William Hogarth FRSA was an English painter, pictorial satirist, social critic, editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects" best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are referred to as "Hogarthian". Hogarth was born in London to a lower middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship, his father underwent periods of mixed fortune, was at one time imprisoned in lieu of outstanding debts. Influenced by French and Italian painting and engraving, Hogarth's works are satirical caricatures, sometimes bawdily sexual of the first rank of realistic portraiture, they became popular and mass-produced via prints in his lifetime, he was by far the most significant English artist of his generation. William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, Anne Gibbons.
In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. Young Hogarth took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father's imprisonment. Hogarth became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, other artists and connoisseurs. By April 1720, Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, designing plates for booksellers. In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was "an engraver, no painter", declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728.
In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below, "Who'l Ride"; the people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else. Other early works include The Lottery; the latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich's pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect and painter William Kent.
He continued that theme with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler's Hudibras; these he himself valued and they are among his best book illustrations. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces". Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family, The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera. One of his real low-life and real-life subjects was Sarah Malcolm whom he sketched two days before her execution. One of Hogarth's masterpieces of this period is the depiction of an amateur performance by children of John Dryden's The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George's Street, Hanover Square. Hogarth's other works in the 1730s include A Midnight Modern Conversation, Southwark Fair, The Sleeping Congregation and After, Scholars at a Lecture, The Company of Undertakers, The Distrest Poet, The Four Times of the Day, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.
He might have printed Burlington Gate, evoked by Alexander Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington, defending Lord Chandos, therein satirized. This print gave great offence, was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. In 1731 Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition; the collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings before being published as engravings. A Harlot's Progress depicts the fate of a country girl who begins prostituting – the six scenes are chronological, starting with a meeting with a bawd and ending with a funeral ceremony that follows the character's death from venereal disease; the inau
Eton is a historic town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Berkshire, but within the historic boundaries of Buckinghamshire, lying on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor and connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The parish includes the large village of Eton Wick, two miles west of the town, has a combined population of 4,980, reducing to 4,692 at the 2011 Census. Since 1998 it has been part of the unitary authority of Maidenhead; the town is best known as the location of a famous public school. The name "Eton" derives from Old English Ēa-tūn, = River-Town, i.e. Town on the River Thames; the land, now Eton once belonged to the manor of Queen Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor. The land was appropriated by the Normans after 1066; the main road between Windsor and London went through the area and a hamlet sprang up amid pasture meadows to maintain the road and the bridge. In 1440, Henry VI chose Eton as the location for Eton College. Workmen were moved into Eton to build the college.
All of the land around the hamlet was granted to the college, which stopped further growth. The new college chapel made the village a pilgrimage point, inns were set up along the high street. Henry VI gave the college the right to hold fairs on its grounds. During the English Civil War, after Windsor Castle was captured by parliamentarian forces, the Royalist army moved into Eton and attempted to retake the town, occupying the college. Efforts to retake Windsor were unsuccessful and the royalists fled; the college sometimes leased small plots of land to the village as an act of charity, leading to the construction of houses near the bridge. Scholars at the college used to collect "salt" from the inns of Eton High Street; this practice continued until 1845 when a scholar refused to associate with the inns because they were a "temptation" to Eton students. Eton was favourably modernised and was the first village in the UK to have its own post office and modern drainage system. By 1925 the town was described as more commercial than residential, with most of the buildings belonging to businesses serving the schoolboys.
In about 1970, the bridge connecting Eton to Windsor was closed to all motor traffic. In birth order: William Oughtred and cleric, was born here. Edmund Bristow, was born here and lived his whole life in the Windsor area. Charles Duke Yonge, was an English historian and cricketer. George E. Davis, founding father of chemical engineering, was born here. On a Parish level, the town is represented by seven councillors in the Eton Town Council, a body which includes seven councillors representing Eton Wick. On Borough level, the town is part of the Eton and Castle electoral ward and is represented by one councillor in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. Nationally, since 1997 the ward has formed part of the UK Parliamentary constituency of Windsor and is represented by Adam Afriyie of the Conservative Party. Between 1983 and 1997, the town was part of the UK Parliamentary constituency of Windsor and Maidenhead, continuously held by the Conservative Party during this period. Before 1983, the town was within the boundaries of the UK Parliamentary constituency of Eton and Slough.
This was held by the Labour Party from its creation in 1945 to its redistribution in 1983, except between 1964 and 1966 when it was held by a Conservative. Eton is served by two bus companies. First Berkshire & The Thames Valley operates daily buses on the Heathrow Terminal 5) – Datchet – Slough – Eton – Eton Wick route. Redline Buses operates the Slough – Eton – Eton Wick – Dorney – Maidenhead route on Tuesdays and Fridays. Windsor is served by two terminal stations. Eighty metres southeast of the town's historic pedestrian and cycle bridge is Windsor & Eton Riverside, served by South Western Railway services to London Waterloo. Windsor & Eton Central is 200 metres to the southwest and served by Great Western Railway services to London Paddington. Journey times for the Riverside service are 56-78 minutes while the Central service takes 41-56 minutes with a change of train at Slough. Windsor 0.5 miles Slough 2 miles Staines-upon-Thames 7 miles Maidenhead 7 miles Reading 21 miles London 21 miles Media related to Eton, Berkshire at Wikimedia Commons Eton Town Council
James Basire known as James Basire Sr. was an English engraver. He is the most significant of a family of engravers, noted for his apprenticing of the young William Blake, his father was Isaac Basire, a cartographer, his son and grandson were named James. Their longevity produced overlapping careers, which has led to difficulties in attribution of some works. A member of the Society of Antiquaries, James Basire specialized in prints depicting architecture, his studio was on Great Queen Street in London. His appointment as engraver to the society, as were all three generations, much of his finest work is found in Vetusta Monumenta. A major piece was his copperplate for Field of the Cloth of Gold, an exquisitely detailed reproduction of a watercolour by Edward Edwards. Excellent work appeared in Richard Gough's Sepulchral Monuments. Work by Basire hangs in museums and galleries around the world, including the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the Museum of Fine Arts, Christchurch Art Gallery, New Zealand, the National Library of Australia in Canberra, the National Portrait Gallery, London.
On 4 August 1772, William Blake was apprenticed to Basire for the term of seven years. There is no record of any serious disagreement or conflict between the two during the period of Blake's apprenticeship. However, Peter Ackroyd's biography notes that Blake was to add Basire's name to a list of artistic adversaries—and crossed it out, he engraved several good portraits of eminent men. He died in London. Among his other works were: Captain Cook. Lady Stanhope, as the Fair Penitent. Lord Camden; the Field of the Cloth of Gold: Henry VIII and Francis I. Interview between Orestes and Pylades before Iphigenia. Amongst Basire's apprentices were George Cooke, John Roffe. Goddard, Richard. "Drawing on Copper": the Basire family of copper plate engravers and their works. Maastricht: Datawyse/Universitaire Pers Maastricht. ISBN 978-94-6159-591-1. Work by Basire on WorldImages
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Theodora is a dramatic oratorio in three acts by George Frideric Handel, set to an English libretto by Thomas Morell. The oratorio concerns the Christian martyr Theodora and her Christian-converted Roman lover, Didymus, it had its first performance at Covent Garden Theatre on 16 March 1750. Not popular with audiences in Handel's day, Theodora is now recognised as a masterpiece and is sometimes staged as an opera. Handel wrote Theodora during his last period of composition, he was sixty-four years old when he began working on it in June 1749. He had written the oratorios Susanna the previous year. Theodora would be his penultimate oratorio. Theodora differs from the former two oratorios because it is a tragedy, ending in the death of the heroine and her converted lover, it is Handel's only dramatic oratorio in English on a Christian subject. Thomas Morell had worked with Handel before on several oratorios, he and Handel were good friends. Morell's source for the libretto was The Martyrdom of Theodora and of Didymus by Robert Boyle, a prominent scientist and theologian.
He borrowed from Corneille's Théodore, Vierge et Martyre. Handel finished the oratorio on 31 July 1749, its premiere was on 16 March 1750. Theodora was a failure with the public and only played three times. There are at least two explanations for this. First, the theme of the persecution and martyrdom of a Christian saint may have been too removed from the Old Testament narratives that Londoners had become accustomed to from Handel's dramatic oratorios. Second, an earthquake that transpired about a week before the premiere had caused some of Handel's usual patrons to flee the city, it was the least performed of all his oratorios, being revived only once in 1755. Some of Handel's patrons appreciated the work, however. Lord Shaftesbury wrote in a letter to a friend "I can't conclude a letter and forget "Theodora". I have heard the work three times and will venture to pronounce it as finished and labour'd a composition as Handel made. To my knowledge, this took him up a great while in composing; the Town don't like it at all, but... several excellent musicians think as I do."
One of Handel's most loyal and enthusiastic supporters, Mary Delany, wrote to her sister Ann saying "Don't you remember our snug enjoyment of "Theodora?" Her sister replied "Surely "Theodora" will have justice at last, if it was to be again performed, but the generality of the world have ears and hear not". There are two surviving quotes of Handel about Theodora. Morell quotes Handel as saying "The Jews will not come to it. Handel's colleague Burney took note when two musicians asked for free tickets for Messiah and Handel responded "Oh your servant, meine Herren! you are damnable dainty! you would not go to Theodora - there was room enough to dance there, when, perform"! Theodora was Handel's favorite of his oratorios; the composer himself ranked the final chorus of Act II, "He saw the lovely youth," "far beyond" "Hallelujah" in Messiah. It has sometimes been staged as an opera, most notably in the acclaimed 1996 production by Peter Sellars at Glyndebourne; this production, conducted by William Christie, starred Dawn Upshaw as Theodora, Lorraine Hunt Lieberson as Irene and David Daniels as Didymus.
The plot has some elements of a rescue opera. The original libretto included an extra scene in which Septimius converted to Christianity himself, but it was never set by Handel, though it was printed; the second scene in Act 2 was subject to several revisions by Handel. The 4th century AD. Valens, the Roman governor of Antioch, issues a decree that in honour of Diocletian's birthday all citizens will offer sacrifice to Venus, the Roman goddess of love, Flora, a fertility goddess of the spring, on pain of death, puts Septimius in charge of enforcing this. Didymus, a soldier secretly converted to Christianity, asks that citizens whose consciences prevent them making sacrifices to idols be spared punishment, which Valens dismisses. Septimius suspects Didymus is a Christian and affirms his own loyalty to the law although he pities those who will be condemned to die by the decree and wishes he could be allowed to extend mercy to them. Theodora, a nobly-born Christian and her friend Irene are worshipping with their fellow believers in private rather than joining in the festival for the emperor's birthday when a messenger brings news of Valens' decree.
Septimius comes to arrest them - Theodora expects to be put to death but is informed that instead she has been sentenced to serve as a prostitute in the temple of Venus. Theodora is led away to the temple. Irene informs Didymus who goes in the hope of either dying with her; the first Act closes with a chorus of Christians praying for the mission's success. At the start of the second Act the festival in honour of the emperor and the goddesses is being enjoyed by the pagans. Valens sends Septimius to tell Theodora that if she doesn't join in with the festival by the end of the day, he will send his guards to rape her; the crowd expresses their satisfaction at this sentence. In the temple of Venus which serves as a brothel, Theodora is frightened, but her mood changes as she contemplates the afterlife. Didymus confesses to his friend and superior officer Septimius that he is a Christian and appeals to the other man's sense of decency. Septimius allows Didymus to visit Theodora. At first Theodora appeals to Didymus to kill her and put an end to her suffering, but instead Didymus persuades her to conceal her identity by putting on his helmet and his uniform and escaping, leaving Didymus in her pl