USS Cowie (DD-632)
USS Cowie, a Gleaves-class destroyer, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Rear Admiral Thomas Jefferson Cowie. Cowie was launched on 27 September 1941 Liberty Fleet Day at the Boston Navy Yard; the ship was commissioned on 1 June 1942, Lieutenant Commander C. J. Whiting in command. S. Atlantic Fleet. Departing New York 5 October 1942, Cowie escorted the escort carrier Chenango to Norfolk cruised on antisubmarine patrol off Cape Hatteras until 23 October when she sailed from Norfolk with Task Force 34 for the invasion of North Africa, she screened transports off Safi, French Morocco, from 8 to 13 November, returned to New York on 25 November for repairs and upkeep. After training exercises with submarines off New London, Cowie sailed on escort duty, screening two convoys to Casablanca between 12 December 1942 and 28 April 1943. Sailing from Norfolk for North Africa again 8 June 1943, Cowie sortied from Oran on 22 June for the invasion of Sicily. In the van of the invading forces, she contacted the British navigational marker submarine HMS Seraph on 9 July to guide the invasion landings at Scoglitti, from 9 to 13 July took station to give fire support to the assault troops ashore.
Cowie was one of those response to calls for fire support broke up the counterattack by German tanks against the 180th Regimental Combat Team on 11 July. Returning to Oran 16 July, Cowie sailed on local escort duty out of that port until 20 July when she arrived at Bizerte to patrol, she sortied 28 July for the invasion landings at Palermo, screening the cruiser Philadelphia to provide fire support to the Army landing forces, swept from Palermo to Cape Milazzo hunting Axis shipping between 31 July and 1 August. Cowie returned to Oran 4 August and cleared for New York 8 days arriving 22 August. After escorting a convoy to Belfast, Northern Ireland between 5 and 30 September 1943, Cowie was overhauled at New York before returning to convoy escort duty, she made 18 transatlantic voyages to United Kingdom and Mediterranean ports until 5 May 1945, when she entered Boston Navy Yard for conversion to a high-speed minesweeper. Sailing from Boston 24 June 1945, Cowie joined in minesweeping exercises at Norfolk until 18 July when she departed for San Diego, arriving 3 August.
Following the cessation of hostilities, she sailed from San Diego 29 August for Okinawa, arriving 27 September. Sweeping mines in the Yellow Sea and off Kobe and Wakayama, Cowie remained in the Far East until 25 March 1946 when she departed Yokosuka for San Francisco, arriving 11 April 1946. Cowie was placed out of commission in reserve 21 April 1947, she was reclassified DD-632, 15 July 1955. Cowie was stricken from the naval register on 1 December 1970 and sold 22 February 1972 and broken up for scrap. Cowie received three battle stars for World War II service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource.org: USS Cowie hazegray.org: USS Cowie
A Liberty bond was a war bond, sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time; the Act of Congress which authorized the Liberty Bonds is still used today as the authority under which all U. S. Treasury bonds are issued. Securities known as Liberty Bonds, were issued in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks to finance the rebuilding of the areas affected. There were four issues of Liberty Bonds: Apr 24, 1917 Emergency Loan Act authorizes issue of $1.9 billion in bonds at 3.5 percent. Oct 1, 1917 Second Liberty Loan offers $3.8 billion in bonds at 4 percent Apr 5, 1918 Third Liberty Loan offers $4.1 billion in bonds at 4.15 percent. Sep 28, 1918 Fourth Liberty Loan offers $6.9 billion in bonds at 4.25 percent. Interest on up to $30,000 in the bonds was tax exempt only for the First Liberty Bond; the 1st Liberty Loan Act established a $5 billion aggregate limit on the amount of government bonds issued at 30 years at 3.5% interest, redeemable after 15 years.
It raised $2 billion with 5.5 million people purchasing bonds. The 2nd Liberty Loan Act established a $15 billion aggregate limit on the amount of government bonds issued, allowing $3 billion more offered at 25 years at 4% interest, redeemable after 10 years; the amount of the loan totaled $3.8 billion with 9.4 million people purchasing bonds. The response to the first Liberty Bond was unenthusiastic and although the $2 billion issue sold out, it had to be done below par because the notes traded below par. One reaction to this was to attack bond traders as "unpatriotic"; the Board of Governors of the New York Stock Exchange conducted an investigation of brokerage firms who sold below par to determine if "pro-German influences" were at work. The board forced one such broker to buy the bonds back at par and make a $100,000 donation to the Red Cross. Various explanations were offered for the weakness of the bonds ranging from German sabotage to the rich not buying the bonds because it would give an appearance of tax dodging.
A common consensus was that more needed to be done to sell the bonds to small investors and the common man, rather than large concerns. The poor reception of the first issue resulted in a convertible re-issue five months at the higher interest rate of 4% and with more favorable tax terms. So, when the new issue arrived it sold below par; this weakness continued with subsequent issues, the 4.25% bond priced as low as 94 cents upon arrival. Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo reacted to the sales problems by creating an aggressive campaign to popularize the bonds; the government used a division of the Committee on Public Information called the Four Minute Men to help sell Liberty Bonds and Thrift Stamps. Famous artists helped to make posters and movie stars hosted bond rallies. Al Jolson, Elsie Janis, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin were among the celebrities that made public appearances promoting the idea that purchasing a liberty bond was "the patriotic thing to do" during the era.
Chaplin made a short film, The Bond, at his own expense for the drive. The Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts sold the bonds, using the slogan "Every Scout to Save a Soldier". Beyond these effective efforts, in 1917 the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps established an elite group of Army pilots assigned to the Liberty Bond campaign; the plan for selling bonds was for the pilots to crisscross the country in their Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" training aircraft in flights of 3 to 5 aircraft. When they arrived over a town, they would perform acrobatic stunts, put on mock dog fights for the populace. After performing their air show, they would land on a golf course, or a pasture nearby. By the time they shut down their engines, most of the townspeople, attracted by their performance, would have gathered. At that point, most people had never seen ridden in one; each pilot stood in the rear cockpit of his craft and told the assemblage that every person who purchased a Liberty Bond would be taken for a ride in one of the airplanes.
The program was successful in raising a substantial amount of money, used to pay for the war effort. The methodology developed and practiced by the Army was followed by numerous entrepreneurial flyers known as Barnstormers, who purchased war surplus Jenny airplanes and flew across the country selling airplane rides. Vast amounts of promotional materials were manufactured. For example, for the third Liberty Loan nine million posters, five million window stickers and 10 million buttons were produced and distributed; the campaign spurred community efforts across the country and resulted in glowing, patriotically-tinged reports on the "success" of the bonds. For the fifth and final loan drive in 1919 the Treasury Department produced steel medallions made from melted down German cannon, captured by American troops at Château-Thierry in NW France; the inch-and-a-quarter wide medallions suspended from a red and blue ribbon were awarded by the Department to Victory Liberty Loan campaign volunteers in appreciation of their service in the drive.
Peak US indebtedness was in August 1919 at a value of $25,596,000,000 for Liberty Bonds, Victory Notes, War Savings Certificates, other government securities. As early as 1922 the possibility that the war debt could not be paid in full within the expected schedule was raised, that debt rescheduling may be needed. In 1921 the Treasury Department began issuing short term notes maturing in three to five years to repay the Victory Loan
Rear admiral (United States)
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers. By contrast, in most nations, the term "rear admiral" refers to an officer of two-star rank. Rear admiral, is a one-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-7 in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps; the abbreviation for personnel from the USN, USCG, NOAA is RDML, whereas for the USPHS, the rank abbreviation is RADM. Rear admiral ranks below rear admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of brigadier general in the other uniformed services, equivalent to the rank of commodore in most other navies. In the United States uniformed services, rear admiral replaced the rank of commodore in 1983. Rear admiral sometimes referred to as rear admiral, is a two-star flag officer, with the pay grade of O-8 in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps and the United States Maritime Service.
Rear admiral ranks below vice admiral. Rear admiral is equivalent to the rank of major general in the other uniformed services, it is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services. All higher ranks are temporary ranks and linked to their specific commands or office and expire with the expiration of their term of command or office. Before the American Civil War, the American Navy had resisted creating the rank of admiral. Instead, they preferred the term "flag officer", in order to distinguish the rank from the traditions of the European navies. During the American Civil War, the US Congress honored David Glasgow Farragut's successful assault on the city of New Orleans by creating the rank of rear admiral on July 16, 1862. During World War II, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Coast Guard both had a temporary one-star rank of commodore, used in limited circumstances. By the end of the war, all incumbents had been advanced to the rank of two-star rear admiral and the commodore rank was eliminated in both services.
Both the Navy and the Coast Guard divided their rear admirals into "lower half" and full rear admirals, or "upper half", the former being paid at the same rate as a one-star brigadier general in the U. S. Army, U. S. Marine Corps and the newly independent U. S. Air Force. Lower-half rear admirals were promoted to full rear admirals, or upper half status, where they would receive pay equivalent to a two-star major general. However, both categories of rear admiral wore two-star insignia, an issue, a source of consternation to the other services. At the same time, the Navy bestowed the title of commodore on selected U. S. Navy captains who commanded multiple subordinate units, such as destroyer squadrons, submarine squadrons and air wings and air groups not designated as carrier air wings or carrier air groups. Although not flag officers, these officers were entitled to a personal blue and white command pennant containing the initials, acronym abbreviation or numerical designation of their command.
In 1981, Pub. L. 97–86 expanded commodore from a title to an official permanent grade by creating the one-star rank of commodore admiral. After only 11 months, the rank kept the one-star insignia. However, this caused issues with the Navy due to the difficulty in discriminating those commodores who were flag officers from commodores who were senior captains in certain command positions. In 1985, Pub. L. 99–145 renamed commodore to the current grade of rear admiral effective on November 8, 1985. Up until 1981, all rear admirals wore two stars on their shoulder bars and rank insignia. Since rear admirals wear one star while rear admirals wear two. On correspondence, where the rear admiral's rank is spelled out, the acronym and follows the rear admiral's rank title to distinguish between one and two stars. Beginning around 2001, the Navy, Coast Guard, NOAA Corps started using the separate rank abbreviations RDML and RADM, while the Public Health Service continued to use the abbreviation RADM for both.
As flag officers, the flags flown for rear admirals of the unrestricted line of the U. S. Navy have one or two white, single-point-up stars on blue fields for the lower half or upper half, respectively; the flags of restricted line officers and staff corps officers have blue stars on a white field. All services list the two-star grade as rear admiral and not rear admiral as stated by 10 U. S. C. § 5501 and 37 U. S. C. § 201 of the U. S. Code of law. However, the four uniformed services will sometimes list the rank as rear admiral to help the general public distinguish between the two grades. Although it exists as a maritime training organization, the United States Maritime Service does use the ranks of rear admiral and rear admiral. By law, the Service has the same rank structure of the United States Coast Guard, but its uniforms are more similar to the United States Navy. U. S. Code of law explicitly limits the total number of flag officers that may be on active duty at any given time; the total number of active duty flag officers is capped at 162 for the Regular Navy, augmented by a smaller number of additional flag officers in the Navy Reserve who are either on full-time active duty, temporary active duty, or on the Reserv
Gladys Louise Smith, known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born American film actress and producer. With a career spanning 50 years, she was a co-founder of both the Pickford–Fairbanks Studio and the United Artists film studio, one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar" award ceremony. Pickford was known in her prime as "America's Sweetheart" and the "girl with the curls", she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting. Pickford was one of the earliest stars to be billed under her own name, was one of the most popular actresses of the 1910s and 1920s, earning the nickname "Queen of the Movies", she is credited as having defined the ingénue archetype in cinema. She was awarded the second Academy Award for Best Actress for her first sound-film role in Coquette and received an honorary Academy Award in 1976. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute ranked Pickford as 24th in its 1999 list of greatest female stars of classic Hollywood Cinema.
Mary Pickford was born Gladys Louise Smith in 1892 at 211 University Avenue, Ontario. Her father, John Charles Smith, was the son of English Methodist immigrants, worked a variety of odd jobs, her mother, Charlotte Hennessey, was of Irish Catholic descent and worked for a time as a seamstress. She had two younger siblings, called "Lottie", John Charles, called "Jack", who became actors. To please her husband's relatives, Pickford's mother baptized her children as Methodists, the religion of their father. John Charles Smith was an alcoholic; when Gladys was age four, her household was under a public health measure. Their devoutly Catholic maternal grandmother asked a visiting Roman Catholic priest to baptize the children. Pickford was at this time baptized as Gladys Marie Smith. After being widowed in 1899, Charlotte Smith began taking in boarders, one of whom was a Mr. Murphy, the theatrical stage manager for Cummings Stock Company, who soon suggested that Gladys age seven, Lotti age six, be given two small theatrical roles — Gladys portrayed a girl and a boy, while Lottie was cast in a silent part in the company's production of The Silver King at Toronto's Princess Theatre, while their mother played the organ.
Pickford subsequently acted in many melodramas with Toronto's Valentine Stock Company playing the major child role in its version of The Silver King. She capped her short career in Toronto with the starring role of Little Eva the Valentine production of Uncle Tom's Cabin, adapted from the 1852 novel. By the early 1900s, theatre had become a family enterprise. Gladys, her mother and two younger siblings toured the United States by rail, performing in third-rate companies and plays. After six impoverished years, Pickford allowed one more summer to land a leading role on Broadway, planning to quit acting if she failed. In 1906 Gladys and Jack Smith supported singer Chauncey Olcott on Broadway in Edmund Burke. Gladys landed a supporting role in a 1907 Broadway play, The Warrens of Virginia; the play was written by William C. deMille, whose brother, appeared in the cast. David Belasco, the producer of the play, insisted that Gladys Smith assume the stage name Mary Pickford. After completing the Broadway run and touring the play, Pickford was again out of work.
On April 19, 1909, the Biograph Company director D. W. Griffith screen-tested her at the company's New York studio for a role in the nickelodeon film Pippa Passes; the role went to someone else but Griffith was taken with Pickford. She grasped that movie acting was simpler than the stylized stage acting of the day. Most Biograph actors earned $5 a day but, after Pickford's single day in the studio, Griffith agreed to pay her $10 a day against a guarantee of $40 a week. Pickford, like all actors at Biograph, played both bit parts and leading roles, including mothers, charwomen, slaves, Native Americans, spurned women, a prostitute; as Pickford said of her success at Biograph:I played scrubwomen and secretaries and women of all nationalities... I decided that if I could get into as many pictures as possible, I'd become known, there would be a demand for my work, she appeared in 51 films in 1909 – one a week. While at Biograph, she suggested to Florence La Badie to "try pictures", invited her to the studio and introduced her to D. W. Griffith, who launched La Badie's career.
In January 1910, Pickford traveled with a Biograph crew to Los Angeles. Many other film companies wintered on the West Coast, escaping the weak light and short days that hampered winter shooting in the East. Pickford added to her 1909 Biographs with films made in California. Actors were not listed in the credits in Griffith's company. Audiences identified Pickford within weeks of her first film appearance. Exhibitors, in turn, capitalized on her popularity by advertising on sandwich boards that a film featuring "The Girl with the Golden Curls", "Blondilocks", or "The Biograph Girl" was inside. Pickford left Biograph in December 1910; the following year, she starred in films at Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
USS Chicago (1885)
The first USS Chicago was a protected cruiser of the United States Navy, the largest of the original three authorized by Congress for the "New Navy". One of the U. S. Navy's first four steel ships, she was launched on 5 December 1885 by John Roach & Sons of Chester, sponsored by Edith Cleborne and commissioned on 17 April 1889, Captain Henry Bellows Robeson in command. Chicago was ordered as part of the "ABCD" ships, the others being the cruisers Atlanta and Boston and the dispatch vessel Dolphin; these were the first steel-hulled ships of the "New Navy". All were ordered from John Roach & Sons of Chester, Pennsylvania. However, when Secretary of the Navy William C. Whitney refused to accept Dolphin, claiming her design was defective, the Roach yard went bankrupt and Chicago's completion was delayed about three years while Roach reorganized as the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works. Like the other "ABCD" ships, Chicago was built with a sail rig to increase cruising range. Chicago was built with a displacement of 4,500 long tons at an overall length of 342 ft 2 in and 325 ft at the perpendiculars.
Her beam was 48 ft 3 in with a draft of 19 ft. She had fourteen 100psi boilers that ran two compound overhead beam steam engines that producing 5,084 ihp to turn her two screws and achieve a speed of 14 kn, she was rigged with sails as a barque. Chicago was capable of carrying 830 short tons of coal. Chicago's original armament consisted of four 8-inch /30 caliber Mark 2 guns, eight 6-inch /30 caliber Mark 2 guns, two 5-inch /31 caliber Mark 1 guns, two 6-pounder 57 mm guns, four 3-pounder 47 mm guns, two 1-pounder 37 mm Hotchkiss revolver cannon, two.45 caliber Gatling guns. She had 4 in of armor on her gun shields, 1.5 in on her deck, 3 in on her conning tower. In 1895–99 Chicago was refitted at the New York Navy Yard, with her main batteries replaced by four new 8-inch /35 caliber Mark 4 guns, with all secondary 6 inch and 5 inch guns replaced by fourteen new 5-inch /40 caliber Mark 3 guns, she had her sails removed, boilers replaced by six Babcock & Wilcox and four cylindrical boilers, engines replaced with two horizontal triple-expansion engines totaling 9,000 ihp for 18 kn speed.
In 1902 she was reconstructed, with an extended armored deck and increased displacement of 5,000 long tons. In 1915 as a training ship she was rearmed with twelve 4-inch /40 caliber guns, in 1918 as a flagship with four 5-inch /51 caliber guns. In 1920, as a submarine tender at Pearl Harbor, she was disarmed. On 7 December 1889, Chicago departed Boston for Lisbon, arriving on 21 December; the cruiser served in European and Mediterranean waters as the flagship of the Squadron of Evolution until 31 May 1890, when she sailed from Funchal, Madeira to call at Brazilian and West Indian ports before returning to New York on 29 July. Chicago operated along the east coasts of North and South America and in the Caribbean as flagship of the Squadron of Evolution—and as flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron—until 1893. After taking part in the International Naval Review in Hampton Roads in April, she left New York on 18 June 1893 to cruise in European and Mediterranean waters as flagship of the European station.
During this period the ship was commanded by Alfred Thayer Mahan famous as a naval strategist. Chicago returned to New York on 20 March 1895, was placed out of commission there on 1 May. Recommissioned on 1 December 1898, Chicago made a short cruise in the Caribbean before sailing for the European Station on 18 April, she returned to New York on 27 September and participated in the naval parade and Dewey celebration of 2 October 1899. Chicago sailed from New York on 25 November for an extended cruise, as flagship of the South Atlantic Station until early July 1901 as flagship of the European Station. With the squadron, she cruised in northern European and Caribbean waters until 1 August 1903, when she proceeded to Oyster Bay, New York, the Presidential Review. From 3 December 1903 – 15 August 1904, Chicago was out of commission at Boston undergoing repairs. After operating along the northeast coast, the cruiser departed Newport News on 17 November for Valparaíso, arriving on 28 December. There, on 1 January 1905, she relieved the armored cruiser New York as flagship of the Pacific Squadron and for three years operated off the west coasts of North and South America, in the Caribbean, to Hawaii.
In 1906, she played a key role in the evacuation of San Francisco during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Arriving from San Diego at 6pm on April 19, Chicago's radio allowed the city's leadership to communicate with the outside world, as telephone and telegraph lines were down. A group of two officers and sixteen enlisted men from Chicago supervised waterborne evacuation efforts; the removal of 20,000 refugees to Tiburon in Marin County by this ship and numerous other vessels is said to be unparalleled and unsurpassed until the 1940 evacuation of Dunkirk. On 8 January 1908, Chicago departed San Diego for the east coast and in May joined the Naval Academy Practice Squadron for the summer cruise along the northeast coast until 27 August, when she went into reserve. Chicago was recommissioned the next summer to operate with the Practice Squadron along the east coast returned to Annapolis. On 4 January 1910, she left the Academy for Boston, she served "in commission in reserve" with the Massachusetts Naval