National Government (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, National Government is an abstract concept referring to a coalition of some or all major political parties. In a historical sense it refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin. The term National Government was chosen to dissociate itself from negative connotations of the earlier Coalitions, churchills brief 1945 Caretaker Government called itself a National Government and in terms of party composition was very similar to the 1931–1940 entity. The Wall Street Crash heralded the global Great Depression and Britain was hit, the gold standard meant that British prices were higher than its competitors, so the all-important export industries did poorly. In 1931 the situation deteriorated and there was fear that the budget was unbalanced, which was born out by the independent May Report which triggered a confidence crisis. The Labour government agreed in principle to make changes in taxation and to cut expenditure to balance the budget, however the Cabinet could not agree on the two options available, either introduce tariffs or make 20% cuts in unemployment benefit.
When a final vote was taken, the Cabinet was split 11-9 with a minority, including many political heavyweights such as Arthur Henderson and George Lansbury, the unworkable split, on 24 August 1931, made the government resign. The king played the role in demanding a National government be formed. On 24 August, MacDonald agreed and formed a National Government composed of men from all parties with the aim of balancing the Budget. The new cabinet had four Labourites who stood with MacDonald, plus four Conservatives, Labour unions were strongly opposed and the Labour Party officially repudiated the new National government. It expelled MacDonald and made Henderson the leader of the main Labour party, Henderson led it into the general election on October 27 against the three-party National coalition. It was a disaster for Labour, which was reduced to a minority of 52. MacDonald won the largest landslide in British political history, Debate broke out about further steps to tackle the economic problems.
At the same time the Labour Party officially expelled all of its members who supported the National Government, the Liberals acting leader and Home Secretary, Sir Herbert Samuel, fought in Cabinet against an election but found the Liberal Party dividing in several directions over the course of action. One group, under Sir John Simon emerged as the Liberal Nationals, was prepared to accept the tariff and it was eventually agreed that the government as a whole would seek a Doctors Mandate to take a free hand and that each party would issue its own manifesto. Supporters of MacDonald formed the National Labour Organisation and the agreed to allow their local organisations to agree whether or not to oppose each other. The government was opposed by the Labour Party, Lloyd George and his Liberals, within the parties there was particular conflict between the Conservatives and Liberals. The result of the 1931 general election was the greatest landslide ever, the National Government winning a total of 556 seats, although the Conservatives had a bare majority in Cabinet of 11, compared with to 9 non-Conservatives, the former held comparatively few of the most important jobs
Godalming /ˈɡɒdəlmɪŋ/ is a historic market town, civil parish and administrative centre of the Borough of Waverley in Surrey, England,4 miles SSW of Guildford. The town traverses the banks of the River Wey in the Greensand Ridge – a hilly, heavily wooded part of the outer London commuter belt, in 1881, it became the first place in the world to have a public electricity supply and electric street lighting. Godalming is 30.5 mi southwest of London and shares a three-way twinning arrangement with the towns of Joigny in France, friendship links are in place with the state of Georgia and Moscow. James Oglethorpe of Godalming was the founder of the colony of Georgia, Godalming is regarded as an expensive residential town, partly due to its visual appeal, favourable transport links and high proportion of private housing. In recent years it has ranked the UKs third most desirable property hotspot. The borough of Waverley, which includes Godalming, was judged in 2013 to have the highest quality of life in Great Britain, the town has existed since Saxon times, and probably earlier.
Godalming grew in size because its location is halfway between Portsmouth and London, which encouraged traders to set up stalls and inns for travellers to buy from. Godalming Parish Church has an early Saxon chancel and a Norman tower, Godalming appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Godelminge. It was held by William the Conqueror and its domesday assets were,2 churches worth 12s,3 mills worth £2 1s 8d,25 ploughs,40 acres of meadow, woodland worth 103 hogs. Its population was roughly 400 people, at the time, its manor belonged to the King, but a few hundred years later, ownership transferred to the Bishop of Salisbury, under a charter granted by King Edward I of England. In the year 1300, the town was granted the right to hold a weekly market and its major industry at the time was woollen cloth, which contributed to Godalming’s prosperity over the next few centuries, until a sudden decline in the 17th century. Instead, its people applied their skills to the latest knitting and weaving technology and began producing stockings in a variety of materials, a willingness to adapt from one industry to another meant that Godalming continued to thrive.
For example, papermaking was adopted in the 17th century, in 1726 a Godalming maidservant called Mary Toft hoaxed the town into believing that she had given birth to rabbits. The foremost doctors of the day came to witness the freak event, eventually Toft was found out after a porter was caught smuggling a dead rabbit into her chamber, she confessed to inserting at least 16 rabbits into herself and faking their birth. Court testimony of 1764 attests to how purchasing one of the mills in Godalming and dealing in corn, so successful was Godalming that in the early 19th century it was considerably larger than Guildford, and by 1851 the population had passed 6,500. Already, it was becoming a residence for commuters, for it was connected to London by railway two years earlier, in 1849, and to Portsmouth in 1859. Today the town is served by Godalming railway station on the Portsmouth Direct Line, the first mayor of Godalming was Henry Marshall. Godalming came to attention in September 1881, when it became the first town in the world to have installed a public electricity supply
Book of Common Prayer
The original book, published in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured services of worship, the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It set out in full the propers, the collects, the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VIs death in 1553, in 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant of these being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events leading to and including the English Civil War, a Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches inside and outside the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages.
In many parts of the world, other books have replaced it in weekly worship. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words, the forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice. By far the most common form, or use, found in Southern England was that of Sarum. There was no book, the services that would be provided by the Book of Common Prayer were to be found in the Missal, the Breviary, Manual. The chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass, in his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative, an admirer, if a critical one, of John Fisher. It may have been his visit to Germany in 1532 which began the change in his outlook, in 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy. The Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views.
It was no mere translation from the Latin, its Protestant character is made clear by the reduction of the place of saints. It was only on Henrys death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken immediately following the communion, although the work is commonly attributed to Cranmer, its detailed origins are obscure. A group of bishops and divines met first at Chertsey and at Windsor in 1548, Cranmer collected the material from many sources, even the opening of Preface was borrowed. He borrowed much from German sources, particularly from work commissioned by Hermann von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne, the Church Order of Brandenberg and Nuremberg was partly the work of the latter
George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth, known as Albert until his accession, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, and was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his life in the shadow of his elder brother. He attended naval college as a teenager, and served in the Royal Navy, in 1920, he was made Duke of York. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters and Margaret, in the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never fully overcame. Georges elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936, that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman, Edward abdicated in order to marry, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.
During Georges reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated, the parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the countrys constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland, from 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948. Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by problems in the years of his reign. He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Elizabeth II, George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.
His father was Prince George, Duke of York, the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and his mother was the Duchess of York, the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck. His birthday was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, uncertain of how the Prince Consorts widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been rather distressed. Two days later, he again, I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her. Consequently, he was baptised Albert Frederick Arthur George at St. Mary Magdalenes Church near Sandringham three months later, within the family, he was known informally as Bertie
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons of the United Kingdom is the lower house of the countrys parliament. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, the full name of the house is, The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. The House is a body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved, under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power. The Government is primarily responsible to the House of Commons and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of a majority of its members. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance, by convention, the prime minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of, the House of Commons.
Since 1963, by convention, the minister is always a member of the House of Commons. The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence, confidence and no confidence motions are sometimes phrased explicitly, for instance, That this House has no confidence in Her Majestys Government. Many other motions were considered confidence issues, even though not explicitly phrased as such, in particular, important bills that form a part of the Governments agenda were formerly considered matters of confidence, as is the annual Budget. Parliament normally sits for a term of five years. Subject to that limit, the minister could formerly choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament. By this second mechanism, the government of the United Kingdom can change without a general election. In such circumstances there may not even have been a party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim. A prime minister may resign if he or she is not defeated at the polls.
In such a case, the premiership goes to whoever can command a majority in the House of Commons, in practice this is usually the new leader of the outgoing prime ministers party. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no mechanism for electing a new leader, when Anthony Eden resigned as PM in 1957 without recommending a successor and it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the advice of ministers. By convention, all ministers must be members of the House of Commons or of the House of Lords, a handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament either in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Since 1902, all ministers have been members of the Commons
The office is a British Cabinet level position. The Home Secretary is responsible for the affairs of England and Wales. The remit of the Home Office includes policing in England and Wales and matters of security, as the Security Service. The current Home Secretary is Amber Rudd, appointed formally by Queen Elizabeth II on the advice of her Prime Minister Theresa May on 13 July 2016. Mrs. May had been the incumbent, appointed on 12 May 2010 by Prime Minister, David Cameron. May was reappointed by Cameron on 8 May 2015 to serve as Home Secretary in the Conservative government and she stood down from this role on 13 July 2016 upon assuming the office of Prime Minister, succeeding Cameron
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America.
At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms.
The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
When initially created, the office was held in tandem with that of Secretary of State for the Colonies, this arrangement persisted until June 1930. On two subsequent occasions the offices were held by the same person. The Secretary was supported by an Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, in 1947, the name of the office was changed to the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. The Viscount Addison took up the new post of Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations on 7 July 1947
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC, JP, FRS was a British Conservative politician, who dominated the government in his country between the two world wars. Three times Prime Minister, he is the premier to have served under three monarchs. Baldwin first entered the House of Commons in 1908 as the Member of Parliament for Bewdley and he held government office in the coalition ministry of David Lloyd George. Upon Bonar Laws resignation due to reasons in May 1923, Baldwin became Prime Minister. He called an election on the issue of tariffs and lost the Conservatives majority, after winning the 1924 General Election Baldwin formed his second government, which saw important tenures of office by Sir Austen Chamberlain, Winston Churchill and Neville Chamberlain. The latter two ministers strengthened Conservative appeal by reforms in areas associated with the Liberal Party. They included industrial conciliation, unemployment insurance, a more extensive old-age pension system, slum clearance, more private housing, Baldwin narrowly lost the 1929 General Election and his continued leadership of the party was subject to extensive criticism by the press barons Lord Rothermere and Lord Beaverbrook.
In 1931, Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald formed a National Government, most of whose ministers were Conservatives and which won an enormous majority at the 1931 General Election. As Lord President of the Council, and one of four Conservatives among the small ten-member Cabinet and this government saw an Act delivering increased self-government for India, a measure opposed by Churchill and by many rank-and-file Conservatives. The Statute of Westminster 1931 gave Dominion status to Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, as party leader, Baldwin made many striking innovations, such as clever use of radio and film, that made him highly visible to the public and strengthened Conservative appeal. During this time, he oversaw the beginning of the rearmament process of the British military, Baldwin retired in 1937 and was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain. By 2004, historians generally painted a positive portrait of his governments. Less equivocal was his rediscovery as a moderate and inclusive Conservative for the modern age, Modern scholars generally rank him in the upper half of British Prime Ministers.
The family was prosperous, and owned the eponymous iron and steel making business that in became part of Richard Thomas. Baldwin went on to the University of Cambridge, where he studied history at Trinity College. His time at university was blighted by the presence, as Master of Trinity, of Montagu Butler, his former headmaster who had punished him at Harrow for writing a piece of schoolboy smut. He was asked to resign from the Magpie & Stump for never speaking and his father sent him to Mason College for one session of technical training in metallurgy as preparation. As a young man he served briefly as a Second Lieutenant in the Artillery Volunteers at Malvern, Baldwin married Lucy Ridsdale on 12 September 1892
Clifton is both a suburb of Bristol and the name of one of the citys thirty-five council wards. The Clifton ward includes the areas of Cliftonwood and Hotwells, other parts of the suburb lie within the ward of Clifton East. Notable places in Clifton include Clifton Suspension Bridge, Clifton Cathedral, Clifton College, The Clifton Club, Bristol Zoo, Goldney Hall, Clifton is an inner suburb of the English port city of Bristol. Clifton was recorded in the Domesday book as Clistone, the name of the village denoting a hillside settlement, until 1898 Clifton St Andrew was a separate civil parish within the Municipal Borough of Bristol. Various sub-districts of Clifton exist, including Whiteladies Road, an important shopping district to the east, and Clifton Village and this area corresponds roughly with the city wards of Clifton and Clifton East, although the former includes the river side suburb of Hotwells. Clifton is one of the oldest and most affluent areas of the city, much of it having been built with profits from tobacco, grand houses that required many servants were built in the area.
Although some were detached or semi-detached properties, the bulk were built as terraces, one famous terrace is the majestic Royal York Crescent, visible from the Avon Gorge below and looking across the Bristol docks. Berkeley Square which was built around 1790 is an example of Georgian architecture, secluded squares include the triangular Canynge Square. The Whiteladies Picture House on Whiteladies Road was converted into offices, Clifton Lido was built in 1850 but closed to the public in 1990, it was redeveloped and opened again to the public in November 2008. Parts of Clifton itself are now in the process of being pedestrianised, Clifton ward, which includes Hotwells, has a population of 10,452 in 5,007 households, according to adjusted figures for the 2001 census. On the same basis, Clifton East ward has a population of 9,538 in 4,741 households, in Clifton ward, 27% of the adult population is in full-time education. Immediately north of Clifton is Durdham Down, a flat and open area. On the western edge of Clifton is Clifton Down, a less open/more wooded area, Clifton is served by Clifton Down railway station on the local Severn Beach railway line, and by frequent bus services from central Bristol.
It has road links to the city centre and outer western suburbs, between 1893 and 1934, it was connected to Hotwells by the Clifton Rocks Railway. G. Grace - cricketer and surgeon Francis Greenway - renowned Australian architect and designer of The Clifton Club John Grimshaw - founder of Sustrans, the song Clifton in the Rain by Al Stewart appears on his first album Bed-Sitter Images. The song 32 West Mall, which appeared on the 1971 album Stackridge was named after the flat that the band shared as their headquarters at 32 West Mall in 1970. The 1978 childrens paranormal drama The Clifton House Mystery – produced by HTV, was set in the Clifton area, the plot revolved around a family moving into an old house, and subsequently finding a skeleton of a long-dead person in a hidden room. After some unexplained incidents, they convinced that a ghost connected in some way with the Bristol Riots of 1831 is haunting the house
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are present or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, the Privy Councils powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Counsellors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland, the key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England.
During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a court or curia regis. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation, later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIIIs reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation, the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIIIs death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became an administrative body. The Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, by the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, and Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws, the forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons, the body was headed by Oliver Cromwell, de facto military dictator of the nation. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the Council was reduced to thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell even greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs, the Council became known as the Protectors Privy Council, its members were appointed by the Lord Protector, subject to Parliaments approval. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protectors Council was abolished, Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I even more power transferred to this committee and it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact.
Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign and it is closely related to the word private, and derives from the French word privé