cat waking him up at one in the morning. Pepys's diary is one of a few sources which provides such length in details of everyday life of an upper-middle-class man during the seventeenth century.
Aside from day-to-day activities, Pepys commented on the significant and turbulent events of his nation. England was in disarray. Oliver Cromwell had died just a few years before, creating a period of civil unrest and a large power vacuum to be filled. Pepys had been a strong supporter of Cromwell, but he converted to the Royalist cause upon the Protector’s death, he was on the ship. He gave a firsthand account of events, such as the coronation of King Charles II and the Restoration of the British Monarchy to the throne, the Anglo-Dutch war, the Great Plague, the Great Fire of London. Pepys did not plan on his contemporaries seeing his diary, evident from the fact that he wrote in shorthand and sometimes in a "code" of various Spanish and Italian words (especially whe
St Sepulchre-without-Newgate known as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, is an Anglican church in the City of London. It is located on Holborn Viaduct opposite the Old Bailey. In medieval times it stood just near the Newgate, it has been a living of St John's College, since 1622 and is part of the area designated the "Newgate Street Conservation Area" by the City of London Corporation. The original Saxon church on the site was dedicated to St Edmund the Martyr. In 1137 it was given to the Priory of St Bartholomew. During the Crusades in the 12th century the church was renamed St Edmund and the Holy Sepulchre, in reference to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, by soldiers who passed by the church on the way to the Holy Lands; the name became contracted to St Sepulchre. The church is today the largest parish church in the City, it was rebuilt in the 15th century but was gutted by the Great Fire of London in 1666, which left only the outer walls, the tower and the porch standing -. Modified in the 18th century, the church underwent extensive restoration in 1878.
It narrowly avoided destruction in the Second World War, although the 18th-century watch-house in its churchyard was destroyed and had to be rebuilt. The interior of the church is a wide, roomy space with a coffered ceiling installed in 1834; the Vicars' old residence has been renovated into a modern living quarter. During the reign of Mary I in 1555, St Sepulchre's vicar, John Rogers, was burned as a heretic. St Sepulchre is named in the nursery rhyme Oranges and Lemons as the "bells of Old Bailey". In 1605, London merchant tailor Mr. John Dowe paid the parish ₤50 to buy a handbell on the condition that it would be rung to mark the execution of a prisoner at the nearby gallows at Newgate; this handbell, known as the Execution Bell, now resides in a glass case to the south of the nave. Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the clerk of St Sepulchre's was responsible for ringing a handbell outside the condemned man's cell in Newgate Prison the night before his execution and announcing the news by repeating the following "wholesome advice": "All you that in the condemned hold do lie, Prepare you, for to-morrow you shall die.
And when St. Sepulchre's bell to-morrow tolls, The Lord above have mercy on your souls. Past twelve o'clock!" Given its proximity to both Newgate Prison and the Old Bailey, the bells in its tower, in addition to the usual functions of marking time, were rung to announce executions. On the day of the execution, the bells were tolled. In the north aisle of the church is the Musicians' Chapel; this Chapel was dedicated The Musicians' Chapel by Dr W. R. Matthews, Dean of St Paul's, on 2 January 1955 in the presence of many distinguished musicians including an orchestra conducted by Sir Malcolm Sargent and the BBC Singers; the ashes of the conductor Sir Henry Wood, C. H. founder of the Promenade Concerts, who learnt to play the organ at the church as a boy, had been interred in the Chapel a decade earlier. There are four windows commemorating Sir Henry Wood, John Ireland, the singer Dame Nellie Melba, Walter Carroll respectively; the Chapel contains the Musicians' Book of Remembrance and both the Chapel and the Book of Remembrance are maintained by the Friends of the Musicians' Chapel.
A Service of Thanksgiving for those named in the Book of Remembrance is held at the church each year as well as a Requiem close to All Souls' Day. Many concerts and memorial events for musicians have been held in the church over the years. In 2017 the Rector caused a storm in the media by ending the hiring scheme and excluding many choirs from singing and rehearsing in the church. A protest was held about this and many prominent musicians including John Rutter protested against the church decision. Attempts to mediate failed; the south aisle of the church holds the regimental chapel of the Royal Fusiliers, its gardens are a memorial garden to that regiment. The west end of the north aisle has various memorials connected with the City of London Rifles; the church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950. Thomas Culpeper, buried here Sir Anthony St Leger and his first wife Eleanor Markham, buried here. Thomas Gouge, ejected minister in 1662 John Rogers, Bible translator, the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I of England Austin Osman Spare attended the church school, now a physiotherapy centre, behind the church in Snowhill Lane Rev Dr Peter Mullen, commentator and former rector, sometime Chaplain to The Stock Exchange John Smith, governor of Virginia and associate of Pocahontas: buried 1631.
Smith is commemorated by a handsome window designed by Francis Skeat and installed in 1968. Sir Henry Wood, conductor Samuel Gurney erected the first drinking fountain for the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association on the railings of the church, it remains there. Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island The north aisle is dominated by a splendid organ built by Renatus Harris in 1670; the swell was added by John Byfield in c.1730. The organ was enlarged in 1817 by James Hancock and by John Gray in 1828 and 1835, Gray and Davison in 1849, 1852 and 1855, it was rebuilt in 1932 by Harrison. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Org
Blackfriars is an area of central London, which lies in the south-west corner of the City of London. The name Blackfriars was first used in 1317 and derives from the black cappa worn by the Dominican Friars who moved their priory from Holborn to the area between the River Thames and Ludgate Hill in about 1276. Edward I gave permission to rebuild London's city wall, which lay between the river and Ludgate Hill, around their area; the site was used for great occasions of state, including meetings of Parliament and the Privy Council, state visits, such as of Charles V in 1522, as well as the location for a divorce hearing in 1529 of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The priory was closed in 1538 during Henry's Dissolution of the monasteries. Katherine Parr, Henry VIII's sixth and final wife, was born in the area; some of the buildings were subsequently leased to a group of entrepreneurs who created the Blackfriars Theatre on the site, not far from Shakespeare's Globe Theatre which sat directly across on the other side of the river.
In 1632, the Society of Apothecaries, acquired the monastery's guesthouse and established their base there. The building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London but the Society rebuilt and Apothecaries Hall is still to be found in Blackfriars today; the area is now the location of Blackfriars station, forms the northern bridge-head for both Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge. Alongside the road bridge is Blackfriars Millennium Pier, a stop for river bus services on London River Services; the Victoria Embankment stretches along the north bank of the river west from Blackfriars to Westminster Bridge. Notable buildings in the area include the large Art Deco Unilever House, the Art Nouveau Black Friar pub; the area was once served by a station south of the river Blackfriars Bridge railway station, taking its name from Blackfriars Bridge. It was closed to passengers in 1885; the older parts of Blackfriars have been used as a filming location in film and television for modern films and serials set in Victorian times, notably Sherlock Holmes and David Copperfield.
Elizabeth de Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings Walter Gumbley, G. On the name Blackfriars, Spirituality Today, Nick Holder, The Friaries of Medieval London: From Foundation to Dissolution.