Robert Moses was an American public official who worked in the New York metropolitan area. Known as the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, Westchester County, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, was one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban development in the United States, his decisions favoring highways over public transit helped create the modern suburbs of Long Island and influenced a generation of engineers and urban planners who spread his philosophies across the nation despite his not having trained in those professions. Moses would call himself a "coordinator" and was referred to in the media as a "master builder". Robert Moses at one point held twelve titles, but was never elected to any public office, he created and led numerous public authorities that gave him autonomy from the general public and elected officials. Through these authorities, he controlled millions of dollars in income from his projects, such as tolls, he could issue bonds to borrow vast sums for new ventures with little or no input from legislative bodies.
This removed him from the power of the purse as it functioned in the United States, from the process of public comment on major public works. As a result of Moses' work, New York has the United States' greatest proportion of public benefit corporations, which are the prime mode of infrastructure building and maintenance in New York and account for most of the state's debt. Moses' projects were considered by many to be necessary for the region's development after the Great Depression. During the height of his powers, New York City built campuses to host two World's Fairs: one in 1939 and the other in 1964. Moses helped persuade the United Nations to locate its headquarters in Manhattan, instead of Philadelphia, by helping the state secure the money and land needed for the project. Moses' reputation was lastingly damaged by Robert Caro's Pulitzer-winning biography The Power Broker, which highlighted Moses's lust for power and racist tendencies, but the recognition of the lasting impact and audacity of his achievements has, in more recent years, led to another reappraisal of his legacy.
Moses was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to assimilated German Jewish parents and Emanuel Moses. He spent the first nine years of his life living at 83 Dwight Street in New Haven, two blocks from Yale University. In 1897, the Moses family moved to New York City, where they lived on East 46th Street off Fifth Avenue. Moses's father was a successful department store owner and real estate speculator in New Haven. In order for the family to move to New York City, he sold his real estate holdings and store and retired from business for the rest of his life. Moses's mother was active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building. Robert Moses and his brother Paul attended several schools for their elementary and secondary education, including the Dwight School and the Mohegan Lake School, a military academy near Peekskill. After graduating from Yale University and Wadham College and earning a Ph. D. in political science from Columbia University, Moses became attracted to New York City reform politics.
A committed idealist, he developed several plans to rid New York of patronage hiring practices, including being the lead author of a 1919 proposal to reorganize the New York state government. None went far, but Moses, due to his intelligence, caught the notice of Belle Moskowitz, a friend and trusted advisor to Governor Al Smith; when the state Secretary of State's position became appointive rather than elective, Smith named Moses. Moses rose to power with Smith, elected as governor in 1922, set in motion a sweeping consolidation of the New York State government. During that period Moses began his first foray into large scale public work initiatives, while drawing on Smith's political power to enact legislation; this helped create the State Council of Parks. This centralization allowed Smith to run a government used as a model for Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal government. Moses received numerous commissions that he carried out extraordinarily well, such as the development of Jones Beach State Park.
Displaying a strong command of law as well as matters of engineering, Moses became known for his skill in drafting legislation, was called "the best bill drafter in Albany". At a time when the public was accustomed to Tammany Hall corruption and incompetence, Moses was seen as a savior of government. Shortly after President Franklin D. Roosevelt's inauguration in 1933, the federal government found itself with millions of New Deal dollars to spend, yet states and cities had few projects ready. Moses was one of the few local officials. For that reason, New York City was able to obtain significant Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, other Depression-era funding. Moses was a great political talent who demonstrated great skill when constructing his roads, playground and house projects. One of his most influential and longest-lasting positions was that of Parks Commissioner of New York City, a role he served from January 18, 1934 to May 23, 1960; the many offices and professional titles that Moses held gave him unusually broad power to shape urban development in the New York metropolitan region.
Ames is a city in central Iowa 30 miles north of Des Moines. It is best known as the home of Iowa State University, with leading Agriculture, Design and Veterinary Medicine colleges. A United States Department of Energy national laboratory, Ames Laboratory, is located on the ISU campus. In 2017, Ames had a population of 66,498. Iowa State University is home to 36,321 students, which make up one half of the city's population. Ames hosts United States Department of Agriculture sites: the largest federal animal disease center in the United States, USDA's Agricultural Research Service's National Animal Disease Center; as well as, one of two national USDA sites for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, which comprises the National Veterinary Services Laboratory and the Center for Veterinary Biologics. Ames has the headquarters for the Iowa Department of Transportation. In 2010, Ames was ranked ninth on CNNMoney's "Best Places to Live" list; the city was founded in 1864 as a station stop on the Cedar Rapids and Missouri Railroad and was named after 19th century U.
S. Congressman Oakes Ames of Massachusetts, influential in the building of the transcontinental railroad. Ames was founded by local resident Cynthia Olive Duff and railroad magnate John Insley Blair, near a location, deemed favorable for a railroad crossing of the Skunk River. Ames is located along the western edge of Story County, United States, it is located 30 miles north of the state capital Des Moines, near the intersection of Interstate 35 and U. S. Route 30. A smaller highway, U. S. Route runs through the town. Passing through Ames is the cross country line of the Union Pacific Railroad & two small streams. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.27 square miles, of which 24.21 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Campustown is the neighborhood directly south of Iowa State University Central Campus bordered by Lincoln Way on the north. Campustown is a high-density mixed-use neighborhood, home to many student apartments, nightlife venues and numerous other establishments, most of which are unique to Ames.
Ames has a humid continental climate. On average, the warmest month is July and the coldest is January; the highest recorded temperature was 102 °F in 1988 and the lowest was −28 °F in 1996. As of the census of 2010, there were 58,965 people, 22,759 households, 9,959 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,435.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,876 housing units at an average density of 986.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.5% White, 3.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 8.8% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 22,759 households of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 5.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 56.2% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 23.8 years. 13.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 50,731 people, 18,085 households, 8,970 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,352.3 people per square mile. There were 18,757 housing units at an average density of 869.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.34% White, 7.70% Asian, 2.65% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.76% Pacific Islander and other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.98% of the population. There were 18,085 households out of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.4% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.85. Age spread: 14.6% under the age of 18, 40.0% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 13.9% from 45 to 64, 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,042, the median income for a family was $56,439. Males had a median income of $37,877 versus $28,198 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,881. About 7.6% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over. The U. S. Census Bureau designates the Ames metropolitan statistical area as encompassing all of Story County. While Ames is the largest city in Story County, the county seat is in the nearby city of Nevada 8 miles east of Ames. Ames metropolitan statistical area combined with the Boone, Iowa micropolitan statistical area make up the larger Ames-Boone combined statistical area.
Ames is the larger principal city of the Combined Statistical Area that includes all of Story
Leadville is the statutory city, the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Lake County, United States. The city population was 2,759 at the 2017 United States Census. Situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet, Leadville has the highest elevation of any incorporated city in the United States. Called Silver City, Leadville was the last place Doc Holliday was a law man and the first proposed capital of the state. A former silver mining town that lies amongst the headwaters of the Arkansas River in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, the Leadville Historic District contains many historic structures and sites in its dynamic mining era. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, after Denver. Leadville is notable for having a large number of 14,000 foot peaks viewable from town; the Leadville area was first settled in 1859 when placer gold was discovered in California Gulch during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. By 1860, a town, Oro City, located about a mile from present-day Leadville, had sprung up and a year its population had reached more than 5,000.
But the boom was brief because the placer-mined gold soon ran out and Oro City never became a major settlement. The early miners had noted that mining for placer gold was hampered by heavy black sand in the sluice boxes, in 1874 it was discovered that the heavy sand that impeded gold recovery was the lead mineral cerussite, which has a high silver content. Prospectors traced the cerussite to its source, present day Leadville, by 1876 had discovered several silver-lead lode deposits. Horace Tabor, who became known as the "Leadville Silver King" and his wife Augusta were among the first prospectors to arrive in Oro City. Tabor tried his luck at prospecting while his wife worked as a camp cook, laundress and postmistress. Leadville was founded in 1877 by mine owners Horace Tabor and August Meyer at the start of the Colorado Silver Boom; the town was built on desolate flat land below the tree line. The first miners lived in a rough tented camp near the silver deposits in California Gulch; the settlement was called Slabtown but when the residents petitioned for a post office the name Leadville was chosen.
By 1880 Tabor and Meyer's new town had gas lighting, water mains and 28 miles of streets, five churches, three hospitals, six banks, a school for 1,100 students. Many business buildings were constructed with bricks hauled in by wagons; the first post office was in Tabor's store at Oro, Augusta Tabor was the postmistress. Carriers tried to come back the next. Postage was fifty cents a letter. In early 1878, Harrison, Tabor established a post office in Leadville, with Henderson as postmaster; the post office and the telegraph office both prospered. The town's first newspaper was The Reveille, a Republican weekly, in 1878. Three months a competing Democratic weekly, The Eclipse emerged; the Chronicle was the town's first daily and first newspaper in America to employ a full-time female reporter. Like the Rocky Mountain News, The Chronicle took the lead in outing criminals and thieves, in an attempt to clean up the town's shady business culture. Despite violent threats, the Chronicle survived without major incident.
William Nye opened the first saloon in 1877 and it was followed by many others. The same year "The Coliseum Novelty" was the first theater to open, it offered sleeping rooms upstairs for a nightly rate and provided a variety of entertainments: dancing girls, cockfighting and boxing matches, as well as rooms for gambling. In June 1881, it burned to the ground. Ben Wood who arrived in Leadville in 1878, opened the first legitimate theater,Wood's Opera House, with a thousand seats, it was a first- class theater, where gentleman removed their hats and did not smoke or drink in the presence of a lady. Less than a year Wood opened the Windsor Hotel, his opera house was regarded as the largest and best theater constructed in the west, an honor it held until the opening of the Tabor Opera House. Horace Tabor's Opera House was the most costly structure in Colorado at the time. Building materials were brought by wagons from Denver; the massive three-story opera house, constructed of stone and iron, opened on 20 November 1879.
Tabor from Vermont, became the town's first mayor. After striking it rich, he had an estimated net worth of 10 million dollars and was known for his extravagant lifestyle. In 1883 Horace Tabor divorced his wife of 25 years, married Baby Doe McCourt, half his age. Tabor was by a US senator and the divorce and marriage caused a scandal in Colorado and beyond. Tabor, one of the wealthiest men in Colorado, lost his fortune when the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act caused the Panic of 1893, he remained convinced that the price of silver would rebound. According to legend he told Baby Doe to "hold on the Matchless mine... it will make millions again when silver comes back." She returned to Leadville with her daughters, Silver Dollar and Lily, where she spent the rest of her life believing Tabor's prediction. At one time the "best dressed woman in the West", she lived in a cabin at the Matchless Mine for the last three decades of her life. After a snowstorm in March 1935, she was found frozen in her cabin, aged about 81 years.
Mining in the Leadville area began in 1859 when prospectors discovered gold at the mouth of California Gulch. By 1872, placer mining in California Gulch yielded more than $2,500,000 equivalent to $47,674,478 today. In 1876, black sand, once considered bothersome to placer gold miners, was discovered to contain lead carbonates, leading to a rush of miners to the area and the founding of the town in
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
College Station, Texas
College Station is a city in Brazos County, situated in East-Central Texas in the heart of the Brazos Valley, in the center of the region known as Texas Triangle. It is 87 miles northeast of Austin; as of the 2010 census, College Station had a population of 93,857, which had increased to an estimated population of 121,321 as of February 2019. College Station and Bryan together make up the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area, the 13th-largest metropolitan area in Texas with 273,101 people as of 2019. College Station is home to the main campus of Texas A&M University, the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System; the city owes both its existence to the university's location along a railroad. Texas A&M's triple designation as a Land-, Sea-, Space-Grant institution reflects the broad scope of the research endeavors it brings to the city, with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as NASA, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research.
Due to the presence of Texas A&M University, College Station was named by Money magazine in 2006 as the most educated city in Texas, the 11th-most educated city in the United States. The origins of College Station date from 1860, when the Houston and Texas Central Railway began to build through the region. Eleven years the site was chosen as the location for the proposed Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, a land-grant school. In 1876, as the nation celebrated its centennial, the school opened its doors as the first public institution of higher education in the state of Texas; the population of College Station grew reaching 350 in 1884 and 391 at the turn of the century. However, during this time, transportation improvements took place in the town. In 1900, the I&GN Railroad was extended to College Station, 10 years electric interurban service was established between Texas A&M and the neighboring town of Bryan; the interurban was replaced by a city bus system in the 1920s. In 1930, the community to the north of College Station, known as North Oakwood, was incorporated as part of Bryan.
College Station did not incorporate until 1938 with John H. Binney as the first mayor. Within a year, the city established a zoning commission, by 1940, the population had reached 2,184; the city grew under the leadership of Ernest Langford, called by some the "Father of College Station", who began a 26-year stretch as mayor in 1942. Early in his first term, the city adopted a council-manager system of city government. Population growth accelerated following World War II as the nonstudent population reached 7,898 in 1950, 11,396 in 1960, 17,676 in 1970, 30,449 in 1980, 52,456 in 1990, 67,890 in 2000; the population for the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area crossed 270,000 people in 2018. In the 1990s, College Station and Texas A&M University drew national attention when the George Bush Presidential Library opened in 1997 and, more tragically, when 12 people were killed and 27 injured when the Aggie Bonfire collapsed while being constructed in 1999. College Station is located south of the center of Brazos County at 30°36′5″N 96°18′52″W.
It is bordered by the city of Bryan to the northwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.6 sq mi, of which 49.4 sq mi is land and 0.19 sq mi, or 0.35%, is covered by water. The local climate is subtropical and temperate and winters are mild with periods of low temperatures lasting less than two months. Snow and ice are rare. Summers are humid with occasional showers being the only real variation in weather. Average annual rainfall: 39 in Average elevation: 367 ft above sea level Average Temperature: 69.0 °F Agricultural Resources: Cattle, cotton, hay, sorghum Mineral Resources: Sand, lignite, oil As of the census of 2000, 67,890 people, 24,691 households, 10,370 families resided in the city. Of the 24,691 households, 21.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 58.0% were not families. About 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was distributed as 14.4% under the age of 18, 51.2% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 9.4% from 45 to 64, 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,180, for a family was $53,147. Males had a median income of $38,216 versus $26,592 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,170. About 15.4% of families and 37.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. The city of College Station has a council-manager form of government. Voters elect the members of a city council, who make policy; the council hires a professional city manager, responsible for day-to-day operations of the city and its public services. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Bryan District Parole Office in College Station.
The United States Postal Service operates the College Station and Northgate College Station post offices. Northgate is a mixed-use district
Montezuma is a city in Poweshiek County, United States. The population was 1,462 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Poweshiek County. Montezuma's longitude and latitude coordinates in decimal form are 41.584737, -92.525258. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.49 square miles, of which, 2.48 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,462 people, 632 households, 399 families residing in the city; the population density was 589.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 692 housing units at an average density of 279.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 632 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.9% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 42.5 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,440 people, 601 households, 390 families residing in the city; the population density was 586.9 people per square mile. There were 641 housing units at an average density of 261.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.75% White, 0.28% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 601 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.91. 23.6% were under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 22.4% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,820, the median income for a family was $43,083. Males had a median income of $31,483 versus $21,450 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,806. About 3.8% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.8% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Montezuma is home to a K-12 school district; the mascots are the Braves and Bravettes and the school colors are blue and white. Montezuma is located 8 miles south of the exit 191 on Interstate 80 on U. S. Route 63; the city is serviced by Iowa Highway 85 and county road F57. Montezuma residents have access to Montezuma Medical Clinic, located at 101 West Washington.
When hospitalization is required the closest and most convenient hospital for residents is Grinnell Regional Medical Center, located at 210 4th Avenue in Grinnell, Iowa. 10th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Poweshiek County Courthouse Central Iowa Railway City of Montezuma Portal style website, Businesses and more City-Data Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Montezuma
Iowa State University
Iowa State University of Science and Technology referred to as Iowa State, is a public land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, United States. It is the largest university in the state of Iowa and the third largest university in the Big 12 athletic conference. Iowa State is classified as a research university with "highest research activity" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Iowa State is a member of the Association of American Universities, which consists of 60 leading research universities in North America. Founded in 1858 and coeducational from its start, Iowa State became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act on September 11, 1862, making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so. Iowa State's academic offerings are administered today through eight colleges, including the graduate college, that offer over 100 bachelor's degree programs, 112 master's degree programs, 83 at the Ph.
D. level, plus a professional degree program in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University's athletic teams, the Cyclones, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are a founding member of the Big 12 Conference; the Cyclones have won numerous NCAA national championships. In 1856, the Iowa General Assembly enacted legislation to establish the Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm; this institution was established on March 22, 1858, by the General Assembly. Story County was chosen as the location on June 21, 1859, beating proposals from Johnson, Kossuth and Polk counties; the original farm of 648 acres was purchased for a cost of $5,379. Iowa was the first state in the nation to accept the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Iowa subsequently designated Iowa State as the land-grant college on March 29, 1864. From the start, Iowa Agricultural College focused on the ideals that higher education should be accessible to all and that the university should teach liberal and practical subjects; these ideals are integral to the land-grant university.
The institution was coeducational from the first preparatory class admitted in 1868. The formal admitting of students began the following year, the first graduating class of 1872 consisted of 24 men and two women; the Farm House, the first building on the Iowa State campus, was completed in 1861 before the campus was occupied by students or classrooms. It became the home of the superintendent of the Model Farm and in years, the deans of Agriculture, including Seaman Knapp and "Tama Jim" Wilson. Iowa State's first president, Adonijah Welch stayed at the Farm House and penned his inaugural speech in a second floor bedroom; the college's first farm tenants primed the land for agricultural experimentation. The Iowa Experiment Station was one of the university's prominent features. Practical courses of instruction were taught, including one designed to give a general training for the career of a farmer. Courses in mechanical, civil and mining engineering were part of the curriculum. In 1870, President Welch and I. P. Robert, professor of agriculture, held three-day farmers' institutes at Cedar Falls, Council Bluffs and Muscatine.
These became the earliest institutes held off-campus by a land grant institution and were the forerunners of 20th century extension. In 1872, the first courses were given in domestic economy and were taught by Mary B. Welch, the president's wife. Iowa State became the first land grant university in the nation to offer training in domestic economy for college credit. In 1879, the "School" of Veterinary Science was organized, the first state veterinary college in the United States; this was a two-year course leading to a diploma. The veterinary course of study contained classes in zoology, anatomy of domestic animals, veterinary obstetrics, sanitary science. William M. Beardshear was appointed President of Iowa State in 1891. During his tenure, Iowa Agricultural College came of age. Beardshear developed new agricultural programs and was instrumental in hiring premier faculty members such Anson Marston, Louis B. Spinney, J. B. Weems, Perry G. Holden, Maria Roberts, he expanded the university administration, the following buildings were added to the campus: Morrill Hall.
In his honor, Iowa State named its central administrative building after Beardshear in 1925. In 1898, reflecting the school's growth during his tenure, it was renamed Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, or Iowa State for short. Today, Beardshear Hall holds the following offices: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Registrar and student financial aid. Catt Hall is named after famed alumna Carrie Chapman Catt and is the home of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. In 1912 Iowa State had its first Homecoming celebration; the idea was first proposed by Professor Samuel Beyer, the college's “patron saint of athletics,” who suggested that Iowa State inaugurate a celebration for alumni during the annual football game against rival University of Iowa. Iowa State's new president, Raymond A. Pearson, liked the idea and issued a special invitation to alumni two weeks prior to the event: “We need you, we must have you. Come and see what a school you have made in Iowa State College.
Find a way.” In October 2012 Iowa State marked its 100th Homecoming with a "CYtennial" Celebration. Iowa State celebrated its first VEISHEA on