New Zealand Company
The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom, was a company that existed in the first half of the 1800s on a business model focused on the systematic colonisation of New Zealand. The company was formed to carry out the principles devised by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who envisaged the creation of a new-model English society in the southern hemisphere. Under Wakefield’s model, the colony would attract capitalists who would have a ready supply of labour—migrant labourers who could not afford to be property owners, but who would have the expectation of one-day buying land with their savings; the New Zealand Company established settlements at Wellington, Nelson and Dunedin and became involved in the settling of New Plymouth and Christchurch. The original New Zealand Company started in 1825, with little success rose as a new company when it merged with Wakefield's New Zealand Association in 1837, received its royal charter in 1840, reached the peak of efficiency about 1841, encountered financial problems from 1843 from which it never recovered, returned its charter in 1850 and wound up all remaining business with a final report in 1858.
The company’s board members included aristocrats, members of Parliament and a prominent magazine publisher, who used their political connections to ceaselessly lobby the British government to achieve its aims. The company indulged in many questionable land purchases from Māori, in many cases reselling land it did not own, launched elaborate and sometimes fraudulent advertising campaigns, it vigorously attacked those it perceived as its opponents—chiefly the British Colonial Office, successive governors of New Zealand, the Church Missionary Society and prominent missionary the Rev. Henry Williams—and it stridently opposed the Treaty of Waitangi, an obstacle to the company obtaining the greatest possible amount of New Zealand land at the cheapest price; the company, in turn, was criticised by the Colonial Office and New Zealand Governors for its "trickery" and lies. Missionaries in New Zealand were critical of the company, fearing its activities would lead to the “conquest and extermination” of Maori inhabitants.
The company viewed itself as a prospective quasi-government of New Zealand and in 1845 and 1846 proposed splitting the colony in two, along a line from Mokau in the west to Cape Kidnappers in the east—with the north reserved for Māori and missionaries, while the south would become a self-governing province, known as "New Victoria" and managed by the company for that purpose. Britain's Colonial Secretary rejected the proposal. Only 15,500 settlers arrived in New Zealand as part of the company's colonisation schemes, but three of its settlements would—along with Auckland—become and remain the country's "main centres" and provide the foundation for the system of provincial government introduced in 1853; the earliest organised attempt to colonise New Zealand came in 1825, when the New Zealand Company was formed in London, headed by the wealthy John George Lambton, MP. The company unsuccessfully petitioned the British Government for a 31-year term of exclusive trade and for command over a military force, anticipating that large profits could be made from New Zealand flax, kauri timber and sealing.
Undeterred by the lack of government support for its plan to establish a settlement protected by a small military force, the company dispatched two ships to New Zealand the following year under the command of Captain James Herd, given the task of exploring trade prospects and potential settlement sites in New Zealand. On 5 March 1826 the ships and Rosanna, reached Stewart Island, which Herd explored and dismissed as a possible settlement, before sailing north to inspect land around Otago Harbour. Herd was unconvinced that area was the ideal location and sailed instead for Te Whanganui-a-Tara, which Herd named Lambton Harbour. Herd explored the area and identified land at the south-west of the harbour as the best place for a European settlement, ignoring the presence of a large pā, home to members of Te Āti Awa tribe; the ships sailed up the east coast to explore prospects for trade, stopping at the Coromandel Peninsula and the Bay of Islands. In January 1827 Herd surveyed parts of the harbour at Hokianga, where either he or the company's agent on board negotiated the "purchase" of tracts of land from Māori in Hokianga and Paeroa.
The price for the land was "five muskets, fifty three pounds powder, four pair blankets, three hundred flints and four musket cartridge boxes". After several weeks Herd and the New Zealand Company agent decided the cost of exporting goods was too high to be of economic value and they sailed to Sydney, where Herd paid off the crew and sold the stores and equipment returned to London; the venture had cost the New Zealand Company ₤20,000. The failure of Lambton's project came to the attention of 30-year-old aspiring politician Edward Gibbon Wakefield, serving three years in jail for abducting a 15-year-old heiress. Wakefield, who had grown up in a family with roots in philanthropy and social reform showed an interest in proposals by Robert Wilmot-Horton, Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies for state-assisted emigration programmes that would help British paupers escape poverty by moving to any of Britain's colonies. In 1829 Wakefield began publishing pamphlets and writing newspaper articles that were reprinted in a book, promoting the concept of systematic emigration to Australasia through a commercial profit-making enterprise.
Wakefield's plan entailed a company buying land from the indigenous residents of Australia or New Zealand cheaply selling it to speculators and "gentleman settlers" for a much higher sum. The immigrants w
Woodhouse Grove School
Woodhouse Grove School is an independent, co-educational and boarding public school and Sixth Form. It is located to the north of West Yorkshire, England; the school, its preparatory junior school, Brontë House, is located in the Aire Valley. There are 1,000 students on roll including around 90 boarders; the school was founded as an all-boys boarding preparatory institution, for the sons of Methodist Ministers. It developed over the latter part of the 20th century. Woodhouse Grove has evolved into an independent education centre, providing education from the age of three through to graduation from the sixth form. Although a Christian school, Woodhouse Grove accepts children from other religions or children with no declared religious affiliations; the school offers academic and sixth form scholarships, bursaries for HM Forces families, clergy families and sixth form, music awards, sport awards and financial assistance for siblings. The school is located in a rural setting close to the metropolitan centres of Leeds, 10 miles distant and Bradford, 4 miles away.
Leeds Bradford International Airport is 3 miles north-east of the school. The school benefits from the Apperley Bridge railway station, opened in 2015, located just across the road from the school's chapel. In the early days of the Wesleyan Methodist movement a need had been identified for a school located in the north of England as a boarding establishment to educate the sons of ministers who moved from ministry to ministry around the country. Kingswood School, near Bath, in the West Country, had served as the sole Methodist school since 1748, but the distance involved proved a problem for northern residents; the topic was first raised at Conference as early as John Wesley replied, "Probably we may. Let our brethren think of a place and a master and send me word". No place was found and the matter postponed, but not forgotten; the need for a new school was not raised again for twenty-five years until church theologian and scholar Adam Clarke made the suggestion at the 1806 conference in his first year as conference president.
Over the next five years the matter was discussed and progressed annually and several possible sites were examined. With a suitable house and grounds identified and purchased at Woodhouse Grove in Apperley near Bradford the decision to found the school was agreed by ballot at the Wesleyan Conference of 1811, still under the leadership of the influential and charismatic Adam Clarke; this first period is referred to as the "Old Foundation" in the school’s history. It was established to provide an education for the sons of the itinerant ministers in service of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in the north of England; the original planned name was to be The Wesleyan Academy, as evidenced by a commemorative wall plaque at the school, but this name was dropped in favour of Woodhouse Grove School. Few alterations were needed to convert the house for use as a school, but the barn was cleaned up as a schoolroom and the stables converted as a chapel; the drawing room became a lecture and study room and thirty wooden cribs were provided for the boys to sleep on.
The school opened on 8 January 1812 under the headship of John Fennell as first master and with an initial roll of twenty seven pupils. For much of the 19th century, between 1812 and 1875, Woodhouse Grove and Kingswood operated as separate schools for children aged between eight and fifteen years old, with both schools under direct control of conference; the school had a local management committee and there were frequent conflicts with conference over duplicated but differing decisions relating to teacher selection, staff salaries and building expansion needs. Between 1875 and 1883, the two schools were combined as a single school, despite the problems caused by being two hundred miles apart; the Grove served as a preparatory school with pupils relocating at the age of thirteen to the upper school at Kingswood. The school was refounded on 21 September 1883, the "New Foundation Day", to admit boys from a wider spectrum of backgrounds; the Grove received its first pupils as a Methodist middle class boarding and day school under a new policy laid down by the Wesleyan Conference.
The sermon on the New Foundation Day was given by the Reverend Robert Newton Young, himself a former pupil of the school between 1837 and 1843, the sermon was based around the text “Bone et Fidelis” or “Good and Faithful”, to become the new school motto to the present day. By the summer term of 1884, the school roll had expanded to 155 pupils. During the Second World War, under direct grant funding after the 1944 Education Act, the school expanded, with boarding pupils placed and paid for by London County Council and the East Riding of Yorkshire authority. Traditionally a school for boys only, the school first admitted girls to the sixth form in 1979 and has been co-educational since 1985; the school has continued to expand since its origins, adding modern buildings as required continuously over its existence. The school sat in a few acres of semi-rural land but now extends over 70 acres of playing fields and woodlands. For several years, HM Inspector of Schools had recommended that Woodhouse Grove make better provision for younger pupils.
Under the guidance of the Secretary of the Methodist Education Committee, Rev. H. B. Workman, the preparatory school at Brontë House was founded in 1934 as a junior preparatory school for five- to eleven-year-old boys; the school became
University of Otago
The University of Otago is a collegiate university located in Dunedin, New Zealand. It scores for average research quality, in 2006 was second in New Zealand only to the University of Auckland in the number of A-rated academic researchers it employs. In the past it has topped the New Zealand Performance Based Research Fund evaluation; the university was created by a committee led by Thomas Burns, established by an ordinance of the Otago Provincial Council in 1869. The university accepted its first students in July 1871, making it the oldest university in New Zealand and third-oldest in Oceania. Between 1874 and 1961 the University of Otago was a part of the federal University of New Zealand, issued degrees in its name. Otago is known for its vibrant student life its flatting, in old houses. Otago students have a long standing tradition of naming their flats; the nickname "Scarfie" comes from the habit of wearing a scarf during the cold southern winters. The university's graduation song, Gaudeamus igitur, iuvenes dum sumus, acknowledges students will continue to live up to the challenge, if not always in the way intended.
The UNiversity's student magazine, Critic, is New Zealand's longest running student magazine. The architectural grandeur and accompanying gardens of Otago University led to it being ranked as one of the world's most beautiful university campuses by the British publications The Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post; the Otago Association's plan for the European settlement of southern New Zealand, conceived under the principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield in the 1840s, envisaged a university. Dunedin leaders Thomas Burns and James Macandrew urged the Otago Provincial Council during the 1860s to set aside a land endowment for an institute of higher education. An ordinance of the council established the university in 1869, giving it 100,000 acres of land and the power to grant degrees in Arts, Medicine and Music. Burns was named Chancellor but he did not live to see the university open on 5 July 1871; the university conferred just one degree, to Alexander Watt Williamson, before becoming an affiliate college of the federal University of New Zealand in 1874.
With the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 and the passage of the University of Otago Amendment Act 1961, the university resumed its power to confer degrees. Operating from William Mason's Post Office building on Princes Street, it relocated to Maxwell Bury's Clocktower and Geology buildings in 1878 and 1879; this evolved into the Clocktower complex, a striking group of Gothic revival buildings at the heart of the campus. These buildings were inspired by then-new main building at Glasgow University in Scotland. Otago was the first university in Australasia to permit women to take a law degree. Ethel Benjamin graduated LLB in 1897; that year she became the first woman in the British Empire to appear as counsel in court. The Otago University helped train medical personnel as part of the Otago University Medical Corps, they supplied or trained most of the New Zealand Army's doctors and dentists during the First World War. Professor Robert Jack made the first radio broadcast in New Zealand from the physics department on 17 November 1921.
Queen Elizabeth II visited the university library with the Duke of Edinburgh on 18 March 1970. This was the first time the royals completed informal “walkabouts” to meet the public, it was the first visit of Prince Charles and Princess Anne to this country; because it had a wide range of courses, Otago attracted more students from outside its provincial district. This led to the growth of colleges and informal accommodation in north Dunedin around the faculty buildings; this development of a residential campus gave Otago a more vibrant undergraduate student life at the same time as comparable but smaller developments in Christchurch and Auckland were eclipsed in the late 20th century. Otago now has the most substantial residential campus of any university in New Zealand or Australia, although this is not without its problems. In May 2010 University joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Durham University, Queen’s University, University of Tübingen, University of Western Australia and Uppsala University.
The blazon of the arms granted by the Lyon King of Arms, Scotland is Azure, on a saltire cantoned between four mullets of six points Or, a book, gilt-edged and bound in a cover Gules charged with a mullet of six points of the second and a book-marker of the third issuance from the page-foot, in an Escrol under the same this Motto "Sapere Aude". The motto may be translated as'dare to be wise' or'have courage to be wise'; the shield is first described and it is blue On the shield is a saltire, an “X” shaped object. On the saltire sits a gilt edged book the cover of, red On the cover of the book is a star of six points. Mullets only have five points. At the foot of the book is a bookmark in red being the third colour mentioned; the saltire and the book are surrounded by four other stars each of six points which are placed in the spaces formed by the saltire. The five stars and the saltire are all coloured gold, the second colour mentioned. An Escrol is the scroll under the shield containing the motto.
The university is divided into four academic divisions: Division of Humanities Division of Health Sciences Division of Sciences School of BusinessFor external and marketing purposes, the Division of Commerce is known as the School of Business, as, the term used
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
The South Island officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean; the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres. It has a temperate climate, it has a 32 percent larger landmass than the North Island, as a result is nicknamed the "mainland" of New Zealand by South Island residents, but only 23 percent of New Zealand's 4.9 million inhabitants live there. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population and wealth due to the 1860s gold rushes; the North Island population overtook the South in the early 20th century, with 56 percent of the population living in the North in 1911, the drift north of people and businesses continued throughout the century. In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island as Middle Island or New Munster, the name South Island or New Leinster was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura.
In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. "South Island will be adhered to in all cases". Although the island had been known as the South Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the North Island, the South Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island South Island or Te Waipounamu in October 2013. Said to mean "the Water of Greenstone", this name evolved from Te Wāhi Pounamu "the Place Of Greenstone"; the island is known as Te Waka a Māui which means "Māui's Canoe". In some Māori legends, the South Island existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island was the fish that he caught. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Christchurch is in the South Island", "my mother lives in the South Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use South Island without "the". Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago; the drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, portray animals and fantastic creatures stylised reptiles. Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including Haast's eagles, they were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings. Early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha, they were absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Māmoe in the 16th century. Kāti Māmoe were in turn absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century. While today there is no distinct Kāti Māmoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Māmoe links in their whakapapa and in the far south of the island. Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu, where, in adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they evolved into a separate people known as the Moriori with its own distinct language — related to the parent culture and language in mainland New Zealand.
One notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu. Kāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Kāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter.
After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men sapped the pā, they attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Kāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Kāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Kāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew o
University of Otago Dunedin School of Medicine
The Dunedin School of Medicine is one of three medical schools that, along with the School of Biomedical Sciences, make up the University of Otago Medical School. All University of Otago medical students who gain entry after the competitive Health Sciences First Year program, or who gain graduate entry, spend their second and third years studying under Otago Medical School in Dunedin. In their fourth and sixth years, students can either study at the Dunedin School of Medicine, the University of Otago, Christchurch, or the University of Otago, Wellington. Opened in 1875, the Otago Medical School taught a two-year course with training completed overseas. 1887 saw the first medical graduate, taught at Otago. In 1891, the medical school was formally made the Faculty of Medicine; until 1920, training took only four years, but was extended to six. From 1924, students could complete their last year of training at hospitals in either Auckland, Christchurch, or Wellington, as well as Dunedin. In 1938, branch faculties were established in these other centres.
Otago's relationship with Auckland ceased after the opening of the University of Auckland School of Medicine in 1968. The branch faculties in Christchurch and Wellington became'clinical' schools in 1973 and 1977 respectively; the title University of Otago Medical School applies to an administrative unit of the Division of Health Sciences. The University of Otago Medical School comprises four component schools: Dunedin School of Medicine; the other faculties and schools within the University of Otago Division of Health Sciences are Dentistry and Physiotherapy. The Dunedin School of Medicine is structured into nine departments: the Dean's Department, General Practice and Rural Health, Pathology and Social Medicine, Psychological Medicine, Surgical Sciences, Women's and Children's Health. Most of these departments have a number of units; the bulk of the Dunedin School of Medicine is centred on a group of buildings to the southwest of the main University of Otago Campus, in an area including Dunedin Hospital and bounded by George Street, Hanover Street, Cumberland Street, Frederick Street.
These include the Hercus Building, the Adams Building, the Fraser Building. Other parts of the school are located within Dunedin Hospital, most notably the Colquhoun and Barnett lecture theatres, the Dean's Department, the Departments of Medicine, Surgical Sciences, Women's and Children's Health; the Department of General Practice and Rural Health is located at 55 Hanover Street. The Bioethics Centre is located on the corner of Malcolm Streets. Near the heart of the School of Medicine, located alongside the Hercus and Adams buildings, are the Scott and Lindo Ferguson Buildings, both listed by Heritage New Zealand as Category II and Category I respectively; the Scott Building, built during the First World War by the architectural firm of Mason and Wales, is now used by the School of Biomedical Sciences. The imposing Lindo Ferguson Building is an Oamaru Stone and brick structure in classical styling built in 1927 to a design by Edmund Anscombe used by the School of Biomedical Sciences, it was named for Sir Lindo Ferguson, Dean of the Otago Medical School from 1914 to 1937.
Otago Medical School Dunedin School of Medicine