Camden, New Jersey
Camden is a city in Camden County, New Jersey. Camden is located directly across the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 77,344. Camden is the 12th most populous municipality in New Jersey, the city was incorporated on February 13,1828. On March 13,1844, Camden became a county seat in New Jersey, the city derives its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden. Camden is made up of twenty different neighborhoods. By the end of the nineteenth century Camden began to industrialize with the foundation of the Campbell Soup Company by Joseph Campbell, other companies such as the New York Shipbuilding Corporation and the Victor Talking Machine Company opened their operations and helped Camden move into an industrial economy. At the beginning of the twentieth century Camdens population consisted mostly of European immigrants, german and Irish immigrants, as well as African Americans from the south made up the majority of the city in the mid nineteenth century.
Around the turn of the twentieth century Italian and Eastern European immigrants had become the majority of the population, the city was consistently prosperous throughout the Great Depression and World War II. After World War II Camden manufacturers began closing their factories and moving out of the city, Camdens cultural history has been greatly affected by both its economic and social position over the years. With the loss of manufacturing jobs came a decline in population numbers. Suburbanization had an effect on the drop in population, Civil unrest and crime became common in Camden with the decline in population. In 1971, civil unrest reached its peak with riots breaking out in response to the death of Horacio Jimenez, Camdens industrial and post-industrial history gave rise to distinct neighborhoods and cultural groups that have affected the status of the city over the course of the 20th century. Over the years Camden has made attempts to restore its economic stature. In the 1980s Mayor Randy Primas campaigned for the city to two different nuisance industries, a prison and a trash-to-steam incinerator.
Despite opposition from Camden residents, the Riverfront State Prison was opened in 1985, with the addition of the trash-to-steam plant Camden has faced numerous air and water pollution issues. Camden is the home of a treatment facility. In the 1970s, dangerous pollutants were found in the wells from which many Camden citizens received their household water and these pollutants decreased property values in Camden and caused health problems among the citys residents. Pollution is an issue that local nonprofits are trying to solve
The Meadows (park)
The Meadows is a large public park in Edinburgh, Scotland, to the south of the city centre. It consists largely of open grassland crossed by tree-lined paths, but has a childrens playground and it is bordered by the University of Edinburghs George Square campus and the Quartermile development on the site of the old Edinburgh Royal Infirmary to the north and Marchmont to the south. To the south-west it becomes Bruntsfield Links where there is a free, public pitch, the Meadows originally contained a loch, known as the burgh loch or, the South Loch. The loch drained from east to west, where the known as the Loch-rin was sluiced to prevent the water from draining out. It is from this burn that the street names Lochrin Buildings, until Edinburghs first piped water supply from Comiston arrived in 1621, the loch provided much of the towns drinking water. It was partially drained in the century and for a time named Straitons Loch or Straitons Park after the burgess who tried to improve the area. The central tree-lined path known as Middle Meadow Walk followed, and it is the traditional practice ground of the Royal Company of Archers, whose meeting-place is nearby.
In 1827 an Act of Parliament protected the Meadows from being built upon, an exception to city council rules against building on the land was allowed for the temporary large glass pavilion of the 1886 International Exhibition of Industry and Art. The whales jawbones forming an arch over the Meadows path called Jawbone Walk originally formed the display stand of the Zetland, having been severely affected by weathering, the Arch was removed in 2014 for restoration. In the 1870s the Meadows became an important venue in the development of football in Edinburgh. The Second World War brought more than 500 allotments to the east end of the Meadows as part of the effort to make the nation more self-sufficient in food. By 1950 many local residents wanted the area re-turfed, but it was 1966 before the last signs of cultivation were removed. In the late 1960s, plans to complete a flyover over the Meadows for a road were defeated. The size and prominence of the park has led to many sporting events being hosted in the summer.
Every March, nearly 1,000 runners take part in the annual Meadows Marathon, a charity half marathon and five-kilometre fun run, from 2013, between 1975 and 2005 the Meadows Festival was held on the first weekend in June, returning from 2008 onwards. The Meadows is one of the host venues for the Edinburgh Festival and it is the venue for the start and finish of the Edinburgh Moon Walk, an annual event involving 12,000 walkers raising money for breast cancer research and treatment. Circuses frequently visit the Meadows around June, in 2013, a Giant chess set was placed at the childrens play area on the east side. The Meadows remains noteworthy for its mature elms, though Dutch elm disease has taken a toll over the years
National Council of Churches
The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, usually identified as the National Council of Churches, is the largest ecumenical body in the United States. NCC is a partnership of 38 Christian faith groups in the United States. Its member communions include Mainline Protestant, African American, Josephite, they encompass more than 100,000 local congregations and 40 million adherents. It began as the Federal Council of Churches in 1908, the first efforts at ecumenical organization emerged in 1908 with the creation of the Federal Council of Churches. The FCC was created as a response to problems that arose during the rapid industrialization of the U. S. The primary concern was the protection of workers in a host of areas including wages, working conditions, child labor, and a six day work week. During the next 40 plus years, FCC remained engaged in the social problems of the day as well as international problems that threatened to draw the U. S. into war. Its progressive social program along with support of conscientious objectors to World War II garnered stiff criticism from Christian fundamentalist circles, by 1950, numerous programs and efforts of social uplift had formed in addition to the FCC.
Seeking greater unity, a dozen ecumenical bodies gathered in Cleveland, out of this meeting, via the merger of the Federal Council of Churches with several other ecumenical bodies, emerged the NCC. The Councils 38 member communions include Mainline Protestant, African American, Josephite, individual adherents of more than 50 Christian faith groups actively participate in NCC study groups and ministries. These communions covenant with one another to manifest ever more fully the unity of the Church, relying upon the transforming power of the Holy Spirit, the communions come together as the Council in common mission, serving in all creation to the glory of God. The Social Creeds Since its founding in 1950, one of the activities of NCC has been to effect positive change for the betterment of society. Adopted in December 1908, The Social Creed of the Churches was a statement by members of the Federal Council of Churches against what it described as industrial problems, the NCC in Washington For a number of years the NCC maintained a separate policy advocacy office in Washington, DC.
Its work centered on areas mentioned in the creeds but focused around two programs, Eco-Justice and the Ecumenical Poverty Initiative. Both of these programs have been spun off into separate independent organizations since NCC restructuring in 2013, the Council helped launch the Let Justice Roll grassroots anti-poverty campaign that has been successful in raising the minimum wage in more than 20 states since 2005. NCC and the Civil Rights Movement NCC was closely aligned with leaders in the civil movement, including Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The NCC was an important link to mainline churches for the civil movement and it consistently condemned segregation during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The NCC continued to be intertwined with the civil rights movement throughout the 1950s and 1960s
Arthur Conan Doyle
He is known for writing the fictional adventures of Professor Challenger, a second character he invented, and for propagating the mystery of the Mary Celeste. He was a writer whose other works include fantasy and science fiction stories, romances, non-fiction. Doyle is often referred to as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle or simply Conan Doyle and his baptism entry in the register of St Marys Cathedral, gives Arthur Ignatius Conan as his given names and Doyle as his surname. It names Michael Conan as his godfather, the cataloguers of the British Library and the Library of Congress treat Doyle alone as his surname. Steven Doyle, editor of the Baker Street Journal, shortly after he graduated from high school he began using Conan as a sort of surname. But technically his last name is simply Doyle, when knighted, he was gazetted as Doyle, not under the compound Conan Doyle. Nevertheless, the use of a compound surname is demonstrated by the fact that Doyles second wife was known as Jean Conan Doyle rather than Jean Doyle.
Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 at 11 Picardy Place and his father, Charles Altamont Doyle, was English, of Irish Catholic descent, and his mother, was Irish Catholic. In 1864 the family dispersed because of Charless growing alcoholism, in 1867, the family came together again and lived in squalid tenement flats at 3 Sciennes Place. Doyles father died in 1893, in the Crichton Royal, supported by wealthy uncles, Doyle was sent to England, at the Jesuit preparatory school Hodder Place, Stonyhurst in Lancashire at the age of nine. He went on to Stonyhurst College until 1875, from 1875 to 1876, he was educated at the Jesuit school Stella Matutina in Feldkirch, Austria. He rejected the Catholic faith and became an agnostic and he later became a spiritualist mystic. From 1876 to 1881, Doyle studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, including working in Aston and Ruyton-XI-Towns. During that time, he studied botany at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. While studying, Doyle began writing short stories and his earliest extant fiction, The Haunted Grange of Goresthorpe, was unsuccessfully submitted to Blackwoods Magazine.
His first published piece, The Mystery of Sasassa Valley, a set in South Africa, was printed in Chamberss Edinburgh Journal on 6 September 1879. Doyle was employed as a doctor on the Greenland whaler Hope of Peterhead in 1880 and, C. M. as a ships surgeon on the SS Mayumba during a voyage to the West African coast. He completed his M. D. degree on the subject of tabes dorsalis in 1885, arriving in Portsmouth in June 1882 with less than £10 to his name, he set up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea
Bleecker Street is a west–east street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is most famous today as a Greenwich Village nightclub district, the street connects a neighborhood today popular for music venues and comedy, but which was once a major center for American bohemia. The street is named after the name of Anthony Lispenard Bleecker, a banker, the father of Anthony Bleecker. Bleecker Street connects Abingdon Square to the Bowery and East Village, Bleecker Street is named by and after the Bleecker family because the street ran through the farm of the family. In 1808, Anthony Lispenard Bleecker and his wife deeded to the city a portion of the land on which Bleecker Street sits. Originally Bleecker Street extended from Bowery to Broadway, along the side of the Bleecker farm. In 1829 it was joined with Herring Street, extending Bleecker Street northwest to Abingdon Square, LeRoy Place is the former name of a block of Bleecker Street between Mercer and Greene Streets. This was where the first palatial winged residences were built, the effect was accomplished by making the central houses taller and closer to the street, while the other houses on the side were set back.
The central buildings had bigger, raised entrances and lantern-like roof projections, the houses were built by Isaac A. Pearson, on both sides of Bleecker Street. To set his project apart from the rest of the area, Bleecker Street is served by the 46 <6> B D F M trains at Bleecker Street/Broadway – Lafayette Street station. The 12 trains serve the Christopher Street – Sheridan Square station one block north of Bleecker Street, traffic on the street is one-way, going southeast. In early December 2007, a lane was marked on the street. Bleecker Street is referenced in Stephen Kings The Dark Tower series, the Marc Jacobs store on Bleecker Street is mentioned in the novel Bergdorf Blondes by Plum Sykes as a hangout for emaciated young women. Nobel laureate Derek Walcott has written a poem about Bleecker Street entitled Bleecker Street, in Philip Roths novel The Human Stain, the character Coleman Silk takes the woman who would be his wife to a Bleecker Street cafe early in their relationship. The main character of Warren Elliss novel Crooked Little Vein visits some freak bar on Bleecker Street, in Marvel Comics, 177A Bleecker Street is the location of Doctor Stranges Sanctum Sanctorum.
Film and television Bleecker Street is in Nick & Norahs Infinite Playlist, Bleecker Street Cinema is mentioned in the movie Desperately Seeking Susan. 11th and Bleecker is mentioned in New Line Home Entertainments production of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, peter Parker tells Mary Jane that he saw her billboard advertisement on Bleecker in Spider-Man 2. Long-running television series Friends featured Bleecker Street signposts in several cut-scenes, much of the film No Reservations, starring Catherine Zeta-Jones and Aaron Eckhart, is set in a restaurant on the corner of Bleecker and Charles Streets
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established by Horace Greeley in 1841. Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name New-York Daily Tribune, from the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party and Republican newspaper in the U. S. The paper achieved a circulation of approximately 200,000 during the decade of the 1850s, making it the largest in New York City, the Tribunes editorials were widely read and helped shape national opinion. In 1924 it was merged with the New York Herald to form the New York Herald Tribune, Greeley had previously published a weekly newspaper, The New Yorker, in 1833, and was publisher of the Whig Partys political organ, Log Cabin. In 1841, he merged operations of two publications into a new newspaper, the New-York Tribune. The Tribune did reflect some of Horace Greeleys idealist views, the journal retained Karl Marx as its London-based European correspondent in 1852. The arrangement provided Marx with much needed income during a period of his life in which his friend, the arrangement, whereby Engels submitted articles under Marxs by-line, lasted ten years, with the final Marx column being published in February 1862.
In 1854 the paper joined the newly formed Republican Party—Greeley chose the partys name—and emphasized opposition to slavery, during the American Civil War the Tribune usually spoke for the Radical Republican faction that was very hostile to the Confederacy and wanted slavery abolished immediately. The paper generated a large readership, with a circulation of approximately 200,000 during the decade of the 1850s. This made the paper the largest circulation daily in New York City and perhaps in the entire United States — gaining commensurate influence among voters and political decision-makers in the process. After the failure of the Peninsular Campaign in the spring of 1862, during the 1863 Draft Riots a mob tried to burn down the Tribune building which lacked the Gatling guns of the nearby New York Times. Following Greeleys defeat by Ulysses S. Grant for the presidency of the United States in 1872, Greeley checked into Dr. Choates Sanitarium where he died a few weeks later. In 1886, the Tribune became the first publication to be printed on a linotype machine, which allowed it to exceed the standard newspaper size of eight pages.
Under Reids son, Ogden Mills Reid, the acquired the New York Herald in 1924 to form the New York Herald Tribune. Copies of the New-York Tribune are available on microfilm at large libraries. Also, indices from selected years in the nineteenth century are available on the Library of Congress website. The original paper articles from the newspapers morgue are kept at The Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin, a new New York Tribune debuted in 1976 in New York City. The paper, which was originally named The News World and changed to The New York City Tribune, was published by News World Communications, Inc. owned by the Unification Church
John Rhind (sculptor)
For others with the same name see Rhind John Rhind ARSA was a Scottish sculptor, based in Edinburgh. He was born in Banff the son of a master mason and he was trained under Alexander Handyside Ritchie. He was master of the lodge on Hill Street in Edinburgh from 1864 to 1868. He died on 5 April 1892 a few days after being elected an Associate of the RSA and he was the father of the sculptors William Birnie Rhind and J. Massey Rhind, and of the architect Sir Thomas Duncan Rhind. Portrait heads, National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh Carving on West Bow Well, sculpture of a head over Paisley Close on the Royal Mile, Edinburgh. The inscription Heave Awa Chaps Im No Dead Yet bears reference to the words which the 14-year-old boy depicted cried out from the rubble from a tenement on the site. The Catherine Sinclair Monument to the north-east of Charlotte Square and this is of the Eleanor Cross style. Celtic cross and bronze portrait to Alexander Smith, Warriston Cemetery, the unicorn figure on the head of the Mercat Cross on the Royal Mile, east of St.
Edinburgh. Biggar Memorial Fountain, Banff Huge monument to James Nasmyth and his family, Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh Font in Priestfield Church, Dalkeith Road, several of the statue figures decorating the Scott Monument, Edinburgh. Monument to Louisa Bingham, Countess of Wemyss in Aberlady Parish Church, the recumbent effigy is described in The Buildings of Lothian as chilling but pathetic nobility. Statue of Sir William Dick founder of the Dick Vet College in Edinburgh, within the college at Summerhall, statue of Sir William Chambers, Chambers Street, assisted by William Shirreffs Bronze medallion tablet memorial to William Hay, St
Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, publishing and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644.
The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W.
Morton, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
University of South Carolina
The University of South Carolina is a public, co-educational research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses. Its campus covers over 359 acres in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House, the University is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as having highest research activity. It houses the largest collection of Robert Burns and Scottish literature materials outside Scotland, the University of South Carolina has an enrollment of approximately 49,220 students, with 33,575 on the main Columbia campus as of fall 2015. USC has several thousand students in feeder programs at surrounding technical colleges. Professional schools on the Columbia campus include business, law, pharmacy, on January 10,1805, having an initial enrollment of nine students, the college commenced classes with a traditional classical curriculum. The first president was the Baptist minister and theologian Reverend Jonathan Maxcy and he was an alumnus of Brown University, with an honorary degree from Harvard University.
Before coming to the college, Maxcy had served as the president of Brown. Maxcys tenure lasted from 1804 through 1820, when South Carolina College opened its doors in 1801, the building now known as Rutledge College was the only building on campus. Located one block southeast of the State Capitol, it served as an office, academic building, residence hall. However, the plan for the original campus called for a total of eleven buildings. In 1807, the original Presidents House was the building to be erected. The building now known as DeSaussure College followed shortly thereafter, when completed, all eleven buildings formed a U-shape open to Sumter Street. This modified quadrangle became known as the Horseshoe, as with other southern universities in the antebellum period, the most important organizations for students were the two literary societies, the Clariosophic Society and the Euphradian Society. These two societies, which arose from a split in a literary society known as the Philomathic. The College became a symbol of the South in the period as its graduates were on the forefront of secession from the Union.
Despite the depletion of students, the professors issued a notice that the college would temporarily close and would reopen to those under eighteen. When the college reopened on March 17, only nine students showed up for classes, on June 25 with the consent of the state government, the Confederate authorities took possession of the college buildings and converted them into a hospital. After many unsuccessful attempts to reopen the college, the trustees passed a resolution on December 2,1863 that officially closed the college
Wolters Kluwer N. V. is a global information services company. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer in its current form was founded in 1987 with a merger between Kluwer Publishers and Wolters Samson. The company serves legal, tax, finance, risk, compliance and it operates in over 150 countries. Nancy McKinstry serves as executive officer of the company. Jan-Berend Wolters founded the Schoolbook publishing house in Groningen, Netherlands in 1836, in 1858, the Noordhoff publishing house was founded alongside the Schoolbook publishing house. The two publishing houses merged in 1968, wolters-Noordhoff merged with Information and Communications Union in 1972 and took the name ICU. ICU changed its name to Wolters-Samson in 1983, the company began serving foreign law firms and multinational companies in China in 1985. In 1987, the largest publishing house in the Netherlands, Kluwer merged with Wolters-Samson to fend off Elsevier’s take-over bid and formed Wolters Kluwer.
The merger made Wolters Kluwer the second largest publishing house in the Netherlands, after the merger, Wolters Kluwer began expanding internationally with the purchase of IPSOA Editore, Kieser Verlag, Technipublicaciones and Tele Consulte in 1989. By the end of the year, Wolters Kluwer expanded its presence to Spain, West Germany, the company launched LEX, its legal information system, in Poland. In 1989, 44% of the revenue was earned in foreign markets. The following year, Wolters Kluwer purchased J. B, the company acquired Liber, a Swedish publishing company, in 1993. The following year it established its first Eastern European subsidiary, IURA Edition, in Bratislava, the company acquired Jugend & Volk, Fateco Fîrlag and Juristfîrlaget, Deutscher Kommunal-Verlag Dr. Naujoks & Behrendt and Colex Data in 1995. Wolters Kluwer was operating in 16 countries and had approximately 8000 employees by the end of that year, in 1996, Wolters Kluwer purchased CCH Inc. a tax and business materials publisher, for $1.9 billion.
The purchase assisted in expanding the business in Asia because of CCH Inc. ’s involvement in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. It purchased Little and Company’s medical and legal division that year, ovid Technologies, Inc. and Plenum Publishing Corporation were acquired in 1998 with the intention of developing Wolters Kluwer’s medical and scientific publishing industry. The company established its first three-year strategy to deliver sustained value to customers and shareholders in 2003, the New Delhi Wolters Kluwer Health office opened in 2006. In September 2008, Wolters Kluwer acquired UpToDate, an evidence-based electronic clinical information resource, the following month, the company received a multi-year contract to provide prescription and patient-level data to the United States Food and Drug Administration
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas. Located in Lothian on the Firth of Forths southern shore, it is Scotlands second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The 2014 official population estimates are 464,990 for the city of Edinburgh,492,680 for the authority area. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and it is the largest financial centre in the UK after London. Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings in 2013 and 2014. The city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe. The citys historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdoms second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.
Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, Edinburghs Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin, the poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort in the territory of the Gododdin. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh, the first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, the earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c.8500 BC. Traces of Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have found on Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat, Craiglockhart Hill. When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, at some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin.
Although its location has not been identified, it likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria and it thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, in 1638, King Charles Is attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the 17th century, Edinburghs boundaries were defined by the citys defensive town walls