Burundi the Republic of Burundi, is a landlocked country amid the African Great Lakes region where East and Central Africa converge. The capital is Gitega, having moved from Bujumbura in February 2019; the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika. The Twa and Tutsi peoples have lived in Burundi for at least 500 years. For more than 200 of those years, Burundi was an independent kingdom, until the beginning of the 20th century, when Germany colonised the region. After the First World War and Germany's defeat, it ceded the territory to Belgium. Both Germans and Belgians ruled Rwanda as a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Despite common misconceptions and Rwanda had never been under common rule until the time of European colonisation. Burundi gained independence in 1962 and had a monarchy, but a series of assassinations, coups and a general climate of regional instability culminated in the establishment of a republic and one-party state in 1966. Bouts of ethnic cleansing and two civil wars and genocides during the 1970s and again in the 1990s left the country undeveloped and its population as one of the world's poorest.
The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, died together when their aeroplane was shot down in April 1994. 2015 witnessed large-scale political strife as President Pierre Nkurunziza opted to run for a third term in office, a coup attempt failed and the country's parliamentary and presidential elections were broadly criticised by members of the international community. The sovereign state of Burundi political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state; the President of Burundi is the head of head of government. There are 21 registered parties in Burundi. On 13 March 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, which provided for a multi-party political process and reflected multi-party competition. Six years on 6 June 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice-presidents; because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.
In October 2016, Burundi informed the UN of its intention to withdraw from the International Criminal Court. Burundi remains an overwhelmingly rural society, with just 13% of the population living in urban areas in 2013; the population density of around 315 people per square kilometre is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, fewer than 1% are indigenous Twa. The official languages of Burundi are Kirundi and English, Kirundi being recognised as the sole national language. One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the western extension of the East African Rift; the country lies on a rolling plateau in the centre of Africa. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 2,685 m, lies to the southeast of Bujumbura; the most distant source of the River Nile is the Ruvyironza River in the Bururi Province of Burundi, the Nile is linked from Lake Victoria to its headwaters via the Kagera River to the Ruvyironza River.
Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner. There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest, Ruvubu National Park to the northeast. Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations. Burundi's lands are agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to soil erosion and habitat loss. Deforestation of the entire country is completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 600 km2 remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum. In addition to poverty, Burundians have to deal with corruption, weak infrastructure, poor access to health and education services, hunger. Burundi is densely populated and has had substantial emigration as young people seek opportunities elsewhere; the World Happiness Report 2018 ranked Burundi as the world's least happy nation with a rank of 156. Burundi is one of the few countries in Africa, along with its neighbour Rwanda among others, to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state.
The early history of Burundi, the role and nature of the country's three dominant ethnic groups. However, it is important to note that the nature of culture and ethnic groups is always fluid and changing. While the groups might have migrated to the area at different times and as distinctly different ethnic groups, the current distinctions are contemporary socio-cultural constructs; the different ethnic groups lived together in relative peace. The first conflicts between ethnic groups can be dated back to the 17th century, when land was becoming more scarce because of the continuous growth in population; the first evidence of the Burundian state dates back to the late 16th century where it emerged on the eastern foothills. Over the following centuries it expanded; the Kingdom of Burundi, or Urundi, in the Great Lakes region was a polity ruled by a traditional monarch with several princes beneath him. The king, known as the mwami headed a princely aristocracy which owned most of the land and required a tribute, or tax, from
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Mary Ann Glendon
Mary Ann Glendon is the Learned Hand Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and a former United States Ambassador to the Holy See. She teaches and writes on bioethics, comparative constitutional law and human rights in international law, she is pro-life and "writes forcefully against the expansion of abortion rights." Glendon was raised in Massachusetts. Her father, Martin Glendon, an Irish-Catholic Democrat, was a reporter for the Berkshire Eagle and chaired the local board of selectmen. Glendon received her Bachelor of Arts, Juris Doctor, Master of Comparative Law from the University of Chicago. Glendon practiced law in Chicago from 1963 to 1968, she became a professor at Boston College Law School in 1968 and began teaching at Harvard Law School in 1987. In 1995, she was the Vatican representative to the international 1995 Beijing Conference on Women sponsored by the United Nations, where she contested the use of condoms for the prevention of HIV and AIDS. At the time, Pope John Paul II issued a statement that "The Holy See in no way endorses contraception or the use of condoms, either as a family planning measure or in HIV/AIDS prevention programs."On November 4, 2002, in reference to the Boston Globe's Pulitzer Prize nomination for its coverage of sexual abuse by Catholic priests, Glendon told a conference of Catholics that "if fairness and accuracy have anything to do with it, awarding the Pulitzer Prize to the Boston Globe would be like giving the Nobel Peace Prize to Osama bin Laden."
In 2003 the Globe was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for its coverage of the church scandals. Glendon was appointed by President Bush to the President's Council on Bioethics, her nomination as United States Ambassador to the Holy See was announced on November 5, 2007. The U. S. Senate voted to confirm her on December 19, 2007, she presented her Letters of Credence to Pope Benedict XVI on February 29, 2008, resigned her office effective January 19, 2009. On June 26, 2013 Pope Francis named Glendon a member of the Pontifical Commission of inquiry for the Institute for Works of Religion, known as the Vatican Bank. Glendon, two cardinals, a bishop, a monsignor are responsible for preparing an investigative report on the Vatican Bank. In July 2014 she was appointed to be a member of the board of the IOR. Glendon serves on the board of directors for First Things, an ecumenical conservative journal that encourages a religiously informed philosophy for the ordering of society. On October 1, 2017, it was announced that Glendon would be the 2018 recipient of the Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture's Evangelium Vitae Medal.
During the 1960 presidential election, the first in which Glendon could vote, she cast her ballot for John F. Kennedy. For most of her early life she was a Democrat. Glendon supported Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election, she supported Romney's campaign in the 2008 presidential election. Glendon was a mentor of Mike Pompeo, the incumbent United States Secretary of State, when Pompeo was at Harvard Law School. Glendon was selected by the University of Notre Dame as the 2009 recipient of the school's Laetare Medal but declined the award due to the university's controversial decision to host Barack Obama as its commencement speaker and bestow upon him an honorary degree. In light of Obama's pro-choice policies, Glendon considered Notre Dame's decision to be in violation of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' 2004 pronouncement that Catholic institutions should not give "awards, honors, or platforms" to "those who act in defiance of fundamental moral principles." Glendon felt that the university was implicitly trying to use her acceptance speech to give the appearance of balance to the event and expressed concern about the "ripple effect" Notre Dame's disregard of the USCCB pronouncement is having on the nation's other Catholic schools.
She received an award from the National Right to Life Committee at its Pro-Life Awards Dinner in October. In 1964 Glendon settled in Chicago, they divorced in 1966. In 1970 she married a labor lawyer, they remained together until Lev's death in 2013. Glendon has three daughters. What is clearly'old-fashioned' today is the old feminism of the 1970s – with its negative attitudes toward men and motherhood, its rigid party line on abortion. George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates Harvard Law School: Learned Hand Professor of Law Mary Ann Glendon The Marian Library: Holy See's Final Statement at Women's Conference in Beijing University of Navarra: Mary Ann Glendon awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Navarra The Pope’s New Feminism. March 1, 1997. Ecclesia in America: Reform and the Role of the Laity in a Time of Turbulence. November 4, 2002. Appearances on C-SPAN
Francis J. Shakespeare is a former American diplomat and media executive, he was the president of CBS Television before entering public service. He served as the United States Ambassador to Portugal from 1985 to 1986 and the United States Ambassador to the Holy See from 1986 to 1989, he now serves as an honorary member of the board of trustees for The Heritage Foundation. Born in New York City to Francis and Frances Shakespeare and raised in the Roman Catholic faith, Shakespeare graduated from Holy Cross College in 1946, he served in the U. S. Navy from 1945 to 1946, he was awarded honorary degrees in engineering from Colorado School of Mines in 1975, in commercial science from Pace University in 1979 and in law from Sacred Heart University in 1985. Shakespeare was president of CBS Television in New York from 1950 to 1969, when he was appointed by President Richard Nixon as director of the United States Information Agency, he returned to the private sector in 1973, became an executive vice president of Westinghouse in New York.
In 1975 he became vice chairman of RKO General. In 1981 President Ronald Reagan named him chairman of the Board for International Broadcasting, the entity which oversaw the operations of Radio Free Europe, he held this position until 1985. The following year, in September 1986, Shakespeare was appointed United States Ambassador to the Holy See. Since 1979 Shakespeare has been an honorary member of the board of trustees for The Heritage Foundation, a Washington, D. C.-based public policy research institute. He currently serves as a trustee of the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation of Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City. Founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841, it is the oldest Catholic university in the northeastern United States, the third-oldest university in New York, the only Jesuit university in New York City. Established as St. John's College by John Hughes a coadjutor bishop of New York, it was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees; the college's first president, John McCloskey, was the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the Church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham enrolls 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan's Upper West Side, the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York.
In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines. Fordham's alumni and faculty include U. S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several theologians, several U. S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U. S. Army, a U. S. Postmaster General, a U. S. Attorney General, a U. S. vice-presidential candidate, a president of the United States, Donald Trump. The university's athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasts a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, numerous NFL players. Fordham's baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.
Fordham was founded as St. John's College in 1841 by the Irish-born coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of New York, John Hughes; this makes it the third-oldest university in the state of New York, the first Catholic institution of higher education in the northeastern United States. In 1839, Hughes 42 years old, had purchased the 106-acre Rose Hill Manor farm in the village of Fordham, New York for $29,750, his intent was to establish St. Joseph's Seminary following the model of Mount Saint Mary's University, of which he was an alumnus. "Rose Hill" was the name given to the site in 1787 by its owner, Robert Watts, a wealthy New York merchant, in honor of his family's ancestral home in Scotland. In 1840, St. Joseph's Seminary opened at Rose Hill; the seminary was paired with St. John's College, which opened at Rose Hill with a student body of six on June 24, 1841, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist; the Reverend John McCloskey was the school's first president, the faculty were secular priests and lay instructors.
The college presidency went through a succession of four diocesan priests in five years, including the Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, a distant cousin of Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt and a nephew of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. In 1845, the seminary church, Our Lady of Mercy, was built; the same year, Bishop Hughes convinced several Jesuit priests from the St. Mary's College in Kentucky to staff St. John's; the college received its charter from the New York State Legislature in 1846, the first Jesuits began to arrive about three months later. In 1846 Bishop Hughes sold St. John's College to the Jesuits for $40,000. Hughes deeded the college over but retained title to the seminary property, which totaled about nine acres. In 1847, Fordham's first school in Manhattan opened; the school became the independently chartered College of St. Francis Xavier in 1861, it was in 1847 that the American poet Edgar Allan Poe arrived in the village of Fordham and began a friendship with the college Jesuits that would last throughout his life.
In 1849, he published his famed work The Bells. Some traditions credit the college's church bells as the inspiration for this poem. Poe spent considerable time in the Fordham Library, occasionally stayed overnight. St. John's curriculum consisted of a junior division, requiring four years of study in Latin, grammar, history, geography and religion. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, famed commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry American Civil War regiment, attended the junior division. An Artium Baccalaureus degree was earned for completion of both curricula, an additional year of philosophy would earn a Magister Artium degree. There was a "commercial" track similar to a modern business school, offered as an alternative to the Classical curriculum and resulting in a certificate instead of a degree. In 1855, the first student stage production, Henry IV, was presented by the St. John's Dramatic Society; the seminary was closed in 1859. The Civil War was a significant time for the college.
Catholic University of America
The Catholic University of America is a private, non-profit Catholic university located in Washington, D. C. in the United States. It is a pontifical university of the Catholic Church in the United States and the only institution of higher education founded by the U. S. Catholic bishops. Established in 1887 as a graduate and research center following approval by Pope Leo XIII on Easter Sunday, the university began offering undergraduate education in 1904; the university's campus lies within the Brookland neighborhood, known as "Little Rome", which contains 60 Catholic institutions, including Trinity Washington University and the Dominican House of Studies, as well as the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception. It has been ranked as one of the nation's best colleges by the Princeton Review, one of the best values of any private school in the country by Kiplinger's, "one of the most eco-friendly universities in the country", was awarded the "highest federal recognition an institution can receive" for community service.
In addition, it was ranked in the top 10 of the best Catholic colleges in the country, has been recommended by the Cardinal Newman Society in The Newman Guide to Choosing a Catholic College. It was described as one of the 25 most underrated colleges in the United States. CUA's programs emphasize the liberal arts, professional education, personal development; the school stays connected with the Catholic Church and Catholic organizations. The American Cardinals Dinner is put on by the residential U. S. cardinals each year to raise scholarship funds for CUA. The university has a long history of working with the Knights of Columbus. At the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1866, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops first discussed the need for a national Catholic university. At the Third Plenary Council on January 26, 1885, bishops chose the name The Catholic University of America for the institution. In 1882, Bishop John Lancaster Spalding went to Rome to obtain Pope Leo XIII's support for the university persuading his family friend Mary Gwendoline Caldwell to pledge $300,000 to establish it.
On April 10, 1887, Pope Leo XIII sent James Cardinal Gibbons a letter granting permission to establish the university. On March 7, 1889, the Pope issued the encyclical Magni Nobis, granting the university its charter and establishing its mission as the instruction of Catholicism and human nature together at the graduate level. By developing new leaders and new knowledge, the university was intended to strengthen and enrich Catholicism in the United States; the founders wanted to emphasize the church's special role in United States. They believed that scientific and humanistic research, informed by faith, would strengthen the church, they wanted to develop a national institution that would promote the faith in a context of religious freedom, spiritual pluralism, intellectual rigor. The university was incorporated in 1887 on 66 acres of land next to the Old Soldiers Home. President Grover Cleveland was in attendance for the laying of the cornerstone of Divinity Hall, now known as Caldwell Hall, on May 24, 1888, as were members of Congress and the U.
S. Cabinet; when the university first opened on November 13, 1889, the curriculum consisted of lectures in mental and moral philosophy, English literature, the sacred scriptures, the various branches of theology. At the end of the second term, lectures on canon law were added; the first students were graduated in 1889. In 1876 with the opening of the Johns Hopkins University, American universities began dedicating themselves to graduate study and research in the Prussian model. CUA was the "principal channel through which the modern university movement entered the American Catholic community." In 1900 it was one of the 14 colleges that offered doctorate programs who formed the Association of American Universities. In 1904, the university added an undergraduate program; the president of the first undergraduate class was Frank Kuntz, whose memoir of that period was published by the Catholic University of America Press. The university gives an annual award named for Kuntz. Bishop and Rector Thomas J. Shahan gave a speech to the Ancient Order of Hibernians in 1894 in which he advocated for Irish independence in language and politics.
This resulted in the Hibernians endowing a chair in chair of Gaelic Languages and Literature at the university. Only Harvard University had a similar position at the time, this attracted the attention of William Butler Yeats. During a trip to the United States, Yeats spoke to students in McMahon Hall on February 21, 1904. In a followup letter to Shahan, he said "you have a great university and I wish we had its like in Ireland."Despite Washington being a Southern and segregated city when the university was founded, it admitted black Catholic men as students. At the time, the only other college in the District to do so was Howard University, founded for African-American education after the Civil War. In 1895 Catholic University had three black students, all from DC. "They were tested as to their previous education, this being found satisfactory, no notice whatever was taken of their color. They stand on the same footing as other students of equal intellectual calibre and acquirements", according to Keane.
Conaty, speaking to President William McKinley during a visit on June 1, 1900, said that the university, "like the Catholic Church... knows no race line and no color line."President Theodore Roosevelt was out on a morning horseback ride one Sunday morning when he came upon a group of students singing after Mass outside Caldwell Chapel. He had heard of the stat
United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, the main deliberative, policy-making, representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receive reports from other parts of the UN, make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions, it has established numerous subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general in annual sessions at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City, the main part of which lasts from September to December and part of January until all issues are addressed, it can reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, powers and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter; the first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, the election, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority; each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members; the Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue:" the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries; these issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership.
In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193; because of their numbers, developing countries are able to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations, pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression; the Assembly can consider the matter with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
The next few annual sessions were held in different cities: the second session in New York City, the third in Paris. It moved to the permanent Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City at the start of its seventh regular annual session, on 14 October 1952. In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the General Assembly organized its 29th session in the Palace of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland. All 193 members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly, with the addition of Holy See and Palestine as observer states. Further, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization or entity, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations; the agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session.
After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees, who submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote. Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months; the scheduled portions of the sessions commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day", per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were scheduled to recess three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended until just before the beginning of the following sessions; the General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues.
The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such