University of St. Gallen
The University of St. Gallen is a research university located in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Established in 1898, it specialises in business administration, economics and international affairs, it is known as an abbreviation of its former German name Handels-Hochschule St. Gallen. In the fall of 2016 it had 8,337 students, of which 3,097 were master's students and 675 doctoral students. According to international rankings, the university is considered among the word's leading business schools. Although one of Switzerland's smallest universities, HSG has Switzerland's largest faculty for business administration, it is EQUIS and AACSB accredited. Its campus is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In May 1898, the Cantonal Parliament of St. Gallen established an academy for trade and administration in St. Gallen; the actual founding father is considered to be Theodor Curti the head of the Department of Economic Affairs of the Canton of St. Gallen; the business academy commenced lectures in 1899, making it one of the first institutions of its kind in the world.
From 1911 on, the name Handels-Hochschule was used. In 1938, the former foundation under private law became a public institution, in 1939 gained the right to award doctoral degrees. In 1963, the university moved to new buildings and changed its name to Hochschule für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften; the new buildings were planned for 900 students, but by the winter term of 1963/64, more than 1150 students were enrolled. With the enaction of the Higher Education Act of 1989, the university was renamed Hochschule St. Gallen für Wirtschafts-, Rechts- und Sozialwissenschaften to reflect its curricula; the university has had its own law department since 1978. In 1989, the library building opened, enrollment had grown to over 3900. In February 1994, the Cantonal Parliament of St. Gallen approved a bill to amend the Higher Education Act, leading to the renaming of the institution as Universität St. Gallen; the acronym HSG remained. In winter 2001/02, the University of St. Gallen started the reorganization of its study programs.
Education was classified into bachlelor's and master's degrees, making the university Switzerland's pioneer in the Bologna process. In October 2005, the university's Executive School of Management and Law was opened; the financially autonomous Executive School centralizes further educational activities such as MBA and executive MBA programs. Mid-2005, the people of St. Gallen voted to renovate and expand the university by 2011. With a budget of about 80m Swiss francs, buildings from the 1960s were renovated, its infrastructure was updated. Following a recent investigation by the cantonal audit office, the University of St. Gallen has come under heavy criticism for the frivolous spending behaviour in some of its institutes. Representatives of the cantonal legislature have called for a change in the university's culture of accountability. *In 2016, CEMS refused to take part in the yearly FT Ranking. The program made its comeback in 2017 at the 9th place; the University of St. Gallen is located atop Rosenberg hill, overlooking the picturesque Altstadt of St. Gallen, with a view of the Alpstein mountain range.
The campus is noted for its integration of architecture. In the Main Building, designed by Walter Foerderer and regarded worldwide as a significant example of 1960s architecture, art is a major feature of the architecture. There are works by Burckhardt, Kemény, Arp, Hajdu, Miró, Soulages, Giacometti, Tàpies, Valentin, Otto Müller, Baier, Oertli, Gubler, Baumgarten, Bill, Josef Felix Müller, Richter and Cucchi; the area around the university, including the town of St. Gallen at Lake Constance and the Alps, offers facilities for outdoor activities including skiing, hiking and sailing. In 1995, a convention and executive education center opened a few minutes’ walk from the main campus. Extended in 2007, it now comprises 54 business rooms; the university has international hubs in Singapore and São Paulo to connect local faculty, students and companies with its academic activities. Following a restructuring in 2011, there are five schools at the University of St. Gallen: the School of Management, the School of Finance, the Law School, the School of Economics and Political Science, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences.
Study programs are associated with a specific school but are taught jointly by faculty members from several schools. The Executive School of Management and Law plays a special role which has the status of an Institut mit besonderen gesamtuniversitären Aufgaben and which runs the MBA and executive education programs; the crystallization points of research at the University of St. Gallen are about 40 institutes and research centres, which are an integral part of the university; the directors of the institutes double as professors of the University of St. Gallen. Bringing theory and practice together, the institutes provide an important input for teaching at the University and play a significant role in furthering the careers of young academics. 80 tenured professors, 60 assistant professors and senior lecturers, more than 300 lecturers and 300 assistants, plus distinguished visiting professors cultivate the scientific discourse with the students. The University of St. Gallen is a member of the European Research Ce
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
Mozarteum University Salzburg
The Mozarteum University Salzburg known as Mozarteum Salzburg, is a university in Salzburg municipality, which specializes in music and the dramatic arts. It was named after Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; the predecessor of the Mozarteum Orchestra of Salzburg was the "Cathedral Music Association and Mozarteum", founded in 1841 through the energies of Mozart's widow Constanze Weber Mozart. Its purpose was the "refinement of musical taste with regard to sacred music as well as concerts". Through the 19th century, the concerts of the orchestra named the "Mozarteum Orchestra" in 1908, became the center of Salzburg city's musical life. In Salzburg city, the Foundation built and maintains a building with two concert halls, called the Mozarteum, it was constructed 1910–14, designed by the Munich architect Richard Berndl. The Mozarteum University Salzburg is affiliated with the International Mozarteum Foundation; the rebuilt university main building is located at Mirabellplatz 1. The original 100-rank grand concert hall organ was built by the Austrian firm Rieger in 1914.
A new organ in neo-baroque style was installed in 1970 by E. F. Walcker & Cie; this organ was dismantled in 2008. In 2010, a new 50-stop tracker action organ was installed by Hermann Eule Orgelbau, Bautzen; the original 1914 façade was reconstructed. Stoplist of 2010 Eule Organ Opus 657 The pipe organ in the Wienersaal small concert hall, invisibly located in an organ chamber above the stage, was built in 1914 by Rieger with 25 stops and electro-pneumatic action, it was rebuilt in 1941, including a new console and some neobaroque modifications. The organ is in bad condition, but still playable. Barbara Bonney Marios Joannou Elia David Frühwirth Leopold Hager Christian T. Herbst Angelika Kirchschlager Herbert von Karajan Christiane Karg Genia Kühmeier Giorgi Latso Erich Leinsdorf Igor Levit Nils Mönkemeyer Camilla Nylund Carl Orff Wolfgang Rennert Alice Sara Ott Tabea Zimmermann Barbara Bonney Reinhard Febel Eliot Fisk Vittorio Ghielmi Michael Gielen Pavel Gililov Veronika Hagen-Di Ronza Thomas Riebl Leopold Hager Nikolaus Harnoncourt Adriana Hölszky Wolfgang Holzmair Johannes Kalitzke Karl-Heinz Kämmerling Angelika Kirchschlager Ludlow Hallman Wilma Lipp Tristan Murail Felix Petyrek Ildikó Raimondi Ruggiero Ricci Gerhard Röthler Jacques Rouvier Heinrich Schiff Otmar Suitner Laurence Traiger Gerhard Wimberger Official site Mozarteum Precollege Program The Mozarteum - Salzburg Guide Mozarteum Orchestra of Salzburg International Mozarteum Foundation website Institute for historical and modern-day Mozart Opera Interpretation
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
CVC Capital Partners
CVC Capital Partners is a leading British private equity firm with US$111 billion in secured commitments since inception across European and Asian private equity and growth funds. In total, the CVC Group manages US$70 billion of assets. Since 1981, CVC has completed over 300 investments across a wide range of countries. CVC was founded in 1981 and today has over 400 employees working across its network of 24 offices throughout Europe and the Americas. American banking giant, had established an investment arm in 1968 to focus on venture capital investments. By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Citicorp Venture Capital, at that time under the leadership of chairman William T. Comfort, continued to invest in early-stage businesses but expanded into the emerging leveraged buyout business. CVC Capital Partners was founded in 1981 as the European arm of Citicorp Venture Capital. Among Citicorp Venture Capital's early employees and in Europe were Jon Moulton, Mike Smith, Frank Neale. Of the group's original European leadership, most would leave by the late 1980s.
Moulton left the firm to co-found Schroder Ventures the predecessor of Permira in 1985. Neale departed to form Phildrew Ventures. By the early 1990s, Michael Smith, who joined Citicorp in 1982, was leading Citicorp Venture Capital in Europe along with other managing directors Steven Koltes, Hardy McLain, Donald Mackenzie, Iain Parham, Rolly Van Rappard. In 1993, Smith and the senior investment professionals of Citicorp Venture Capital negotiated a spinout from Citibank to form an independent private equity firm, CVC Capital Partners. In 2006, the US arm of Citigroup Venture Capital spun out of the bank to form a new firm, known as Court Square Capital Partners. CVC operated offices in London and Frankfurt. Following the spinout, CVC raised its first investment fund with $300 million of commitments, half coming from Citicorp and the rest from high-net-worth individuals and institutional investors. Now independent, CVC completed its transition from venture capital investments to leveraged buyouts and investments in mature businesses.
CVC would follow up with its second fund in 1996, its first independent of Citibank, with $840 million of capital commitments. By 2000, CVC was one of the best known private equity firms in Europe. In 2001, CVC completed fundraising for its third investment fund, the largest private equity fund raised in Europe at the time, just ahead of funds raised by other leading firms, Apax Partners and BC Partners Also, around the same time, CVC expanded into Asia with a $750 million fund focusing on investments in Asian companies. From November 2005 to March 2006, CVC purchased 63.4% of the shares of the Formula One Group, owner of the Formula One auto racing championship. In 2007, CVC expanded to the U. S. opening an office in New York City, headed by Christopher Stadler and overseen by Rolly van Rappard. In 2012, CVC reduced its shares in the Formula One Group to 35.5%. In January 2013, Smith retired from the role of chairman and Koltes and Van Rappard were appointed co-chairmen of the group. In February 2015, CVC made its first investment from CVC Growth Partners in Wireless Logic, Europe's largest machine-to-machine managed service provider, acquiring it from ECI PartnersIn March 2015, CVC bought 80% of shares of gambling company Sky Betting & Gaming.
In June 2015, CVC acquired the German perfume retailer Douglas AG for an disclosed fee from private equity firm Advent International. In September 2015, CVC opened an office in Warsaw. In November 2015, CVC and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board both acquired American pet supplier Petco for a fee of around $4.6 billion. In April 2016, CVC Capital Partners acquired German betting operator Tipico. In August 2016, CVC Capital Partners agreed to buy a 15% stake in PT Siloam International Hospitals TbK, among Indonesia's and South East Asia's largest corporate chains of hospitals In September 2016, CVC Capital Partners agreed to sell control of the Formula One Group to John Malone’s Liberty Media in a deal worth US$4.4bn. The two-part deal would see the US media group buy 18.7 per cent of the F1 parent company Delta Topco for $746mn in cash from a consortium of shareholders led by CVC. In 2017, a second payment of $354mn in cash and $3.3bn in newly issued shares in a Liberty Media tracking stock will see Liberty Media assume full control of Formula One once the deal is approved by regulators, the FIA and Liberty’s shareholders.
The current European and US portfolio contains a number of companies, including: AlixPartners: Management Consulting Firm Avast: IT security company. UnitedLex The current Asia Pacific portfolio includes: The Executive Centre: Hong Kong-based serviced office operator. In January 2015, CVC Capital Partners and Bencis Capital Partners were sentenced to pay fines by the Dutch Authority for Consumers and Markets after it charged the former Dutch portfolio company of the two firms, Meneba Beheer, with breaking competition rules through price fixing; the Dutch regulator ruled that the two firms must pay between €450,000 and €1.5 million after Meneba Beheer, itself fined €9 million by the authority, was involved in a collective agreement with competitors to keep prices stable between 2001 and 2007. CVC Capital Partners