Thomas Lee (Virginia colonist)

Col. Thomas Lee was a leading political figure of colonial Virginia, he was a member of the Lee family, a political dynasty which included many figures from the pre-American Revolutionary War era until the late 20th century. Lee became involved in politics in 1710 and he became the resident manager of the Northern Neck Proprietary for Lady Catherine Fairfax. After his father died, he inherited land in Charles County. Lee acquired vast holdings in what are now Arlington, Fauquier, Prince William, Loudoun Counties; these properties were developed as tobacco plantations. When Lee married Hannah Harrison Ludwell in 1722, he benefited by the connections of the established Harrison family. A year he would become a member of the House of Burgesses. After Lee's home was burnt down by criminals, he lost all of his possessions and a fair sum of money. With donations received from Caroline of Ansbach and English Commissioners, he built his new home on the Potomac River, naming it Stratford Hall. Four years in 1733, he was appointed to the Governor's Council, upper house of the General Assembly.

In 1747, he founded the Ohio Company of Virginia with fellow Virginian colonists who wished to expand Virginia's territory into the Ohio River Valley. For a period of less than a year, in 1749, he became the de facto Governor of Virginia in place of the absent William Gooch. Lee was favored for an appointment as governor by George II but the colonist died in 1750. Thomas Lee was born around 1690 at Mount Pleasant, on the Machodoc River in Westmoreland County, Virginia, his parents were Col. Richard Lee II, "the scholar", Laetitia Corbin, his ancestors had immigrated from Coton, England to Virginia in 1642. As the fourth son of the couple, Lee would not receive as large an inheritance as his older brothers; this did not prevent him from becoming successful in politics. Lee attended college at The College of William and Mary around 1700. Lee's education was referred to as a "common Virginia education", he soon became interested in the working of the tobacco industry. He left home to work with his uncle Thomas Corbin in the tobacco business.

Lee's political career began in 1710. The position was held by his father and upon his resignation, Lee was appointed as the new Naval Officer. In 1711, Lee's uncle Thomas Corbin helped him gain the position of Virginia agent for the Northern Neck Proprietary; as a result, he was appointed by Catherine Fairfax, Lady Fairfax, living in England, as her agent and resident manager for the Northern Neck Proprietary, which she had inherited from her father, Governor Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper. Catherine was the wife of 5th Baron Fairfax; this property, which consisted of six million acres, included all the land between the Potomac and Rappahnnock rivers. At one time Edmund Jenings, another Lee uncle, headed this Proprietary. While Jenings was in England, the offices of the agency were located at the plantation at Machodoc and under Lee's supervision. Due to Jening's poor management, the agency was given to Governor Robert "King" Carter in 1720; this event led to animosity between the competitive Carter families.

The members of the families refused to marry each other until Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee married Anne Hill Carter. Henry and Anne's most notable child was Robert E. Lee. Thomas held this position until 1722. In 1713, Thomas succeeded his father as Naval Officer in charge of collecting customs for the south side of the Potomac. In 1714, upon his father's death, Lee inherited lands in Northumberland County near Dividing Creek, as well as land in Maryland adjoining his brother Philip Lee, Sr. of "Blenheim". Thomas leased the estate "Machodoc" from his brother Richard Lee III, in London; that same year Thomas visited England. Lee thought that marriage was not only important for their families. A nephew of his said, "Our Late Honble & worthy Unkle Presid Lee said that the first fall & ruin of families and estates was Occasioned by Imprudent Matches to Imbeggar families and estates & to beget a race of beggars." He was engaged to Jenny Wilson in 1716. That year he returned to England to formalize the lease to the plantation.

Before his return, Jenny Wilson had found James Roscoe. Lee learned this from William Byrd. Lee and his brother Henry negotiated a lease for 99 years on the plantation. During his stay in England, Lee had decided to buy some property on the Potomac River called the "Clifts Plantation" in Westmoreland County. At the time, the property was owned by Jr. a mariner, of London. Lee believed that when Virginia gained its independence, the capital would be located on the Potomac River, he renamed it as Stratford. Thomas purchased his father's old estate "Machodoc", from his sister-in-law, Martha Silk, the former wife of his older brother, Richard Lee III. "Machodoc" was known as "Mount Pleasant". In May 1722, Thomas Lee married Hannah Harrison Ludwell, a member of the prominent Harrison family, at "Greenspring", James City County, Virginia; the marriage brought him increased wealth and status. Hannah was the daughter of Philip Ludwell II of "Greenspring", Hannah Harrison; the couple had eleven children.


The LVG G. III was a large, twin engine triplane bomber built in Germany near the end of World War I. Only one was completed; the LVG G. III is sometimes known as the Schütte-Lanz G. V or Schütte-Lanz Schül G. V as it was a Schütte-Lanz design but built by LVG, it was the only one of its kind designated G or twin engined by the Idflieg. Only one example of this large aircraft was built, it was the bays separated by parallel pairs of interplane struts. The fabric had constant chord and blunt tips; the spans decreased a little from top to bottom plane, so the outer interplane struts leaned outwards. There were externally connected ailerons on each plane; the 183 kW Maybach Mb. IV six cylinder inline engines were mounted in the inner bay on the central plane and cowled; the fuselage of the G. III was smoothly covered in plywood. There was an open gunner's position in the blunt extreme nose, it had a biplane tail, with the lower tailplane attached to the underside of the fuselage and the upper one raised a little above it.

Twin fins and rudders were positioned between the two tailplanes, near to their tips. It had a wide track, fixed undercarriage with double mainwheels and a tailskid mounted below the fuselage on a small extension; the G. III first appeared just before the war's end. Data from Gray and Thetford p.486General characteristics Length: 10.25 m Wingspan: 24.6 m Height: 3.9 m Wing area: 115 m2 Empty weight: 2,960 kg Gross weight: 4,100 kg Powerplant: 2 × Maybach Mb. IV 6 cylinder water cooled inline, 183 kW each Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 130 km/h Endurance: 5.5 hr Time to altitude: 20 min to 3,000 m Armament Guns: Nose and dorsal Parabellum MG14 machine guns

Cognitive computing

Cognitive computing describes technology platforms that, broadly speaking, are based on the scientific disciplines of artificial intelligence and signal processing. These platforms encompass machine learning, natural language processing, speech recognition and vision, human–computer interaction and narrative generation, among other technologies. At present, there is no agreed upon definition for cognitive computing in either academia or industry. In general, the term cognitive computing has been used to refer to new hardware and/or software that mimics the functioning of the human brain and helps to improve human decision-making. In this sense, CC is a new type of computing with the goal of more accurate models of how the human brain/mind senses and responds to stimulus. CC applications link data analysis and adaptive page displays to adjust content for a particular type of audience; as such, CC hardware and applications strive to be more influential by design. Some features that cognitive systems may express are: Adaptive They may learn as information changes, as goals and requirements evolve.

They may tolerate unpredictability. They may be engineered to feed near real time. Interactive They may interact with users so that those users can define their needs comfortably, they may interact with other processors and cloud services, as well as with people. Iterative and stateful They may aid in defining a problem by asking questions or finding additional source input if a problem statement is ambiguous or incomplete, they may "remember" previous interactions in a process and return information, suitable for the specific application at that point in time. Contextual They may understand and extract contextual elements such as meaning, time, appropriate domain, user’s profile, process and goal, they may draw on multiple sources of information, including both structured and unstructured digital information, as well as sensory inputs. Speech recognition Sentiment analysis Face detection Risk assessment Fraud detection Behavioral recommendations Cognitive computing-branded technology platforms specialize in the processing and analysis of large, unstructured datasets.

Word processing documents, videos, audio files, webpages, social media and many other data formats need to be manually tagged with metadata before they can be fed to a computer for analysis and insight generation. The principal benefit of utilizing cognitive analytics over traditional big data analytics is that such datasets do not need to be pre-tagged. Other characteristics of a cognitive analytics system include: Adaptability: cognitive analytics systems can use machine learning to adapt to different contexts with minimal human supervision Natural language interaction: cognitive analytics systems can be equipped with a chatbot or search assistant that understands queries, explains data insights and interacts with humans in natural language. Education Even if Cognitive Computing can not take the place of teachers, it can still be a heavy driving force in the education of students. Cognitive Computing being used in the classroom is applied by having an assistant, personalized for each individual student.

This cognitive assistant can relieve the stress that teachers face while teaching students, while enhancing the student’s learning experience over all. Teachers may not be able to pay each and every student individual attention, this being the place that cognitive computers fill the gap; some students may need a little more help with a particular subject. For many students, Human interaction between student and teacher can cause anxiety and can be uncomfortable. With the help of Cognitive Computer tutors, students will not have to face their uneasiness and can gain the confidence to learn and do well in the classroom.. While a student is in class with their personalized assistant, this assistant can develop various techniques, like creating lesson plans, to tailor and aid the student and their needs. Healthcare Numerous tech companies are in the process of developing technology that involves Cognitive Computing that can be used in the medical field; the ability to classify and identify is one of the main goals of these cognitive devices.

This trait can be helpful in the study of identifying carcinogens. This cognitive system that can detect would be able to assist the examiner in interpreting countless numbers of documents in a lesser amount of time than if they did not use Cognitive Computer technology; this technology can evaluate information about the patient, looking through every medical record in depth, searching for indications that can be the source of their problems. Cognitive Computing in conjunction with big data and algorithms that comprehend customer needs, can be a major advantage in economic decision making; the powers of Cognitive Computing and AI hold the potential to affect every task that humans are capable of performing. This can negatively affect employment for humans, as there would be no such need for human labor anymore, it would increase the inequality of wealth. The more industries start to utilize Cognitive Computing, the more difficult it will be for humans to compete. Increased use of the technology will increase the amount of work that AI-driven robots and machines can perform.

Only extraordinarily talented and motivated humans would be able to keep up with th