University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
Lecturer is an academic rank within many universities, though the meaning of the term varies somewhat from country to country. It denotes an academic expert, hired to teach on a full- or part-time basis, they may conduct research. In the UK, the term lecturer covers several academic ranks; the key distinction is between temporary/fixed-term lectureships. A permanent lecturer in UK universities holds an open-ended position that covers teaching and administrative responsibilities. Permanent lectureships are tenure-track or tenured positions that are equivalent to an assistant or associate professorship in North America. After a number of years, a lecturer may be promoted based on his or her research record to become a senior lecturer; this position is below professor. Research lecturers are the equivalent in rank of lecturers and senior lecturers, but reflect a research-intensive orientation. Research lecturers are common in fields such as medicine and biological and physical sciences. In contrast, fixed-term or temporary lecturers are appointed for specific short-term teaching needs.
These positions are non-renewable and are common post-doctoral appointments. In North American terms, a fixed-term lecturer can hold an equivalent rank to assistant professor without tenure. Longer contracts denote greater seniority or higher rank. Teaching fellows may sometimes be referred to as lecturers—for example, Exeter named some of that group as education and scholarship lecturers to recognise the contribution of teaching, elevate the titles of teaching fellows to lecturers; some universities refer to graduate students or others, who undertake ad-hoc teaching for a department sessional lecturers. Like adjunct professors and sessional lecturers in North America, these non-permanent teaching staff are very poorly paid; these varying uses of the term lecturer cause confusion for non-UK academics. As a proportion of UK academic staff, the proportion of permanent lectureships has fallen considerably; this is one reason why permanent lectureships are secured only after several years of post-doctoral experience.
Data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency show that in 2013-14, 36 per cent of full- and part-time academic staff were on fixed-term contracts, down from 45 per cent a decade earlier. Over the same period, the proportion of academic staff on permanent contracts rose from 55 per cent to 64 per cent. Others were on contracts classed as “atypical”.' In the UK, promotion to a senior lectureship reflected prowess in teaching or administration rather than research, the position was much less to lead direct to promotion to professor. In contrast, promotion to senior lecturer nowadays is based on research achievements, is an integral part of the promotion path to a full chair. Promotion to reader is sometimes still necessary before promotion to a full chair. Senior lecturers and readers are sometimes paid on the same salary scale, although readers are recognized as more senior. Readers in pre-1992 universities are considered at least the equivalent, in terms of status, of professors in post-1992 universities.
Many academics consider it more prestigious to have been a reader in a pre-1992 university than a professor in a post-1992 university. Many open-ended lecturers in the UK have a doctorate and have postdoctoral research experience. In all fields, a doctorate is a prerequisite, although this was not the case; some academic positions could have been held on the basis of research merit alone, without a higher degree. The new universities have a different ranking naming scheme from the older universities. Many pre-1992 universities use the grades: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Professor. Meanwhile, post-1992 grades are normally: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Principal Lecturer or Reader, Professor. Much confusion surrounds the differing use of the "Senior Lecturer" title. A Senior Lecturer in a post-1992 university is equivalent to a Lecturer in a pre-1992 university, whereas a Senior Lecturer in a pre-1992 university is most equivalent to a Principal Lecturer in a post-1992 university. According to the Times Higher Education, the University of Warwick decided in 2006 "to break away from hundreds of years of academic tradition, renaming lecturers'assistant professors', senior lecturers and readers'associate professors' while still calling professors'professors'.
The radical move will horrify those who believe the "professor" title should be reserved for an academic elite." Nottingham has a mixture of the standard UK system, the system at Warwick, with both lecturers and assistant professors. At Reading, job advertisements and academic staff web pages use the title associate professor, but the ordinances of the university make no reference to these titles, they address only procedures for conferring the traditional UK academic ranks. Since the Conservatives' 1988 Education Reform Act, the ironclad tenure that used to exist in the UK has given way to a less secure form of tenure. Technically, university vice-chancellors can make individual faculty members redundant for poor performance or institute departmental redundancies, but in practice, this is rare; the most noted use of this policy happened in 2012 at Queen Mary University of London where lecturer
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a public research university in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. In Fall 2018 the university had 31,702 students enrolled, most at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs, 160 master's programs, 75 doctorate programs, 20 majors at the first professional level. David Boren, a former U. S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, served as the university's president from 1994 to 2018. James L. Gallogly succeeded Boren on July 1, 2018; the school ranks in the top ten among public universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars and graduation of Rhodes Scholars. US News & World Report ranks OU No. 58 in the "Top Public Schools – National Universities" category. PC Magazine and the Princeton Review rated it one of the "20 Most Wired Colleges" in both 2006 and 2008, while the Carnegie Foundation classifies it as a research university with "very high research activity."
Its Norman campus has the Fred Jones Jr.. Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma; the school, well known for its athletic programs, claims multiple national championships in multiple sports, including seven football national championships and two NCAA Division I baseball championships. The women's softball team has won the national championship four times: in 2000, 2013, consecutively in 2016 and 2017; the gymnastics teams have won a combined 11 national championships since 2002, with the men's team winning eight in the last 15 years, including three consecutive titles from 2015 to 2017. With the support of Governor George Washington Steele, on December 18, 1890 the Oklahoma Territorial legislature established three universities: the state university in Norman, the agricultural and mechanical college in Stillwater and a normal school in Edmond. Oklahoma's admission into the union in 1907 led to the renaming of the Norman Territorial University as the University of Oklahoma.
Norman residents donated 407 acres of land for the university 0.5 miles south of the Norman railroad depot. The university's first president ordered the planting of trees before the construction of the first campus building because he "could not visualize a treeless university seat." Landscaping remains important to the university. The university's first president, David Ross Boyd, arrived in Norman in August 1892, the first students enrolled that year; the university established a School of Pharmacy in 1893 because of high demand for pharmacists in the territory. Three years the university awarded its first degree to a pharmaceutical chemist; the "Rock Building" in downtown Norman held the initial classes until the university's first building opened on September 6, 1893. On January 6, 1903, the university's only building burned down and destroyed many records of the early university. Construction began on a new building, as several other towns hoped to convince the university to move. President Boyd and the faculty were not dismayed by the loss.
Mathematics professor Frederick Elder said, "What do you need to keep classes going? Two yards of blackboard and a box of chalk." As a response to the fire, English professor Vernon Louis Parrington created a plan for the development of the campus. Most of the plan was never implemented, but Parrington's suggestion for the campus core formed the basis for the North Oval; the North and South Ovals are now distinctive features of the campus. The campus has a distinctive architecture, with buildings designed in a unique "Cherokee Gothic" style; the style has many features of the Gothic era but has mixed the designs of local Native American tribes from Oklahoma. This term was coined by the renowned American architect Frank Lloyd Wright when he visited the campus; the university has built over a dozen buildings in the Cherokee Gothic style. In 1907, Oklahoma entered statehood. Up until this point, Oklahoma's Republican tendencies changed with the election of Oklahoma's first governor, the Democratic Charles N. Haskell.
Since the inception of the university, different groups on campus were divided by religion. Early in the university's existence, many professors were Presbyterian. Under pressure, Boyd hired several Baptists and Southern Methodists; the Presbyterians and Baptists got along but the Southern Methodists conflicted with the administration. Two notable Methodists, Rev. Nathaniel Lee Linebaugh and Professor Ernest Taylor Bynum, were critics of Boyd and activists in Haskell's election campaign; when Haskell took office, he fired many of the Republicans at the university, including President Boyd. The campus expanded over the next several decades. By 1932, the university encompassed 167 acres. Development of South Oval allowed for the southern expansion of the campus; the university built a new library on the oval's north end in 1936. President Bizzell was able to get the Oklahoma legislature to approve $500,000 for the new library up from their original offer of $200,000; this allowed for an greater collection of research materials for students and faculty.
Like many universities, OU had a drop in enrollment during World War II. Enrollment in 1945 dropped to 3,769, from its pre–World War II high of 6,935 in 1939. Many infrastructure changes have occurred at the university; the southern portion of south campus in the vicinity of Constitution Avenue, still known to long-time Norman residents as
University of St. Michael's College
The University of St. Michael's College is a college of the University of Toronto, founded in 1852 by the Congregation of St. Basil of Annonay, France. While an undergraduate college for liberal arts and sciences, St. Michael's retains its Roman Catholic affiliation through its postgraduate theology faculty. St. Michael's is most associated with teaching and research in the humanities and in theology, it is known for being home to Marshall McLuhan throughout his influential career as a philosopher and communication theorist, from 1946 until his death in 1980. The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies resides within the college. St. Michael's College School is an affiliated boys school, once the high school section of the college. St. Michael's College was founded in 1852 as a Basilian college by Pierre Tourvieille, Superior General of the Congregation of St. Basil of Annonay, France; the following year, it merged with St. Mary's Lesser Seminary under the unified control of the Basilian Fathers, whose establishment in Canada began with Bishop Armand-François-Marie de Charbonnel.
St. Michael's College educated pupils at three levels, operating as a preparatory school, as a liberal arts college, as a minor seminary; the Basilians received a large estate in 1853 from John Elmsley, son of the Chief Justice of Upper Canada and a prominent philanthropist. St. Michael's College relocated to the new site east of the University of Toronto, established the college parish, St. Basil's Church; the incorporation of the college was granted Royal Assent in 1855. In the late 19th century when universities were closed to new Irish immigrants and many Canadians of Irish descent, St Michael's was seen as the only viable option and thus the school became a traditionally Irish filled college. Since this time St Michael's has been a bastion for higher education and a beacon for the Irish-Canadian community in Toronto and southern Ontario, with others coming from all over the rest of Canada to attend the dominantly Irish school. By withdrawing its financial support in 1868, the provincial government encouraged denominational colleges to seek closer relations with secular institutions.
St. Michael's affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1883, having secured a guarantee that it would conduct its own teaching in philosophy and history; the university senate authorized. On December 8, 1910, St. Michael's College became a federated college of the University of Toronto; the college maintained autonomy in faculty hiring and teaching in liberal arts subjects, while the University of Toronto governed examinations and the granting of degrees in all subjects except theology. In 1912, Sir Robert Falconer, president of the University of Toronto, recognized the wish of St. Joseph's College and Loretto College to affiliate with the university. St. Joseph's and Loretto both became colleges of St. Michael's College, thereby allowing their female students to receive University of Toronto degrees; as the 20th century began, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced.
With the opening of the Institute of Mediaeval Studies in 1929, St Michael's expanded further into graduate teaching and research. Ten years Pope Pius XII signed a papal charter creating the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies; the preparatory school division of the college was reorganized in 1950 as St. Michael's College School, an independent private school, ending the college's direct governance while maintaining its affiliation. In 1952, the last lectures for women were held at Loretto and St. Joseph's Colleges, which became residential units of the college. Thereafter, all teaching was conducted coeducationally in the classrooms of St. Michael's College. Throughout much of its history, St. Michael's benefited from a common practice whereby staff and faculty who were members of religious orders would donate their salaries back to the college; this source of income disappeared as new faculty members were hired with secular backgrounds, compelling the college to seek new revenue. The college's first modern fundraising attempt was launched in 1927, but was only successful due to the onset of the Great Depression.
The Basilian Fathers of St. Michael's College was registered as a charitable organization in 1972. Subsequent campaigns and land sales allowed the college to increase its endowment, expand its academic programs and construct new residence buildings; the Canadian Catholic Bioethics Institute became affiliated with St. Michael's College in 2001. In 2002, the college marked the sesquicentennial of its founding with an anniversary mass held in St. Basil's Church; the oldest buildings of St. Michael's College were constructed on the original Clover Hill estate donated by John Elmsley, were designed by noted Scottish architect William Hay. With subsequent land acquisitions in 1890, 1920, 1926 and 1928, the college expanded from Clover Hill westward to reach Queen's Park; the present grounds of St. Michael's College form the eastern end of the University of Toronto campus, with Victoria College to the north and Regis College to the south; the main quadrangle of St. Michael's College is in the northwestern section of the college grounds, with its northern side leading into Victoria College.
The cornerstone was laid at Clover Hill on September 16, 1855, for the college building and the college parish of St. Basil's Church, consecrated November 16, 1856; this building is the oldest building at the University of Toronto in continuous academic use. A further addition, designed by William Irving, was construc
Leo Strauss was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy. He was born in Germany to Jewish parents and emigrated from Germany to the United States, he spent much of his career as a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he taught several generations of students and published fifteen books. Trained in the neo-Kantian tradition with Ernst Cassirer and immersed in the work of the phenomenologists Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, Strauss focused his research on the Greek texts of Plato and Aristotle, retracing their interpretation through medieval Islamic and Jewish philosophy and encouraging the application of those ideas to contemporary political theory. Leo Strauss was born in the small town of Kirchhain in Hesse-Nassau, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, on September 20, 1899, to Hugo Strauss and Jennie Strauss, née David. According to Allan Bloom's 1974 obituary in Political Theory, Strauss "was raised as an Orthodox Jew," but the family does not appear to have embraced Orthodox practice.
Strauss himself noted that he came from a "conservative orthodox Jewish home," but one which knew little about Judaism except strict adherence to ceremonial laws. His father and uncle operated a farm supply and livestock business that they inherited from their father, Meyer, a leading member of the local Jewish community. After attending the Kirchhain Volksschule and the Protestant Rektoratsschule, Leo Strauss was enrolled at the Gymnasium Philippinum in nearby Marburg in 1912, graduating in 1917, he boarded with the Marburg cantor Strauss. Strauss served in the German army during World War I from July 5, 1917 to December 1918. Strauss subsequently enrolled in the University of Hamburg, where he received his doctorate in 1921, he attended courses at the Universities of Freiburg and Marburg, including some taught by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Strauss joined a Jewish fraternity and worked for the German Zionist movement, which introduced him to various German Jewish intellectuals, such as Norbert Elias, Leo Löwenthal, Hannah Arendt and Walter Benjamin.
Walter Benjamin remained an admirer of Strauss and of his work throughout his life. Strauss' closest friend was Jacob Klein but he was intellectually engaged with Karl Löwith, Julius Guttman, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Franz Rosenzweig, Gershom Scholem, Alexander Altmann, the Arabist Paul Kraus, who married Strauss' sister Bettina. With several of these friends, Strauss carried on vigorous epistolary exchanges in life, many of which are published in the Gesammelte Schriften, some in translation from the German. Strauss had been engaged in a discourse with Carl Schmitt. However, after Strauss left Germany, he broke off the discourse when Schmitt failed to respond to his letters. In 1931, Strauss sought his post-doctoral habilitation with the theologian Paul Tillich, but was turned down. After receiving a Rockefeller Fellowship in 1932, Strauss left his position at the Higher Institute for Jewish Studies in Berlin for Paris, he returned to Germany only once, for a few short days twenty years later. In Paris he married Marie Bernsohn, a widow with a young child, whom he had known in Germany.
He adopted his wife's son and his sister's child. At his death he was survived by Thomas, daughter Jenny Strauss Clay, three grandchildren. Strauss became a lifelong friend of Alexandre Kojève and was on friendly terms with Raymond Aron, Alexandre Koyré, Étienne Gilson; because of the Nazis' rise to power, he chose not to return to his native country. Strauss found shelter, after some vicissitudes, in England, where in 1935 he gained temporary employment at University of Cambridge, with the help of his in-law, David Daube, affiliated with Gonville and Caius College. While in England, he became a close friend of R. H. Tawney, was on less friendly terms with Isaiah Berlin. Unable to find permanent employment in England, Strauss moved in 1937 to the United States, under the patronage of Harold Laski, who made introductions and helped him obtain a brief lectureship. After a short stint as Research Fellow in the Department of History at Columbia University, Strauss secured a position at The New School, between 1938 and 1948, he worked the political science faculty and took on adjunct jobs.
In 1939, he served for a short term as a visiting professor at Hamilton College. He became a U. S. citizen in 1944, in 1949 he became a professor of political science at the University of Chicago, holding the Robert Maynard Hutchins Distinguished Service Professorship until he left in 1969. In 1953, Strauss coined the phrase "reductio ad Hitlerum". In 1954 he delivered a public speech on Socrates, he had received a call for a temporary lectureship in Hamburg in 1965 and received and accepted an honorary doctorate from Hamburg University and the Bundesverdienstkreuz via the German representative in Chicago. In 1969 Strauss moved to C
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Baylor University is a private Christian university in Waco, Texas. Chartered in 1845 by the last Congress of the Republic of Texas, it is one of the oldest continuously operating universities in Texas and one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. Located on the banks of the Brazos River next to I-35, between the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin, the university's 1,000-acre campus is the largest Baptist university campus in the world. Baylor University's athletic teams, known as the Bears, participate in 19 intercollegiate sports; the university is a member of the Big 12 Conference in the NCAA Division I. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas. In 1841, 35 delegates to the Union Baptist Association meeting voted to adopt the suggestion of Rev. William Milton Tryon and R. E. B. Baylor to establish a Baptist university in Texas an independent republic. Baylor, a Texas district judge and onetime U. S. Congressman and soldier from Alabama, became the school's namesake.
Some at first wished to name the new university "San Jacinto" to recognize the victory which enabled the Texans to become an independent nation before the final vote of the Congress, the petitioners requested the university be named in honor of Judge R. E. B. Baylor. In the fall of 1844, the Texas Baptist Education Society petitioned the Congress of the Republic of Texas to charter a Baptist university. Republic President Anson Jones signed the Act of Congress on February 1, 1845 establishing Baylor University; the founders built the original university campus in Texas. Rev. James Huckins, the first Southern Baptist missionary to Texas, was Baylor's first full-time fundraiser, he is considered the third founding father of the university. Although these three men are credited as being the founders of the university, many others worked to see the first university established in Texas and thus they were awarded Baylor's Founders Medal; the noted Texas revolutionary war leader and hero Sam Houston gave the first $5,000 donation to start the university.
In 1854, Houston was baptized by the Rev. Rufus Columbus Burleson, future Baylor President, in the Brazos River. During the 1846 school year Baylor leaders would begin including chapel as part of the Baylor educational experience; the tradition has been a part of the life of students for over 160 years. In 1849, R. E. B. Baylor and Abner S. Lipscomb of the Texas Supreme Court began teaching classes in the "science of law," making Baylor the first in Texas and the second university west of the Mississippi to teach law. During this time Stephen Decatur Rowe would earn the first degree awarded by Baylor, he would be followed by the first female graduate, Mary Kavanaugh Gentry, in 1855. In 1851, Baylor's second president Rufus Columbus Burleson decided to separate the students by sex, making the Baylor Female College an independent and separate institution. Baylor University became an all-male institution. During this time, Baylor thrived as the only university west of the Mississippi offering instruction in law and medicine.
At the time a Baylor education cost around $8–$15 per term for tuition. And many of the early leaders of the Republic of Texas, such as Sam Houston, would send their children to Baylor to be educated; some of those early students were Temple Lea Houston, son of President Sam Houston, a famous western gun-fighter and attorney. For the first half of the American Civil War, the Baylor president was George Washington Baines, maternal great-grandfather of the future U. S. President, Lyndon B. Johnson, he worked vigorously to sustain the university during the Civil War, when male students left their studies to enlist in the Confederate Army. Following the war, the city of Independence declined caused by the rise of neighboring cities being serviced by the Santa Fe Railroad; because Independence lacked a railroad line, university fathers began searching for a location to build a new campus. Beginning in 1885, Baylor University moved to a growing town on the railroad line, it merged with a local college called Waco University.
At the time, Rufus Burleson, Baylor's second president, was serving as the local college's president. That same year, the Baylor Female College was moved to a new location, Texas, it became known as the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor. A Baylor College Park still exists in Independence in memory of the college's history there. Around 1887, Baylor University became coeducational again. In 1900, three physicians founded the University of Dallas Medical Department in Dallas, although a university by that name did not exist. In 1903, Baylor University acquired the medical school, which became known as the Baylor College of Medicine, while remaining in Dallas. In 1943, Dallas civic leaders offered to build larger facilities for the university in a new medical center if the College of Medicine would surrender its denominational alliances with the Baptist state convention; the Baylor administration refused the offer and, with funding from the M. D. Anderson Foundation and others, moved the College of Medicine to Houston.
In 1969, the Baylor College of Medicine became technically independent from Baylor University. The two institutions still maintain strong links and Baylor still elects around 25 percent of the medical school's regents, they share academic links and combine in research efforts. During World War II, Baylor was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission; the university first admitted black