Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Muzaffarnagar is a city under Muzaffarnagar Urban Metropolitan Region and is controlled by municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is a part of National Capital Region. It is the headquarters of the Muzaffarnagar district, it is situated midway on Delhi - Haridwar/Dehradun National Highway, the city is well connected with the national railway network. The city is located in the middle of fertile upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab region and is near to the New Delhi and Saharanpur, making it one of the most developed and prosperous cities of Uttar Pradesh; this city is part of Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor and Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor. It is the principal commercial and educational hub of Western Uttar Pradesh. Rajeev Sharma is the District Magistrate of Muzaffarnagar; the town was founded in 1633 near the site of an ancient town, Sarwat, by the son of a Mughal Commander Sayyid Muzaffar Khan during the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1947,When the country got independence Late Shri Keshav Gupta,a renowned freedom fighter went on to become the first MLA from Muzaffarnagar constituency following which the Indian flag was hoisted for the first time at his residence in the Muzaffarnagar City.
In 1901, during the British Raj, it was district in the Meerut Division in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots between Hindus and Muslims resulted in 62 deaths. According to a May 2015 report in India Today:Shamli and adjoining Muzaffarnagar districts are considered sensitive since large-scale communal violence erupted in August and September 2013. More than 50 people had died and over 50,000 were rendered homeless... The riot that ensued had engulfed many districts of western UP. MuzaffarNagar is located on an elevation of 272 meters above sea level in the Doab region of Indo-Gangetic Plain, it is located 125 kilometres NE of the national capital, 200 kilometres SE of Chandigarh, near to such historical cities as Bijnor and Hastinapur. Muzaffarnagar has a monsoon influenced humid subtropical climate characterised by much hot summers and cooler winters. Summers last from early April to late June and are hot; the monsoon continues till the middle of September. Temperatures drop with plenty of cloud cover but with higher humidity.
Temperatures rise again in October and the city has a mild, dry winter season from late October to the middle of March. June is the warmest month of the year; the temperature in June averages 30.2 °C. In January, the average temperature is 12.5 °C. It is the lowest average temperature of the whole year; the average annual temperature in Muzaffarnagar is 24.2 °C. The highest and lowest temperatures recorded in Muzaffarnagar are 45 °C on 29 may,1994 and −0.9 °C respectively. The rainfall here averages 929 mm; the driest month is November, with 8 mm of rain. Highest precipitation falls with an average of 261.4 mm. As of the 2011 census, Muzaffar Nagar municipality had a population of 392,451 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 494,792; the municipality had a sex ratio of 897 females per 1,000 males and 12.2% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 80.99%. The city has 41.39 % Muslims, 1.5 % Sikhs, 0.5 % Christians and 2 % Jains. Muzaffarnagar city is governed by Municipal Council which comes under the remit of the Muzaffarnagar Urban Agglomeration.
The city's population is 392,451. The majority of the population speaks Hindi. Khari Boli, a prestigious dialect of Hindi, is the native tongue of the city which resembles a lot with the Haryanvi dialect of Hindi. Sugar and jaggery production are important industries in the district; as a result of the farming activities around, the city is an important hub of jaggery trading business. Muzaffarnagar is an important industrial city with sugar and paper being the major industries. District Muzaffarnagar has 8 sugar mills. Many steel companies market their steel products, including angles and bars, through media in the country. More than 40% of the region's population is engaged in agriculture. According to Economic Research firm Indicus Analytics, Muzaffarnagar has the highest agricultural GDP in Uttar Pradesh, as well as UP's largest granary. Despite its economic strength, the city has been absent from the map of the foreign and modern business establishments; the city presents challenges in regard to crime and a decaying infrastructure.
Central Warehousing Corporation has its base depot in Bamanheri village on the outskirts of Muzaffarnagar city. With a capacity of 1.5 lakh metric tonnes this is counted among largest of CWC depots. Bright way, Muzaffarnagar Bright way an Import-Export Company have its Headquarters in the City Established November, 2015; the Company is well Known for Export of Basmati Rice and Ready made Garments to many famous Gulf Countries such as Saudi arabia, Oman and many EU countries. THe Company is Registered Under Government of India; this depot is operated by Food Corporation of India and stores around 80000 MT of food grains to ensure food security in the region. FCI is the nodal agency which stock them in this depot. Muzaffarnagar is well connected by railway networks; the Ghaziabad - Saharanpur line passes through the city thus forming the backbone of the long-distance and best possible travel from the city. Indian Railways provides connections to New Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, South
The Kaisar-i-Hind Medal for Public Service in India was a medal awarded by the Emperor/Empress of India between 1900 and 1947, to "any person without distinction of race, position, or sex... who shall have distinguished himself by important and useful service in the advancement of the public interest in India."The name Kaisar-i-Hind means "Emperor of India" in the vernacular of the Hindi and Urdu languages. The word kaisar, meaning "emperor" is a derivative of the Roman imperial title Caesar, is cognate with the German title Kaiser, borrowed from the Latin at an earlier date. Kaisar-i-Hind was inscribed on the obverse side of the India General Service Medal, as well as on the Indian Meritorious Service Medal. Empress of India or Kaisar-i-Hind, a form coined by the orientalist G. W. Leitner in a deliberate attempt to dissociate British imperial rule from that of preceding dynasties was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1877; the medal was instituted by Queen Victoria on 10 April 1900.
The name translates as "Emperor of India". The Royal Warrant for the Kaisar-i-Hind was amended in 1901, 1912, 1933 and 1939. While never rescinded, the Kaisar-i-Hind ceased to be awarded following the passage of the Indian Independence Act 1947; the awards of the gold medal were published in the London Gazette, while other classes were published in the Gazette of India. The medal had three grades; the Kaisar-i-Hind Gold Medal for Public Service in India was awarded directly by the monarch on the recommendation of the Secretary of State for India. Silver and Bronze medals were awarded by the Viceroy; the medal consisted of an oval-shaped badge or decoration in gold, silver or bronze with the Royal Cipher and Monarchy on one side, the words "Kaisar-i-Hind for Public Service in India" on the other. It was to be worn suspended from the left breast by a dark blue ribbon; the medal has no post-nominal initials. Its most famous recipient is Mohandas Gandhi, awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind in 1915 by The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst for his contribution to ambulance services in South Africa.
Gandhi returned the medal in 1920 as part of the national campaign protesting the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and in support of the Khilafat Movement. Gold medal Henry Cousens, Received gold medal for services in archaeological research and writings. Cornelia Sorabji, Indian Parsi, the first female graduate from Bombay University, the first woman to study law at Oxford University, the first female advocate in India, the first woman to practice law in both India and the UK. Chief Regimental Religious Teacher, 1st G. R. Sardar Khan Bahadur Mir Abdul Ali, JP, Bombay, 9 November 1901 S. Wadawa Singh Sohi, for his services during World War I Shankar Madhav Chitnavis, Esq. Deputy-Commissioner, Central Provinces, 9 November 1901 Khan Bahadur Dhanjibhai Fakirji Commodore, CIE, 9 November 1901 Major Herbert Edward Deane, R. A. M. C. 9 November 1901 Major Thomas Edward Dyson, MB, CM, Indian Medical Service, 9 November 1901 William Egerton, for distinguished service in the advancement of the interests of the British Raj Mrs E J Firth, of Madras, awarded medal on 9 November 1901 for distinguished service in the advancement of the interests of the British Raj Sir George Casson-Walker K.
C. S. I. 1910, for services in connection with the Hyderabad floods. N S Glazebrook, Esq. JP, of Bombay, 9 November 1901 Sydney Hutton Cooper Hutchinson, Esq. AMICE, Superintendent of Telegraphs, 9 November 1901 Colonel Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob, KCIE, Indian Staff Corps, 9 November 1901 Rai Bahadur Amar Nath Khanna of Lahore, awarded gold medal for his philanthropic work Harrington Verney Lovett, Esq. Indian Civil Service, 9 November 1901 Herbert Frederick Mayes, Esq. Barrister-at-Law, Indian Civil Service, 9 Nov 1901 Lieutenant-Colonel James McCloghry, FRCS, Indian Medical Service, 9 November 1901 Miss Eleanor McDougall, awarded Medal of the First Class in June 1923 for her work as Principal of the Women's Christian College, Madras Rev Charles Henry Monahan, awarded Medal of the First Class in February 1937 for his work as General Superintendent, Methodist Missionary Society, Madras Mrs Olive Monahan, awarded Medal of the First Class in June 1920 and awarded a bar to the medal in January 1941 for her work as Chief Medical Officer at the Kalyani Hospital, Madras William Florey Noyce, Esq.
Extra-Assistant Commissioner and Assistant Secretary to the Financial Commissioner, Burma, 9 November 1901 Dr Thomas Joseph O′Donnell, VD, FRCSI, Chief Medical Officer, Kolar Gold Fields, Mysore, 12 December 1911 Dr John David O′Donnell, MBE, VD, FRCSEd, Chief Medical and Sanitary Officer, Kolar Gold Fields, July 1926 Walter Samuel Sharpe, Director of Telegraphs, Bombay, 1 January 1916 Rai Bahadur KameleshwariPershad Singh of Monghyr, Bengal Robert Barton Stewart, Esq. Indian Civil Service, 9 November 1901 Dr William Stokes, for distinguished service in the advancement of the interests of the British Raj Captain Edmund Wilkinson, FRCS, Indian Medical Service, 9 November 1901 Dr R N Chopra, Public Services, now in Pakistan The Rt Hon. Alice Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading Sreemathi Panapilla Kartiyani Pilla Bhagavathi Pilla Kochamma, Vadasseri Ammaveedu, daughter of His Highness the Maharaja of Travancore, Madras The Right Rev Bishop Francis Stephen Coppel, Central Provinces Rev A
1917 Birthday Honours
The 1917 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, were published on 4 June; the recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, arranged by honour, with classes and divisions as appropriate. The Rt. Hon. Hudson Ewbanke Kearley, Baron Devonport, the first British Food Controller chairman of the Port of London Authority. Member of Parliament for Devonport from 1892 to 1910; the Rt. Hon. Horace Brand Farquhar, Baron Farquhar, Lord Steward since 1915, Master of the Household of King Edward, 1901-1907. William Astor, Baron Astor. Philanthropist and United States Minister to Italy. Lieutenant-Colonel The Rt. Hon. Mark Lockwood, by the name and title of Baron Lambourne, of Lambourne, in the county of Essex.. Colonel Richard Godolphin Walmesley Chaloner, by the name and title of Baron Gisborough, of Cleveland, in the County of York.
Sir Frederick Smith, by the name and title of Baron Colwyn, of Colwyn Bay in the County of Denbigh. Major-General Sir Ivor Herbert, by the name and title of Baron Treowen, of Treowen and Llanarth, in the county of Monmouth. Sir William Hesketh Lever, by the name and title of Baron Leverhulme, of Bolton-le-Moors, in the County Palatine of Lancaster; the King appointed the following to His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council:. Henry William Forster. Captain Ernest George Pretyman. Lord Claud Hamilton. Evelyn Cecil. James Henry Thomas; the Hon. Neil Primrose. Thomas Ashton. Major Arthur Gore, Earl of Arran. Sir William Goulding. Colonel Henry Edward Burstall, Canadian Forces. Colonel Edward Walter Clervaux Chaytor, New Zealand Staff Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Stewart Dawson, South African Forces. Colonel Cyril Brudenell Bingham White, Australian Forces. Arthur Herbert Drummond Ramsay Steel-Maitland. Colonel Herbert Merton Jessel. Henry Machu Imbert-Terry. Sir Edward Hildred Carlile. James Knott. William Norton Hicking.
George S. Clark. James Farquharson Remnant. Captain Beville Stanier. William Cresswell Gray. Thomas Dewar; the Right Hon. Thomas Wallace Russell. Sir Thomas Elliott. Colonel Alan Sykes. Sir Philip Magnus. Sir Robert Hadfield. Sir Richard Mathias. Evan Davies Jones. Sir William Dunn. Sir John Gordon Nairne. Richard Vassar Vassar-Smith. Joseph Wesley Flavelle. Dr. Frederick Taylor. Heath Harrison. W. J. Ashley. Dean of the Faculty of Commerce at Birmingham since 1902, his books include Economic Organization of England. John Audley Frederick Aspinall, General manager of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway since 1899, past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Graham Balfour, Director of Education for Staffordshire since 1903. Graham Balfour, President of the Royal Statistical Society, he published, in 1898, a book on the Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland, but is best known for his Life of R. L. Stevenson, published in 1901, reached its 16th edition in 1916. Francis Barker, instrumental in the development of the Parsons' steam turbine.
Rowland Barran. MP for North Leeds since 1902. Director of Jolm Barran and Sons, Leeds. William Barton. Elected for Oldham, 1910. Head of William Barton and Co. calico printers, Manchester. William Cain, has been prominent in Liverpool business circles and supported the Liverpool Field Hospital and other war charities. Frederick W. A. Clarke and Controller-General and Excise, since 1909. Arthur Stockdale Cope. Portrait painter, whose sitters have included King Edward VII, King George, the Prince of Wales. Has exhibited in the Royal Academy of Arts for over 40 years. William Henry Cowan. Represents East Aberdeenshire in Parliament. Kennedy Dalziel. Scottish surgeon and author of a number of works on stomach diseases. Consulting surgeon of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children and Lecturer in Clinical Surgery at Glasgow University. Henry Davies. Controller of the Post Office Savings Bank since 1906. Alderman George Samuel Elliott. Eight-time mayor of Islington since 1902. Raised the Islington Battalion. Thomas Gregory Foster, Provost since 1907 of University College, for the extension of whose activities he has been instrumental in raising large sums of money.
Was a member of the Mosley Education Commission to the United States. John Foster Fraser. Journalist and travel author. Lieutenant-Colonel William Henry Houghton Gastrell. Represented Lambeth North since 1910. Active with the Volunteer and Territorial Forces, Army Service Corps at Woolwich, the organization and direction of the Prince of Wales's National Relief Fund. Richard Tetley Glazebrook. President of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, director of the National Physical Laboratory since 1899. Robert Graham. Member of Glasgow Corporation for 30 years. Prominent worker for inauguration of Greater Glasgow in 1912. Edward Marshall Hall. Represented for Liverpool East Toxteth. Henry Herbert Hambling, Is the son of the late Colonel W. J. Hambling of Dunstable and has been the general manager and director of the London and South-Western Bank for some time. Is a director of Cox and Co. bankers
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Under-Secretary of State for India
This is a list of Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State and Permanent Under-Secretaries of State at the India Office during the period of British rule between 1858 and 1937 for India, for India and Burma from 1937 to 1948. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State was a ministerial position and the Permanent Under-Secretary of State was a civil service position. Secretary of State for India
The India Office was a British government department established in London in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India. These territories comprised most of the modern-day nations of Bangladesh, Burma and Pakistan, as well as Aden and other territories around the Indian Ocean; the department was headed by the Secretary of State for India, a member of the British cabinet, formally advised by the Council of India. Upon the partition of British India in 1947 into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan, the India Office was closed down. Responsibility for the United Kingdom's relations with the two new countries was transferred to the Commonwealth Relations Office; the East India Company was established in 1600 as a joint-stock company of English merchants who received, by a series of charters, exclusive rights to English trade with the "Indies", defined as the lands lying between the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan.
The Company soon established a network of "factories" throughout the east Indies in Asia. Over a period of 250 years the Company underwent several substantial changes in its basic character and functions. A period of rivalry between the Old and New Companies after 1698 resulted in the formation in 1709 of the United Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies. This'new' East India Company was transformed during the second half of the 18th century from a commercial body with scattered Asian trading interests into a major territorial power in South Asia with its headquarters in Bengal, present day state of West Bengal of India and Bangladesh; the political implications of this development caused the British government in 1784 to institute standing Commissioners in London to exercise supervision over the Company's Indian policies. This change in the Company's status, along with other factors, led to the Acts of Parliament of 1813 and 1833, which opened British trade with the East Indies to all shipping and resulted in the Company's complete withdrawal from its commercial functions.
The Company continued to exercise responsibility, under the supervision of the Board, for the government of British India until the re-organisation of 1858. Throughout most of these changes the basic structure of Company organisation in East India House in the City of London remained unaltered, comprising a large body of proprietors or shareholders and an elected Court of Directors, headed by a chairman and deputy chairman who, aided by permanent officials, were responsible for the daily conduct of Company business; the Board of Control maintained its separate office close to the Government buildings in Westminster. With the Government of India Act 1858, the Company and the Board of Control of the East India Companies were replaced by a single new department of state in London, the India Office, which functioned, under the Secretary of State for India, as an executive office of United Kingdom government alongside the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, Home Office and War Office; the Secretary of State for India was assisted by a statutory body of advisers, the Council of India, headed a staff of civil servants organised into a system of departments taken over from the East India Company and Board of Control establishments, housed in a new India Office building in Whitehall.
The Secretary of State for India inherited all the executive functions carried out by the Company, all the powers of'superintendence and control' over the British provincial administrations in South Asia exercised by the Board of Control. Improved communications with South Asia – the overland and submarine telegraph cables, the opening of the Suez Canal – rendered this control, exercised through the Viceroy and provincial Governors covering large areas in the regions of Asia and the Middle East, more effective in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, it was only with the constitutional reforms initiated during the First World War, carried forward by the India Acts of 1919 and 1935, that there came about a significant relaxation of India Office supervision over the Government of British India, with it, in South Asia, a gradual devolution of authority to legislative bodies and local governments. The same administrative reforms led in 1937 to the separation of Burma from rest of South Asia and the creation in London of the Burma Office, separate from the India Office though sharing the same Secretary of State and located in the same building.
With the gradual events and establishments of sovereign independent nations and the final grant of independence to present-day India and Pakistan in 1947, to present-day Myanmar in 1948, both the India Office and the Burma Office were dissolved. As a result of the widespread involvement in the external relations and defence policy of pre-1947 African and Middle Eastern countries, the India Office was responsible for particular neighbouring or connected areas at different times. Among the most significant of these are: Bengal. Other groups of involvement