The Australian Postal Corporation, operating as Australia Post, is the government-owned corporation that provides postal services in Australia. The head office of Australia Post is located at 111 Bourke Street, which serves as a post office. Before colonial control of mail started in 1809, mail was passed on by ad hoc arrangements made between transporters and settlers; these arrangements depended on cooperation of the country people. It was common for early settlers to ride many miles out of their way to deliver neighbours' mail, collected from informal distribution points; the first organisation of a postal service in Australia commenced in 1809 with the appointment in Sydney of the first Postmaster of New South Wales. He was an English ex-convict, Isaac Nichols, who took the post operating from his home in George Street, Sydney, his main job was to take charge of letters and parcels arriving by ship, to avoid the chaos of people rushing aboard ships as soon as they arrived at Sydney's wharves.
Nichols would post a list of recipients outside his house. He would advertise in the Sydney Gazette the names of all those. Recipients paid a fixed price of one shilling per letter to collect mail from Nichols' home, with parcels costing more depending on how heavy they were. VIP addressees were accorded personal delivery by Nichols; the Postal Act of 1825 allowed the governor to fix postage rates and appoint postmasters outside Sydney, enabling the first organised postal service. Letter deliveries began in 1828 and posting boxes first appeared in 1831. Stamps were not required as the addressee paid for the letter, not the sender. Postal services grew throughout the Australian colonies. A regular overland service between Sydney and Melbourne, Port Phillip District began in 1838. In 1838, the first prepaid "stamped" letter sheets were introduced in Sydney. By 1849, uniform postal rates were established by agreement between the colonies. Prepaid adhesive stamps were introduced in the 1850s. Victoria was the first to make prepayment by stamps compulsory in 1852.
Monthly steamship sea mail to the United Kingdom was established in 1856. The separate colonies joined the Universal Postal Union in 1891. Following federation in 1901, the colonial mail systems were merged into the Postmaster-General's Department; this body was responsible for telegraph and domestic telephone operations as well as postal mail. An airmail service was introduced in 1914; the world's first large-scale mechanical mail sorting system was introduced in Australia, operational in the Sydney GPO in 1967. This coincided with the introduction of the current system of 4-digit postcodes in Australia. On 1 July 1975, separate government commissions were created to undertake the operational responsibilities of the PMG. One of these was the Australian Postal Commission, trading as Australia Post, it became the Australian Postal Corporation on 1 January 1989 when it was corporatised, though it still trades as Australia Post. Under amendments to the APC Act that came into effect in March 2008, quarantine inspection officers of a state or territory are authorised to request Australia Post to open for inspection packets and parcels sent from interstate which they believe may contain quarantine material.
The legislation authorised Australia Post to remove from the mail articles that are suspected of being scam mail. The 200th anniversary of postal services was celebrated in 2009. In February 2010, Ahmed Fahour was appointed CEO of Australia Post. In May 2010, he announced a new strategy dubbed "Future Ready" designed to reinvigorate Australia Post; this included a new organisation structure as well as a renewed foray into digital businesses under the "eServices" Strategic Business Unit. However, in 2013, the corporation acknowledged that though the strategy was successful in improving Australia Post's profitability and structure, it was insufficient in its contributions to their development as a financially self-sustaining business. In September 2015 the corporation announced its first loss in 30 years; the A$222 million loss was down from a $116 million profit the previous year. Large decreases in addressed and stamped mail led to a $381 million loss in the mail delivery side of the business.
Parcel delivery accounted for over half of total revenue. Overall revenue was stable at $6.37 billion. A year on Friday 26 August 2016, Australia Post returned to profit, on the back of strong parcel/courier performance and re-structuring; however mail performance reached an all-time low. On Thursday 23 February 2017 the CEO of Australia Post, Ahmed Fahour announced his resignation, effective July 2017. Fahour told media at a press conference in Melbourne, that the decision was not related to recent discussion surrounding his $5.6 million salary. Australia Post is continuing to broaden its product and service range and invest in technology-based infrastructure programs; as of 2016, it operates in three core areas: associated services. It offers delivery services, retail products, financial services and fulfilment services, direct marketing and database management services, it has a number of subsidiaries and joint ventures, including Sai Cheng Logistics International—a joint-venture logistics company established with China Post in 2005.
Australia Post operates regular mail delivery as well as an express/courier service through Messenger Post. It delivers mail every day of the week
Walthamstow is a major district in North East London and is part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is located 7.5 miles North East from Charing Cross. In the county of Essex, it increased in population as part of the suburban growth of London and was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Walthamstow in 1929 before becoming part of Greater London in 1965. Walthamstow is situated between the North Circular Road to the north, the Lea Valley and Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, Epping Forest to the east. Walthamstow is recorded c. 1075 in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. In 1213 King John visited Shern Hall, the manor house in Hoe Street that survived until it was demolished in1896; until the 19th century Walthamstow was rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was Hoe Street. There were various smaller lanes crossing the town; the road now known as Forest Road was called Clay Street. Further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, led from the original settlement out to the marshes.
Shernhall Street is an ancient route, to the east. In the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house in Wood Street where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived "like princes" and cultivated a vineyard; the Vestry House, now the Vestry House Museum, was used as the first town hall. By 1870 the place had grown to the size of a small suburb and a new town hall was built in Orford Road from which affairs of the village were run. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a large growth in population and speculative building; the Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893, situated on Markhouse Road, on the corner of Downsfield Road. There is a lantern at the top of the tower, which contains a spiral staircase; the church was erected because of the generosity of Captain David King of the shipbuilding firm of Bullard King & Co which ran the Natal Direct Shipping Line, which ran ships direct from London to Durban without stopping at the Cape.
The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards. The B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses; the manufacturing operation became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of London's buses. On 13 June 1909, A. V. Roe's aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes, it was the first all-British aircraft and was given the ominous nickname of the "Yellow Terror" but carried the name Avro1. Roe founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was an urban district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, peaked at 132,972. In 1965 the borough was abolished and its former area merged with that of the Municipal Borough of Chingford and the Municipal Borough of Leyton to form the London Borough of Waltham Forest in Greater London. Other places in east London of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow.
None of the postal district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular as a result of gentrification. Local property prices have increased at a high rate of 22.3% from 2013-2014, compared to London's average of 17.8%. It has turned Walthamstow into a'trendy' town similar to Shoreditch; the leafy Walthamstow Village in particular has become sought-after by buyers. On 29 May 2015, a regular local unicyclist was hit and dragged under by a double decker route 212 bus in Hoe Street. Locals numbering up to 100 people helped to pull the bus off the unicyclist; the MP for Walthamstow, Stella Creasy said she was "proud" of the community for saving the unicyclist's life. Walthamstow elects councillors to Waltham Forest London Borough Council. Walthamstow is bordered to the north by Chingford, south by Leyton and Leytonstone, east by the southern reaches of Epping Forest at Woodford and west by Tottenham and the River Lea valley; the A112 passes south-north through Walthamstow and its neighbouring towns forming part of an ancient route from London to Waltham Abbey.
Walthamstow Central is the main transport hub. Walthamstow Village conservation area is a peaceful and attractive district to the east of what has become the commercial centre of Walthamstow; the area is defined as being south of Church Hill, west of Shernhall Street, north of Grove Road, east of Hoe Street. Orford Road is the main route through the district, though this is a quiet thoroughfare by the standards of London; the village has a small selection of specialist shops and restaurants, house prices tend to be higher in the streets of this neighbourhood. It was voted best urban village in London by Time Out magazine in 2004. Upper Walthamstow is to the east of Walthamstow Village; the area's main thoroughfare is Wood Street, which has a good selection of shops and local businesses, is served by the London Overground at Wood Street station on the Liverpool Street to Chingford line. One of the Great Trees of London, the Wood Street Horse Chestnut, is located next to the former Jones's Butchers Shop, a grade II listed, late 18th century weatherboarded building.
The tree is thought to be upwards of 175 years old. Wood Street is home to Wood Street Indoor Market; the market was the site of a cinema
Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions and a key figure of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. He led the first expedition to traverse the Northwest Passage in 1906 and the first expedition to the South Pole in 1911, he led the first expedition to reach the North Pole in 1926. He disappeared while taking part in a rescue mission for the airship Italia in 1928. Amundsen was born to a family of Norwegian shipowners and captains in Borge, between the towns Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg, his parents were Hanna Sahlqvist. Roald was the fourth son in the family, his mother wanted him to avoid the family maritime trade and encouraged him to become a doctor, a promise that Amundsen kept until his mother died when he was aged 21. He promptly quit university for a life at sea. Amundsen had hidden a lifelong desire inspired by Fridtjof Nansen's crossing of Greenland in 1888 and Franklin's lost expedition, he decided on a life of intense exploration of wilderness places.
Amundsen joined the Belgian Antarctic Expedition as first mate. This expedition, led by Adrien de Gerlache using the ship the RV Belgica, became the first expedition to overwinter in Antarctica; the Belgica, whether by mistake or design, became locked in the sea ice at 70°30′S off Alexander Island, west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The crew endured a winter. By Amundsen's own estimation, the doctor for the expedition, the American Frederick Cook saved the crew from scurvy by hunting for animals and feeding the crew fresh meat. In cases where citrus fruits are lacking, fresh meat from animals that make their own vitamin C contains enough of the vitamin to prevent scurvy, partly treat it; this was an important lesson for Amundsen's future expeditions. In 1903, Amundsen led the first expedition to traverse Canada's Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, he planned a small expedition of six men in a 45-ton fishing vessel, Gjøa, in order to have flexibility. His ship had shallow draft.
His technique was to hug the coast. Amundsen had the ship outfitted with a small 13 horsepower single-screw paraffin engine, they traveled via Baffin Bay, the Parry Channel and south through Peel Sound, James Ross Strait, Simpson Strait and Rae Strait. They spent two winters in the harbor of what is today Gjoa Haven. During this time and the crew learned from the local Netsilik Inuit people about Arctic survival skills, which he found invaluable in his expedition to the South Pole. For example, he learned to use sled dogs for transportation of goods and to wear animal skins in lieu of heavy, woolen parkas, which could not keep out the cold when wet. Leaving Gjoa Haven, he sailed west and passed Cambridge Bay, reached from the west by Richard Collinson in 1852. Continuing to the south of Victoria Island, the ship cleared the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on 17 August 1905, it had to stop for the winter before going on to Nome on Alaska's Pacific coast. The nearest telegraph station was 500 miles away in Eagle.
Amundsen traveled there overland to wire a success message on 5 December returned to Nome in 1906. That year he was elected to the American Antiquarian Society. At this time, Amundsen learned of the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden and had a new king; the explorer sent the new king, Haakon VII, news that his traversing the Northwest Passage "was a great achievement for Norway". He said he hoped to do more and signed it "Your loyal subject, Roald Amundsen." The crew returned to Oslo in November 1906, after three-and-a-half years abroad. Gjøa was returned to Norway in 1972. After a 45-day trip from San Francisco on a bulk carrier, she was placed in her current location on land, outside the Fram Museum in Oslo. Amundsen next planned to explore the Arctic Basin. Finding it difficult to raise funds, when he heard in 1909 that the Americans Frederick Cook and Robert Peary had claimed to reach the North Pole as a result of two different expeditions, he decided to reroute to Antarctica.
He was not clear about his intentions, Robert F. Scott and the Norwegian supporters felt misled. Scott was planning his own expedition to the South Pole that year. Using the ship Fram, earlier used by Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen left Oslo for the south on 3 June 1910. At Madeira, Amundsen alerted his men that they would be heading to Antarctica, sent a telegram to Scott: "Beg to inform you Fram proceeding Antarctic—Amundsen."Nearly six months the expedition arrived at the eastern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, at a large inlet called the Bay of Whales, on 14 January 1911. Amundsen established his base camp there. Amundsen eschewed the heavy wool clothing worn on earlier Antarctic attempts in favour of adopting Inuit-style furred skins. Using skis and dog sleds for transportation and his men created supply depots at 80°, 81° and 82° South on the Barrier, along a line directly south to the Pole. Amundsen planned to kill some of his dogs on the way and use them as a source for fresh meat. A small group, including Hjalmar Johansen, Kristian Prestrud and Jørgen Stubberud, set out on 8 September, but had to abandon their trek due to extreme temperatures.
The painful retreat caused a quarrel within the group, Amundsen sent Johansen and the other two men to explore King Edward VII Land. A second attempt, with a team of five made up of Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, Amundsen, departed base camp on 19 October. The
The Negrito are several different ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of a region known today as Austronesia. Their current populations include the Andamanese peoples of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Semang ethnic groups of Peninsular Malaysia, the Maniq people of Southern Thailand, the Aeta people, Ati people, 30 other official recognized ethnic groups in the Philippines; the word Negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, used to mean "little black person". This usage was coined by 16th-century Spanish missionaries operating in the Philippines, was borrowed by other European travellers and colonialists across Austronesia to label various peoples perceived as sharing small physical stature and dark skin. Contemporary usage of an alternative Spanish epithet, Negrillos tended to bundle these peoples with the pygmy peoples of Central Africa, based on perceived similarities in stature and complexion; the appropriateness of using the label "Negrito" to bundle peoples of different ethnicities based on similarities in stature and complexion has been challenged.
Many online dictionaries give the plural in English as either "Negritos" or "Negritoes", without preference. The plural in Spanish is "Negritos". Most Negrito groups lived as hunter-gatherers, while some used agriculture. Today most Negrito tribes live assimilated to the majority population of their homeland. Discrimination and poverty are problems; the Y-chromosome Haplogroup C-M130, as seen, for example, in the Semang of Malaysia, Haplogroup D-M174 among Andaman Islanders, are more prominent among Negritos than the general populations surrounding them. Haplogroup O-P31 is common among Austroasiatic-speaking Negrito peoples, such as the Maniq and the Semang. Aeta men are of great interest to genetic and historical researchers because at least 83% of them belong to haplogroup K2b, in the form of its rare primary clades K2b1* and P*. Most Aeta males carry K-P397, otherwise uncommon in the Philippines and is associated with the indigenous peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Basal P * is rare outside some other groups within Maritime Southeast Asia.
Genetic research has shown that the Negritos have existed as a separate group for a long time, comparable to the Australoid and Southwest Pacific groups. This has been interpreted to the effect that they are remnants of the original expansion from Africa some 70,000 years ago. Studies in osteology, cranial shape and dental morphology have connected the Semang to Australoid populations, while connecting the Andamanese to Africans in craniometry and to South Asians in dental morphology, Philippine Negritos to Southeast Asians. A possible conclusion of this is that the dispersal of mitochondrial haplogroup B4a1a is connected to the distinction between Philippine and other Negritos. However, another study suggests that the Onge are "more related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians", that the Great Andamanese "appear to have received a degree of recent admixture from adjacent regional populations but share a significant degree of genetic ancestry with Malaysian negrito groups".
Bulbeck noted that the Andamanese's nuclear DNA clusters with that of other Andamanese Islanders, as they carry Haplogroup D-M174 and maternal mitochondrial Haplogroup M unique to their own. However, this is a subclade of the D haplogroup which has not been seen outside of the Andamans, a fact that underscores the insularity of these tribes. Analysis of mtDNA, inherited by maternal descent, confirms the above results. All Onge belong to M32 mtDNA, a subgroup of M, unique to Onge people, their parental Y-DNA is Haplogroup D, only found in Asia. A study of human blood group systems and proteins in the 1950s suggested that the Andamanese peoples were more related to Oceanic peoples than African pygmy peoples. Genetic studies on Philippine Negritos, based on polymorphic blood enzymes and antigens, showed that they were similar to their surrounding populations. Negrito peoples may descend from Australoid-Melanesian settlers of Austronesia. Despite being isolated, the different peoples do share genetic similarities with their neighboring populations.
They show relevant phenotypic variations which require explanation. In contrast, a recent genetic study found that unlike other early groups in Malesia, Andamanese Negritos lack Denisovan hominin admixture in their DNA. Denisovan ancestry is found among indigenous Melanesian and Aboriginal Australian populations between 4–6%; some studies have suggested that each group should be considered separately, as the genetic evidence refutes the notion of a specific shared ancestry between the "Negrito" groups of the Andaman Islands, the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines. Indeed, this sentiment is echoed in a more recent work from 2013 which concludes that "at the current level of genetic resolution... There is no evidence of a single ancestral population for the different groups traditionally defined as'negritos'." A number of features would seem to suggest a common origin for the Negrito and Negrillo, including short stature, dark skin, scant body hair, occasional steatopygia. The claim that the Andamanese more resemble African pygmies than other Austronesian populations in their cranial morphology in a study of 1973 added some weight to this theory, before genetic studies pointed to a closer relationship with their neighbours.
Multiple studies show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melane
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf cavity to the south via Haskell Strait; the strait is covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres on the western shoreline. Ross Island, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary; the active volcano Mount Erebus at 3,794 metres dominates Ross Island. Antarctica's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station, as well as the New Zealand Scott Base are on the southern shore of the island. Less than 10 percent of McMurdo Sound's shoreline is free of ice, it is the southernmost navigable body of water in the world. Captain James Clark Ross discovered this sound, about 1,300 kilometres from the South Pole, in February 1841, he named it after Lt. Archibald McMurdo of HMS Terror; the sound today serves as a resupply route for cargo ships and for airplanes that land on the floating ice airstrips near the McMurdo Station.
However, McMurdo Station's continuous occupation by human beings since 1957/58 has dirtied the harbor of Winter Quarters Bay. The pack ice that girdles the shoreline at Winter Quarters Bay and elsewhere in the sound presents a formidable obstacle to surface ships. Vessels require ice-strengthened hulls and have to rely upon escort by icebreakers; such extreme sea conditions have limited access by tourists, who otherwise are appearing in increasing numbers in the open waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. The few tourists who reach the McMurdo Sound find spectacular scenery with wildlife to be seen, including killer whales, seals, Adélie penguins, emperor penguins. Cold circumpolar currents of the Southern Ocean reduce the flow of warm South Pacific or South Atlantic waters reaching McMurdo Sound and other Antarctic coastal waters. Bitter katabatic winds spilling down from the Antarctic polar plateau into McMurdo Sound demonstrate Antarctica's status as the coldest and windiest continent in the world.
The McMurdo Sound freezes over with sea ice about 3 metres thick during the winter. The Antarctic summer causes the pack ice to break up. Wind and currents may push the ice northward into the Ross Sea, stirring up cold bottom currents that spill into the ocean basins of the world. Temperatures during the dark winter months at McMurdo Station have dropped as low as −51 °C; however and January are the warmest months, with average highs at −1 °C, according to USA Today. McMurdo Sound's role as a strategic waterway dates back to early 20th century Antarctic exploration. British explorers Ernest Shackleton and Robert Scott built bases on the sound's shoreline as jumping-off points for their overland expeditions to the South Pole. McMurdo Sound's logistic importance continues today. Aircraft transporting cargo and passengers land upon frozen runways at Williams Field on the McMurdo Ice Shelf. Moreover, the annual sealift of a cargo ship and fuel tanker rely upon the sound as a supply route to the continent's largest base, the United States' McMurdo Station.
Both the U. S. base and New Zealand's nearby Scott Base are on the southern tip of Ross Island. Ross Island is the southmost piece of land in Antarctica, accessible by ship. In addition, the harbor at McMurdo's Winter Quarters Bay is the world's southmost seaport; the access by ships depends upon favorable ice conditions. McMurdo Sound during austral winter presents a impenetrable expanse of surface ice. During summer, ships approaching McMurdo Sound are blocked by various concentrations of first-year ice, fast ice, hard multi-year ice. Subsequently, icebreakers are required for maritime resupply missions to McMurdo Station. Nonetheless, ocean currents and fierce Antarctic winds can drive pack ice north into the Ross Sea, temporarily producing areas of open water. A common event of unseen dimensions occurred on the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 that wreaked havoc at McMurdo Sound more than five years later; the 282-kilometre long Iceberg B-15, the largest seen at the time, broke off from the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000.
On 27 October 2005, B-15 broke up. Research based upon measurements retrieved from a seismometer placed on B-15 indicated that ocean swells caused by an earthquake 13,000 kilometres away in the Gulf of Alaska caused the breakup, according to a report by the U. S. National Public Radio. Wind and sea currents shifted a still massive Iceberg B-15A towards McMurdo Sound. B-15A's enormous girth temporarily blocked the outflow of pack ice from McMurdo Sound, according to news reports. Iceberg B-15A's grounding at the mouth of McMurdo Sound blocked the path for thousands of penguins to reach their food source in open water. Moreover, pack ice built up behind the iceberg in the Ross Sea creating a nearly 150-kilometre frozen barrier that blocked two cargo ships en route to supply McMurdo Station, according to the National Science Foundation; the icebreakers USCGC Polar Star and the Russian Krasin were required to open a ship channel through ice up to 3 metres thick. The last leg of the channel followed a route along the eastern shoreline of McMurdo Sound adjacent to Ross Island.
The icebreakers escorted the tanker USNS Paul Buck to McMurdo Station's ice pier in late January. The freighter MV American Tern followed on 3 February. Similar pack ice blocked a National Geographic expedition aboard the 34-metre Braveheart from reaching B-15A. However, expedition divers were able to explore the underwater world