Earl of Guilford
Earl of Guilford is a title, created three times in history. The title was created for the first time in the Peerage of England in 1660 for Elizabeth Boyle, she was a daughter of William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh, the widow of Lewis Boyle, 1st Viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky. The title was for life only and became extinct on her death in 1667; the title was created for a second time in the Peerage of England in 1674 for John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale. For more information on this creation, see the article on him as well as the Earl of Lauderdale. Despite the first two creations, the title of Earl of Guilford is chiefly associated with one branch of the North family, which descends from the Hon. Sir Francis North, second son of Dudley North, 4th a lawyer and politician, he was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas from 1675 to 1682 and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal from 1682 to 1685. In 1683 he was created Baron Guilford, of Guilford in the County of Surrey, in the Peerage of England, he died in middle age and was succeeded by his son, the second Baron, who served as President of the Board of Trade from 1713 to 1714 and was Lord-Lieutenant of Essex.
His son, the third Baron, represented Banbury in the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1734 he succeeded his cousin as seventh Baron North and in 1752 was honoured by being created Earl of Guilford in the Peerage of Great Britain; the first Earl of the new creation was succeeded by the second Earl. Known under his courtesy title of Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, he was one of the most influential statesmen of the second half of the 18th century; as Prime Minister of Great Britain between 1770 and 1782, he was a major figure in the American Revolution. North held two of the other great offices of state, those of Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary, he was succeeded by the third Earl. He represented several constituencies in the House of Commons. Lord Guilford had no sons, on his death the barony of North fell into abeyance between his daughters, he was succeeded in the earldom of Guilford by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifth Earl.
He had been one of the Members of Parliament for Banbury from 1792 to 1794 and had served as Governor of Ceylon from 1798 to 1805. He was childless, on his death the titles passed to his cousin, the sixth Earl, a clergyman, he was succeeded by the seventh Earl. His son, the eighth Earl, was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal East Kent Yeomanry; when he died the peerages were inherited by the ninth Earl. As of 2009 the titles are held by the latter's only son, the tenth Earl, who succeeded in 1999. Three other members of the North family may be mentioned. Frederic Dudley North, great-grandson of the Reverend Charles Augustus North, younger brother of the sixth earl, was a prominent civil servant in Australia, his son Charles Frederic North was Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia from 1947 to 1953. Jonathan North, son of the Hon. John Montagu William North, second son of the eighth Earl, succeeded his maternal grandfather as second Baronet, of Southwell, in 1947. Lacking a different secondary title, the heirs apparent to the earldom have continued to use Lord North as a courtesy title.
An unqualified reference to Lord North always refers to Frederick North second Earl of Guilford. The family seat is Waldershare House, near Kent; the town in Surrey from which both titles derive is now spelt Guildford. Elizabeth Boyle, Countess of Guilford see the Earl of Lauderdale Francis North, 1st Baron Guilford Francis North, 2nd Baron Guilford Francis North, 3rd Baron Guilford Francis North, 1st Earl of Guilford Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford George Augustus North, 3rd Earl of Guilford Francis North, 4th Earl of Guilford Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford Francis North, 6th Earl of Guilford, Master of Hospital of St. Cross, the inspiration for The Warden by Anthony TrollopeDudley North, Lord North Dudley Francis North, 7th Earl of Guilford Dudley Francis North, Lord North Frederick George North, 8th Earl of Guilford Francis George North, Lord North Edward Francis North, 9th Earl of Guilford Piers Edward Brownlow North, 10th Earl of Guilford The heir apparent is the present holder's son Frederick Edward George North Baron North North Baronets, of Southwell Kidd, Williamson, David.
Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Lord North, The Prime Minister Who Lost America, Peter Whiteley, Hambledon Press ISBN 1-85285-145-7 Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Guilford and Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 691. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Francis North, 6th Earl of Guilford Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Dudley Francis North, 7th Earl of Guilford Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Frederick George North, 8th Earl of Guilford Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edward Francis North, 9th Earl of Guilford Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Piers Edward Brownlow North, 10th Earl of Guilford Biography of Frederic Dudley North at the A
Mary I of England
Mary I known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII; the executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood, her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England.
In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era. Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in England, she was the only child of his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth, her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey. Henry VIII's cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, held after the baptism.
The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's governess. Sir John Hussey Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, was one of Mary's attendants. Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals. A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could write Latin, she studied French, music and Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries"; as the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair.
She was ruddy cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title, she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her; when she was only two years old, she was promised to Francis, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years.
In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement. Cardinal Wolsey, Henry's chief adviser resumed marriage negotiations with the French, Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur.
Catherine claimed so was not a valid marriage. Her first marriage had been annulled by a previous pope, Julius II, on t
Cogges is an area beside the River Windrush in Witney, Oxfordshire, 0.5 miles east of the town centre. It had been a separate village and until 1932 it was a separate civil parish; the former village centres upon three historic buildings: the Church of England parish church of Saint Mary, the former Vicarage and Cogges Manor Farm. There was formerly an 11th-century fortified manor house. Two moats survive south of the parish church. One was called Castle Yard, excavation within the curtilage of the other has revealed massive 12th century foundations. St. Mary's parish church had been established by the second half of the 11th century; the walls of the nave may be either late Saxon or early Norman. The south aisle was added late in the 12th century, but the two arches of the arcade between the nave and south aisle were rebuilt in the 13th century; the chancel and chancel arch were rebuilt in the middle of the 13th century. In about 1340 the north chapel was added, linked with the chancel by an arcade of two bays and with the 14th century effigy of a lady under one of the arches.
The Decorated Gothic north aisle and adjoining bell tower were built in about 1350. The present east window of the chancel is Decorated Gothic; the tower's upper stages are octagonal in reference to a style of church towers in Normandy whence the monks from Fécamp would have originated. In the 15th century a Perpendicular Gothic clerestory was added to the nave, the roofs of the nave and chancel were all rebuilt in the shallow-pitched late-mediaeval manner. Late in the 15th century the Perpendicular Gothic west window of the nave was inserted; the windows of the north chapel were decorated with stained glass depicting the heraldry of the de Grey family. During the English Civil War in the 17th century the church was damaged and the heraldic glass was destroyed. A priory of the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp was founded at Cogges in 1103; the priory became associated with the running of the parish church. In 1441 Henry VI seized the priory and its estates and gave them to Eton College, which thus acquired control of the parish church as well.
The priory fell into disrepair but the remains of a 13th-century building have survived in an altered form, with an intermediate floor inserted to make it a two-storey building. Early in the 17th century a wing was added to the surviving building to make it into a farmhouse. In 1859 Eton College sold the priory house to the Diocese of Oxford to become St. Mary's Vicarage. A high, gabled Victorian wing was added to enlarge the house, so that the 13th century core is now sandwiched between 17th and 19th century additions; the Domesday Book records that by 1086 Cogges had a water mill on the River Windrush. For much of its history Cogges had two water mills: one at the southern tip of the parish and the other north of the Priory; the southern mill was called Gold Mill, its name evolved by 1279 to Gill Mill. By 1670 Gill Mill was being used as a fulling mill and in 1702 and 1712 there were two fulling mills on the site; the last known record of Gill Mill being in operation is from about 1803. The northern mill existed by 1272 and was being used as a fulling mill by 1387.
It was still in operation in 1702 but had fallen out of use by 1704. Cogges Manor Farm House is a 16th- and 17th-century house built around the remains of one wing of a manor house that originated in the middle of the 12th century; the remains of the 13th century building were altered in the 16th century and a second wing was added after 1667. In 1974 Oxfordshire County Council bought the house and converted it into a Cogges Manor Farm Museum.5An open field system of farming prevailed in the parish until 1787 when an Act of Parliament enabled the common land to be enclosed. Cogges was a separate civil parish until 1932, when the former village became part of Witney and the remaining rural parts were divided between the civil parishes of Ducklington and South Leigh. Blair, J. "Investigations at Cogges, Oxfordshire 1978–81: The Priory and the Parish Church". Oxoniensia. Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society. XLVII: 37–126. Crossley, Alan. R.. P.. J.. J.. A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 12: Wootton Hundred including Woodstock.
Victoria County History. Victoria County History of the Counties of England. Pp. 54–75. ISBN 0-19-722774-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Page, William, ed.. A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 2. Victoria County History. Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 161–162. Sherwood, Jennifer. Oxfordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 550–551. ISBN 0-14-071045-0. Steane, John M. ed.. Cogges A guide to the museum and village.. Cogges Agricultural Heritage Museum Association Limited. ISBN 0-901036-06-4. Cogges Community PicnicCogges ConnectedCogges & Newland CommunityThe Blake Primary School CoggesCogges Manor Farm Media related to Cogges at Wikimedia Commons
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham was the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and Agnes Tilney. He served four monarchs, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I, in various official capacities, most notably on diplomatic missions and as Lord Admiral and Lord Chamberlain of the Household. William Howard was born about 1510, the ninth son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, his eldest son by his second wife, Agnes Tilney. Howard was brought to court at a young age after completing his education at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In 1531 Howard was sent on an embassy to Scotland by King Henry VIII, accompanied the King to Boulogne in October 1532. In May 1533, as deputy to his half-brother, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, he served as Earl Marshal at the coronation of his niece, Anne Boleyn, the daughter of his half-sister, Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire. On 10 September 1533, Howard bore the canopy over his great-niece Elizabeth. In 1534 he went to Scotland, his instructions including getting the measurements of James V of Scotland from the Bishop of Aberdeen, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland.
Howard's tailor would make Henry VIII's nephew a new suit of clothes as a present. Howard would broach the subject of the two kings meeting in person. In February 1535 he was sent again to Scotland to invest James V with the Order of the Garter and brought a present of'great horses'. Howard met James V at Stirling Castle on Good Friday, they discussed a possible meeting of the two Kings at Newcastle at Michaelmas. Margaret Tudor praised his abilities and wrote that her son James V, "lykkis hym right weill."In June 1535 he was in France as a member of the English embassy authorized to negotiate with the French Admiral, Philippe de Chabot. In February 1536 he was again in Scotland, this time for the purpose of persuading James V to adopt Henry VIII's religious policy, he returned to Scotland again in April when he heard rumours from Margaret Tudor and others that James V intended to marry his mistress, Margaret Erskine, Lady Lochleven. He was again in France in 1537. On 11 December 1539 he was among those who welcomed King Henry VIII's fourth bride, Anne of Cleves at Calais.
While on an embassy to France in 1541 William Howard was charged with concealing the sexual indiscretions of his young niece, Catherine Howard, Henry VIII's fifth wife, was recalled to England to stand trial. On 22 December 1541 Howard, his wife, a number of servants, alleged witnesses to the Queen's misconduct were arraigned for misprision of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment and loss of goods, he and most of the others were pardoned after Queen Catherine's execution on 13 February 1542. In 1544 Howard accompanied the Earl of Hertford's forces in the invasion of Scotland, it was reported that he was hurt in the cheek by an English arrow during fighting on Edinburgh's Royal Mile. In July of that year he took part in the siege of Boulogne. On 27 May 1545 the King's Council ordered Howard to ‘repayre to serve uppon the sees’. Orders show that he detained several foreign vessels while patrolling the English Channel. In May 1546 he was entrusted with the sum of £12,000 to pay the English army at Calais.
In connection with these duties he was referred to as ‘vice-admiral’ to the Lord Admiral, Viscount Lisle. When Lisle's attendance was required in May 1546 at negotiations which resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Ardres on 7 June 1546, he turned command of the English fleet over to Howard. Howard's career received a check in 1547 with the downfall of his half-nephew Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey; however the setback was temporary. He was an ally of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland Earl of Warwick, in his coup against the Protector Somerset in October 1549, on 19 March 1551 received the manor of Effingham and other properties by way of reward. On 29 October 1552 Northumberland secured Howard's appointment as Lord Deputy and Governor of Calais, in the same month he was sworn of the Privy Council; when the young King Edward VI died on 6 July 1553, Howard held Calais for Queen Mary I against the supporters of her rival, Lady Jane Grey. On 2 January 1554 he was appointed to meet the Spanish ambassadors who had come to London to negotiate a marriage between Queen Mary I and King Philip II of Spain.
Wyatt's rebellion broke out on 25 January, Howard was among those who raised the militia to defend London. On 7 February 1554 he held Ludgate, preventing the rebels from entering the City and leading to their surrender a few hours later, he was appointed to Queen Mary's Privy Council on 3 January 1554, on 11 March was created Baron Howard of Effingham. On 20 March 1554 he was granted a patent as Lord Admiral. On 9 October of that year he was made a Knight of the Garter; as Lord Admiral, with a fleet of 28 ships, met King Philip II on his arrival in England in 1555, in August of that year escorted the King to Flanders. In 1557 Howard's fleet transported a force under the command of the Earl of Pembroke to Calais. Lord Howard's support for the accession of his great-niece, exposed him to suspicion, although he was never considered disloyal by Queen Mary. In February 1558 Howard's patent as Lord Admiral was revoked, on 12 February 1558 the office was restored to Lord Clinton. Howard was compensated by a grant of the reversion of the office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household and an annuity of 200 marks, effective the previous September.
After Queen Elizabeth's accession on 17 November 1558, Howard succeeded Edward Hastings as Lord Chamberlain and was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1559 he was among those. In August 1564 he accompanied the Queen on a visit to
Clerkenwell is an area of central London, England. The area includes the sub-district of Finsbury. Clerkenwell was an ancient parish from the mediaeval period onwards, becoming part of the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury from 1900 to 1965, an authority which in turn merged into the modern London Borough of Islington; the well after which it was named was rediscovered in 1924. The watchmaking and watch repairing trades were once of great importance. For a list of street name etymologies in the Clerkenwell area see Street names of Clerkenwell and Finsbury. Clerkenwell took its name from the Clerks' Well in Farringdon Lane. In the Middle Ages, the London Parish clerks performed annual mystery plays there, based on biblical themes. Part of the well remains visible, incorporated into a 1980s building called Well Court, it is visible through a window of that building on Farringdon Lane. Access to the well is managed by Islington Local History Centre and visits can be arranged by appointment; the Monastic Order of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem had its English headquarters at the Priory of Clerkenwell.
St John's Gate survives in the rebuilt form of the Priory Gate. Its gateway, erected in 1504 in St John's Square, served various purposes after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. For example, it was the birthplace of the Gentleman's Magazine in 1731, the scene of Dr Johnson's work in connection with that journal. In modern times the gatehouse again became associated with the order and was in the early 20th century the headquarters of the St John Ambulance Association. An Early English crypt remains beneath the chapel of the order, otherwise rebuilt in the 1950s after wartime bombing; the notorious deception of the "Cock Lane Ghost", in which Johnson took great interest, was perpetrated nearby. Adjoining the priory was St Mary's nunnery of the Benedictine order, now disappeared, St James's Church, rebuilt in 1792 on the site of the original church, of Norman provenance; the Charterhouse, near the boundary with the City of London, was a Carthusian monastery. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries the Charterhouse became a private mansion and one owner, Thomas Sutton, subsequently left it with an endowment as a school and almshouse.
The almhouse remains but the school relocated to Surrey and its part of the site is now a campus of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. As it was a suburb beyond the confines of the London Wall, Clerkenwell was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" sprang up, with a "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the Elizabethan era Clerkenwell contained a notorious brothel quarter. In Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 2, Falstaff complains about Justice Shallow boasting of "the wildness of his youth, the feats he has done about Turnbull Street". Known now as Turnmill Street and adjoining Farringdon station, it had an infamous reputation for brothel-keeping and was described in Sugden's Topographical Dictionary as "the most disreputable street in London, a haunt of thieves and loose women".
The Clerkenwell Bridewell, a prison and correctional institute for prostitutes and vagrants, was known for savage punishment and endemic sexual corruption. In the 17th century South Clerkenwell became a fashionable place of residence. Oliver Cromwell owned a house on Clerkenwell Close, just off the Green. Several aristocrats had houses there, most notably the Duke of Northumberland, as did people such as Erasmus Smith. Before Clerkenwell became a built-up area, it had a reputation as a resort a short walk out of the city, where Londoners could disport themselves at its spas, of which there were several, based on natural chalybeate springs, tea gardens and theatres; the present day Sadler's Wells has survived as heir to this tradition, after being rebuilt many times and many changes of use including pleasure gardens, aquatic display venue, music hall. Today it is modern dance venue. Clerkenwell was the location of three prisons: the Clerkenwell Bridewell, Coldbath Fields Prison and the New Prison the Clerkenwell House of Detention, notorious as the scene of the Clerkenwell Outrage in 1867, an attempted prison break by Fenians who killed many in the tenement houses on Corporation Row in trying to blow a hole in the prison wall.
The House of Detention was demolished in 1890 but the extensive vaults and cells beneath, now known as the Clerkenwell Catacombs, remained. They were reopened as air raid shelters during the Blitz, for a few years were open as a minor tourist attraction. Various film scenes have been shot in the catacombs; the Industrial Revolution changed the area greatly. It became a centre for breweries and the printing industry, it gained an especial reputation for the making of clocks, marine chronometers and watches, which activity once employed many people from around the area. Flourishing craft workshops still carry on some such as jewellery-making. Clerkenwell was home to Witherbys a printing company, it was during the Industrial Revolution that C
Banbury is a historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England. The town is situated 64 miles northwest of London, 37 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles south-by-southeast of Coventry and 22 miles north-by-northwest of the county town of Oxford, it had a population of 46,853 at the 2011 census. Banbury is a significant commercial and retail centre for the surrounding area of north Oxfordshire and southern parts of Warwickshire and Northamptonshire which are predominantly rural. Banbury's main industries are car components, electrical goods, food processing, printing. Banbury is home to the world's largest coffee-processing facility, built in 1964; the town is famed for Banbury cakes -- oval in shape. The name Banbury derives from "Banna", a Saxon chieftain said to have built a stockade there in the 6th century, "burgh" meaning settlement; the Saxon spelling was Banesbyrig. The name appears as "Banesberie" in Domesday Book. Another known spelling was'Banesebury' in Medieval times.
During excavations for the construction of an office building in Hennef Way in 2002, the remains of a British Iron Age settlement with circular buildings dating back to 200 BC were found. The site contained around 150 pieces of stone. There was a Roman villa at nearby Wykham Park; the area was settled by the Saxons around the late 5th century. In about 556 Banbury was the scene of a battle between the local Anglo-Saxons of Cynric and Ceawlin, the local Romano-British, it was a local centre for Anglo-Saxon settlement by the mid-6th century. Banbury developed in the Anglo-Saxon period under Danish influence, starting in the late 6th century, it was assessed at 50 hides in the Domesday survey and was held by the Bishop of Lincoln. The Saxons built Banbury on the west bank of the River Cherwell. On the opposite bank they built Grimsbury, part of Northamptonshire but was incorporated into Banbury in 1889. Neithrop was one of the oldest areas in Banbury, having first been recorded as a hamlet in the 13th century.
It was formally incorporated into the borough of Banbury in 1889. Banbury stands at the junction of two ancient roads: Salt Way, its primary use being transport of salt, it continued through what is now Banbury's High Street and towards the Fosse Way at Stow-on-the-Wold. Banbury's medieval prosperity was based on wool. Banbury Castle was built from 1135 by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, survived into the Civil War, when it was besieged. Due to its proximity to Oxford, the King's capital, Banbury was at one stage a Royalist town, but the inhabitants were known to be Puritan; the castle was demolished after the war. Banbury played an important part in the English Civil War as a base of operations for Oliver Cromwell, reputed to have planned the Battle of Edge Hill in the back room of a local inn, the Reindeer Inn as it was known; the town was pro-Parliamentarian, but the castle was manned by a Royalist garrison who supported King Charles I. In 1645 during the Civil War, Parliamentary troops were billeted in nearby Hanwell for nine weeks and villagers petitioned the Warwickshire Committee of Accounts to pay for feeding them.
The opening of the Oxford Canal from Hawkesbury Junction to Banbury on 30 March 1778 gave the town a cheap and reliable supply of Warwickshire coal. In 1787 the Oxford Canal was extended southwards opening to Oxford on 1 January 1790; the canal's main boat yard was the original outlay of today's Tooley's Boatyard. Peoples' Park was set up as a private park in 1890 and opened in 1910, along with the adjacent bowling green; the land south of the Foscote Private Hospital in Calthorpe and Easington Farm were open farmland until the early 1960s as shown by the Ordnance Survey maps of 1964, 1955 and 1947. It had only a few farmsteads, the odd house, an allotment field, the Municipal Borough of Banbury council's small reservoir just south of Easington Farm and a water spring lay to the south of it; the Ruscote estate, which now has a notable South Asian community, was expanded in the 1950s because of the growth of the town due to the London overspill and further grew in the mid-1960s. British Railways closed Merton Street railway station and the Buckingham to Banbury line to passenger traffic at the end of 1960.
Merton Street goods depot continued to handle livestock traffic for Banbury's cattle market until 1966, when this too was discontinued and the railway dismantled. In March 1962 Sir John Betjeman celebrated the line from Culworth Junction in his poem Great Central Railway, Sheffield Victoria to Banbury. British Railways closed this line too in 1966; the main railway station, now called Banbury, is now served by trains running from London Paddington via Reading and Oxford, from London Marylebone via High Wycombe and Bicester onwards to Birmingham and Kidderminster and by Cross Country Trains from Bournemouth to Birmingham and Manchester. Banbury used to be home to a cattle market, situated on Merton Street in Grimsbury. For many decades and other farm animals were driven there on the hoof from as far as Scotland to be sold to feed the growing population of London and other towns. Since its closure in June 1998 a new housing development has been built on its site which includes Dashwood Primary School.
The estate, which lies between Banbury and Hanwell, was built in between 2005–06, on the grounds of the former Hanwell Farm. Banburyshire is an informal area centred on Banbur
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri