Philemon Dickinson was an American lawyer and politician from Trenton, New Jersey. As a brigadier general of the New Jersey militia, he was one of the most effective militia officers of the American Revolutionary War, he was a Continental Congressman from Delaware and a United States Senator from New Jersey. Dickinson was born in Maryland; when he was one, his family moved to Delaware. He was educated by a private tutor until he went to the University of Pennsylvania, from where he graduated in 1759, he studied law, was admitted to the bar, but never practiced. In 1767, Dickinson moved to New Jersey. On July 14, 1767, he married Mary Cadwalader, they had two children. He served as an officer during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of Major General in the New Jersey Militia. In 1782 and 1783, he represented Delaware at the Continental Congress. In 1783-84 he was elected to the New Jersey Legislative Council from Hunterdon County where he served as Vice-President of Council both years.
He was a member of the commission that selected the site for the national capital in Washington, D. C. in 1784. When William Paterson resigned from the United States Senate, Dickinson was chosen by New Jersey to finish Paterson's term, he served in the senate from November 13, 1790 to March 3, 1793. After his service in Congress, he returned to look after his estates until he died in 1809, was buried at Friends Burying Ground in Trenton. Commanding general of the New Jersey militia during the Revolutionary War, a delegate to the Continental Congress, a U. S. Senator, Philemon Dickinson was born at "Crosiadore," near Trappe, Maryland on April 5, 1739, a younger brother of Founding Father John Dickinson. After graduation in the first class from the college of Philadelphia in 1757, he studied law, but never practiced. In 1767 he moved to an estate, "The Hermitage," near Trenton. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War in 1775 he was commissioned a colonel of the Hunterdon County militia. In 1776 he was elected as a delegate to New Jersey's Revolutionary provincial congress.
In January 1777 Dickinson led 400 of his militia in a raid on a British foraging party near Somerset Court House, New Jersey, capturing about forty wagons of supplies and several prisoners. In June 1777 he was appointed major general in command of all New Jersey militia, a post he held throughout the rest of the war. Dickinson's militia took part in the battle of Monmouth in 1778, helping obstruct the retreat of the British to New York; when his cousin John Cadwalader dueled General Thomas Conway on July 4, 1778, Dickinson was Cadwalader's second. Dickinson represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress in 1782-83, the following year served on the commission to choose the site for a national capital, he was elected by the New Jersey legislature as a U. S. Senator in 1790-93, after that retired to his estate, "The Hermitage," where he died on February 4, 1809. United States Congress. "Philemon Dickinson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Philemon Dickinson at The Political Graveyard Philemon Dickinson at Find a Grave Biographical sketch at Virtualology.com
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Richard Howell was the third Governor of New Jersey from 1794 to 1801. Howell was born in Newark in the Colony of Delaware, he was a soldier of the early United States Army. He served as captain and major of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment from 1775 to 1779. Richard was a twin, his twin brother was Lewis Howell. Lewis was a physician for the 2nd New Jersey Regiment] and died during the Revolutionary War. Richard was offered the role of judge advocate of the army, but turned down the appointment to practice law, he was clerk of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1778 to June 3, 1793. He succeeded Thomas Henderson as Governor and served until 1801. Replaced as Governor by Joseph Bloomfield, Howell died the following year, he was the grandfather of the second wife of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Howell died in Trenton, New Jersey on April 28, 1802, was buried in that city's Friends Burying Ground. Howell Township in Monmouth County is named in his honor. New Jersey State Library biography of Richard Howell New Jersey Governor Richard Howell, National Governors Association
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Monmouth County, New Jersey
Monmouth County is a county located in Central New Jersey, in the United States within the New York metropolitan area, the northernmost county along the Jersey Shore. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 626,351, making it the state's fifth-most populous county, representing a decrease of 0.6% from the 2010 Census, when the population was enumerated at 630,380, in turn an increase of 15,079 from 615,301 at the 2000 Census. As of 2010, the county fell to the fifth-most populous county in the state, having been surpassed by Hudson County, its county seat is Freehold Borough. The most populous place was Middletown Township, with 66,522 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Howell Township covered 61.21 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $69,410, the fifth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 74th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Monmouth County ranked 38th among the highest-income counties in the United States as of 2011, placing it among the top 1.2% of counties by wealth.
As of 2009, it was ranked 56th in the United States by personal per-capita income. In 1609, the English navigator, Henry Hudson, his crew aboard the Dutch vessel Half Moon spotted land in what is now Monmouth County, most off Sandy Hook. Among the first European settlers and majority landowners in the area were Richard and Penelope Stout. Penelope miraculously survived her wounds from a native attack in Sandy Hook and further lived to the age of 110. Additionally, a group of Quaker families from Long Island settled the Monmouth Tract, an early land grant from Richard Nicolls issued in 1665, they were followed by a group of Scottish settlers who inhabited Freehold Township in about 1682–85, followed several years by Dutch settlers. As they arrived in this area, they were greeted by Lenape Native Americans, who lived in scattered small family bands and developed a amicable relationship with the new arrivals. Enslaved Africans were present in the area from at least 1680, by 1726 made up 9% of the total population of the county.
Monmouth County was established on March 1683, while part of the province of East Jersey. On October 31, 1693, the county was partitioned into the townships of Freehold and Shrewsbury, its name may come from the Rhode Island Monmouth Society or from a suggestion from Colonel Lewis Morris that the county should be named after Monmouthshire in Wales, Great Britain. Other suggestions include that it was named for James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who had many allies among the East Jersey leadership. In 1714, the first county government was established. At the June 28, 1778, Battle of Monmouth, near Freehold Township, General George Washington's soldiers battled the British under Sir Henry Clinton, in the longest land battle of the American Revolutionary War, it was at Monmouth that the tactics and training from Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben developed at Valley Forge during the winter encampment were first implemented on a large scale. At independence, Monmouth's population included 1,640 slaves, as well as an undetermined number of free African Americans.
The number of enslaved persons fell steeply after 1820, though a small number remained until at least 1850. Monmouth's free African American population climbed from 353 in 1790 to 2,658 in 1860. Ocean County was carved out of Monmouth County in 1850. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 665.32 square miles, including 468.79 square miles of land and 196.53 square miles of water. Much of Monmouth County remains flat and low-lying far inland. However, there are some low hills in and around Holmdel Township, one of them, Crawford Hill, the former site of a radar facility, is the county's highest point, variously listed at 380 to 391 feet above sea level; the top portion of the hill is owned by Alcatel-Lucent and houses a research laboratory of Bell Laboratories. The northeastern portion of the county, in the Locust section of Middletown Township and the boroughs of Highlands and Atlantic Highlands, are very hilly; the lowest point is sea level. Along with adjacent Ocean County, Monmouth County is a mecca of fishing.
Its waterways include several rivers and bays that flow from the Raritan Bayshore into Raritan Bay and Lower New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean. The Manasquan Inlet is located in the county, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the estuary of the Manasquan River, a bay-like body of saltwater that serves as the starting point of the Intracoastal Waterway, which attracts as many as 1,600 boats each weekend during the peak season; the county adjoins: Middlesex County, New Jersey – northwest Ocean County, New Jersey – south Mercer County, New Jersey – west Burlington County, New Jersey – southwest Richmond County, New York - north Gateway National Recreation Area As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 630,380 people, 233,983 households, 163,320.134 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,344.7 per square mile. There were 258,410 housing units at an average density of 551.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.60% White, 7.37% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 4.96% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.89% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.67% of the population. There were 233,983 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with n
Governor of New Jersey
The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government. The office of governor is an elected position. Governors cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the total number of terms they may serve; the official residence for the governor is a mansion located in Princeton, New Jersey. The first Governor of New Jersey was William Livingston, who served from August 31, 1776, to July 25, 1790; the current governor is Phil Murphy, who assumed office on January 16, 2018. The governor is directly elected by the voters to become the political and ceremonial head of the state; the governor performs the executive functions of the state, is not directly subordinate to the federal authorities. The governor assumes additional roles, such as being the Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey National Guard forces. Unlike many other states that have elections for some cabinet-level positions, under the New Jersey Constitution the governor and lieutenant governor are the only officials elected on a statewide basis.
Much like the President of the United States, the governor appoints the entire cabinet, subject to confirmation by the New Jersey Senate. More under the New Jersey constitution, the governor appoints all superior court judges and county prosecutors, although this is done with strong consideration of the preferences of the individual state senators who represent the district where vacancies arise; the governor is responsible for appointing two constitutionally created officers, the New Jersey Attorney General and the Secretary of State of New Jersey, with the approval of the senate. As amended in January 2002, state law allows for a maximum salary of $175,000. Phil Murphy has stated. Jon Corzine accepted a token salary of $1 per year as governor. Previous governor Jim McGreevey received an annual salary of $157,000, a reduction of 10% of the maximum allowed, while Chris Christie, Murphy's immediate predecessor, accepted the full gubernatorial salary; the governor has a full-time protective security detail from the Executive Protection Unit of the New Jersey State Police while in office.
A former governor is entitled to a 1-person security detail from the New Jersey State Police, for up to 6 months after leaving office. On Tuesday, November 8, 2005, the voters passed an amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution that created the position of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, effective with the 2009 elections. Before this amendment was passed, the president of the New Jersey Senate would have become governor or acting governor in the event that office of governor became vacant; this dual position was more powerful than that of an elected governor, as the individual would have had a major role in legislative and executive processes. As a result of the constitutional amendment passed in 2005, Governor Richard Codey, serving from November 2004 to January 2006 as governor, was the final person to wield such power. Kim Guadagno, a former prosecutor, was sworn in as New Jersey's first lieutenant governor on January 19, 2010 under Governor Christie. Succeeding Guadagno, former assemblywoman Sheila Oliver was sworn in on January 16, 2018 under Governor Murphy.
The Center on the American Governor, at Rutgers' Eagleton Institute of Politics, was established in 2006 to study the governors of New Jersey and, to a lesser degree, the governors of other states. The program features extensive archives of documents and pictures from the Byrne and Kean administrations, video interviews with many members of the respective administrations, some information on other American governors, news updates on current governors; the project is in the process of creating new archives, similar to the Byrne and Kean archives, for administrations. "I, A. B. elected governor of the State of New Jersey, do solemnly promise and swear, that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of New Jersey, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, to the governments established in the United States and in this state under the authority of the people, that I will diligently, impartially, to the best of my knowledge and ability, execute the said office in conformity with the powers delegated to me, that I will to the utmost of my skill and ability, promote the peace and prosperity and maintain the lawful rights of the said state, so help me God."
Governorship of Phil Murphy List of colonial governors of New Jersey List of Governors of New Jersey Official website Executive Orders issued by the New Jersey Governor
Ebenezer Elmer was an American physician from Bridgeton, New Jersey. He represented New Jersey in the U. S. Congress from the Democratic-Republican Party from 1801 to 1807. Elmer's older brother, Jonathan Elmer, Ebenezer's son Lucius Elmer were members of the United States House of Representatives. Elmer was born in Cedarville, New Jersey, on August 23, 1752, he studied medicine and practiced in Cedarville. He served in the Continental Army as ensign, surgeon’s mate, regimental surgeon, practiced medicine in Bridgeton from 1783 to 1789, he was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly from 1789 to 1795, serving as speaker in 1791 and 1795. He was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Seventh and Ninth Congresses, serving in office from March 4, 1801 to March 3, 1807. Not renominated by the Republicans in 1806, the Federalists put up a combined ticket with Dr. Elmer, unsuccessful, he was a member of the New Jersey Legislative Council in 1807, was chosen vice president of that body. He was collector of customs of Bridgeton from 1808 until 1817, when he resigned, was reappointed in 1822 and served until 1832, when he again resigned.
He served in the War of 1812, as adjutant general of the New Jersey Militia and brigadier general of the Cumberland brigade. He was vice president of Burlington College from 1808 to 1817 and 1822 to 1832, he retired from public life and died in Bridgeton on October 18, 1843. Elmer was interred in Old Broad Street Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Bridgeton. United States Congress. "Ebenezer Elmer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2010-04-27 Ebenezer Elmer at The Political Graveyard "Ebenezer Elmer". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-17