Withyham is a village and large civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. The village is situated 7 miles south west of 3.5 miles from Crowborough. Withyham parish lies on the edge of Weald, in the valley of the River Medway, where a group of tributaries enter from the south, to the north of Ashdown Forest; the B2110 road passes between Groombridge and Forest Row. Much of the area is rural. New Groombridge is within the parish, Old Groombridge is in the Speldhurst District of Kent. Withyham village itself is small, containing a few houses, the church, a bed and breakfast, the Dorset Arms. Withyham is not included in the Domesday Book, although the manor of Buckhurst is, as "Biochest" (probably from the Saxon "boc hyrst" or beech wood. There have been two houses at Buckhurst for many centuries: the older Buckhurst House, now no more, the present day Buckhurst Park: both remained in the hands of the Sackville family for generations. Buckhurst Park is the family seat of the De La Warr earldom, William Sackville, 11th Earl De La Warr continues to live there.
Outside of Buckhurst, many of the houses in the village were built to contain estate workers. A significant number of council houses were built in the post war period at Balls Green near a now-closed station. Withyham was home to the Gildredge family, who moved to Eastbourne, acquiring a large share of the town's land by purchase and by marriage. "Gildredge House and estate was the property and residence of the family of the same name," says Thomas Walker Horsfield in his history of Sussex, "who afterwards removed to and became lords of the manor of Eastbourne." Today's Gildredge Park in Eastbourne is named for the family. The Gildredge family was related to the Eversfield family, who owned much of St. Leonards-on-Sea, as well as to the Levetts. According to the Sussex historian Mark Antony Lower, the ancient house and estate of Gildredge "gave name to a family of considerable antiquity, who subsequently had their chief residence at Eastbourne, gave their name to the manor of Eastbourne-Gildredge."
The Gildredge lands were carried by marriage into the Gilbert family, who continue to own much of Eastbourne. Withyham parish is in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Much of the oldest available historical information concerning the Weald of Kent and Surrey, with records going back to 1288, relates to the parish church, St. Michael's; the village church is dedicated to St Michael and All Angels. According to early records, the church was completely rebuilt in the 14th century to contain a Sackville chapel. On 16 June 1663 the church was struck by lightning, melting the bells, causing a great deal of damage; the rebuilding of the church does not seem to have been finished until 1672 and the Sackville Chapel was not completed for another eight years. Of the old church only the lower part of the tower, the west wall from the belfry door to the north-west corner and the north and south east walls remained to be incorporated into the new building, it was around this time that the Rectory was built.
Important alterations were carried out in the 19th century, including a new south aisle, the removal of the low ceiling and a new south porch. In 1849 a set of four paintings was donated to the church: it is thought they are the work of Niccolò di Pietro Gerini; the paintings were sold at Sotheby's in London in 2012. There are eight bells in the tower: five recast after the rebuilding in 1674; these bells remained until 1908 when they were recast and a further two added. The ashes of David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir are buried at the church. Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset is buried there as well. Withyham is a large parish, is therefore divided into three electoral wards: Groombridge. Penn's Rocks is a Site of Special Scientific Interest within the parish; this is a site of biological interest. Its sandstone outcrops providing a rare habitat for many bryophytes. Buckhurst Park historic seat of the Earls De La Warr, head of the Sackville family, Lutyens/Jekyll garden with Repton Park.
100 Acre wood of Winnie the Pooh fame is a part of the Buckhurst Estate To celebrate the millennium in Withyham, the 11th Earl De La Warr planted a yew sapling taken from a tree said to be 2000 years old – i.e. from the time of Christ. Sadly, the sapling was replanted by Earl De La Warr. A millennium map was commissioned by the Church to commemorate 1000 years of Withyham; the village has a regular bus service. The Metrobus 291 bus route serves East Grinstead, Tunbridge Wells, Crawley – as well as neighbouring villages. In nearby Ashurst there is a railway station. Ashurst station is on the Uckfield to London line via East Croydon. Trains are hourly in each direction; the village of Withyham features in Arthur Conan Doyle's short story "The Horror of the Heights" as the finding place of the Joyce-Armstrong Fragment, a real fragment of a diary detailing the airborne adventures of the author of the diary. The ashes of Vita Sackville-West, CH, poet and garden designer, are buried below the Sackville Chapel at Withyham Parish Church.
Withyham Priory Media related to Withyham at Wikimedia Commons
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Although hailing from a family with strong Catholic leanings, he was raised a Protestant, he was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, held many high offices during her reign. Norfolk was the son of Earl of Surrey, he commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage, his father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554. He was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, he was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism. While still young, Norfolk was Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise.
He negotiated the February 1560 Treaty of Berwick by which the Congregation invited English assistance, after the Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in July of that year he was able to return to the court. Norfolk commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was the Principal of the commission at York in 1568 to hear evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots presented by Regent Moray, including the casket letters. Having married and lost three wives by 1567, despite having presided at the York commission, Norfolk schemed to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. William Maitland of Lethington favoured the proposed union, Mary herself consented to it, but Norfolk was unwilling to take up arms. While he delayed Elizabeth ordered his arrest in October 1569 and imprisoned him. Following his release in August 1570, after some hesitation, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England.
The plot was revealed to the queen's minister Lord Burghley, after a 1571 trial, Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at the Church of St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London. Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was restored to his sons; the title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations to his great-great-grandson Thomas Howard. Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, she died after a year of marriage, having given birth to a son: Philip Howard, who became the 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that modern Dukes of Norfolk derive their surname of'FitzAlan-Howard' and their seat in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is found at Framlingham church, Mary FitzAlan was not buried there but first at the church of St. Clement Danes, Temple Bar and under the direction of her grandson's will, at Arundel.
Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Dudley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden. Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were: 1st Earl of Suffolk. After Margaret's death in 1563, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne, widow of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland and daughter of Sir James Leyburn. Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip and William, married Anne and Elizabeth Dacre; the Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, stepsisters to Norfolk's sons. Following the death of his third wife, Norfolk made an effort in 1569 to marry Queen of Scots; the marriage, of course, never happened, Norfolk was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth and executed for this. Thomas Howard appears as a character in the Philippa Gregory novels The Virgin's Lover and The Other Queen, in the novel I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles. A fictionalized version of the 4th Duke of Norfolk appears as a villain, played by Christopher Eccleston, in the 1998 film Elizabeth.
Another version of the Duke is in the BBC mini-series The Virgin Queen, played by Kevin McKidd. In the Channel 4 documentary Elizabeth presented by David Starkey, the Duke is portrayed by actor John Gully. Dukes of Norfolk family tree John George Howard, a Toronto architect who claims to be related to the Duke. Edwards, Francis; the marvellous chance: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, the Ridolphi plot, 1570-1572. ISBN 0-246-64474-5. "Murdin, William: Collection of State Papers, 1571-1596". London. 1759. Papers from Norfolk's treason trial 1568-1572. Williams, Neville. Thomas Howard, Fourth duke of Norfolk. ASIN B0007DRE5Y. William Cooke Taylor, ed.. Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of Norfolk; the Benedictine Brethren of Glendalough. ISBN 1-4254-6159-X. "Howard, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Groombridge Place is a moated manor house in the village of Groombridge near Tunbridge Wells, England. It has become a tourist attraction, noted for its formal gardens, vineyards and a bird of prey sanctuary, The Raptor Centre; the manor house has an associated Dower House. There have been manor houses on the site of the present Groombridge for centuries; the earliest mention of one of these is from 1239, when the Lordship of Groomsbridge was granted to William Russell. William and his wife Haweis built a small moated castle at Groombridge, that year, were granted a charter by Henry III of England to build a chantry; when William died in 1261, lordship was granted to Henry de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham, heir of the influential Kentish family, the de Cobhams. By the mid 14th century, the lands were held by Sir John de Clinton, whose grandson, Lord Clinton and Saye, sold Groombridge to Thomas Waller of Lamberhurst c.1400. Here, his descendant Sir Richard Waller detained Charles, Duke of Orléans, as his prisoner for many years, until he was taken to the Tower of London.
The Wallers held Groombridge Place for over two centuries until it was sold in the seventeenth century. In 1604, the estate was purchased by Sir Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset the Lord Treasurer of England. Sir Thomas built a number of houses in the town of Groombridge. In 1618, Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset had to sell Groombridge to John Packer due to gambling debts. Packer was religious, contributed to the construction of nearby St John's Church. A generation the estate belonged to English barrister and architect Philip Packer, who, in 1662, built the present-day house with the help of his friend Christopher Wren. Philip Packer married heiress Isabella Berkeley, daughter of Robert Berkeley and Elizabeth Conyers, in 1652; the marriage failed to resolve Packer's financial problems. Isabella died at the age of 32. After Philip died in 1686, the estate was vested in the Chancery. Groombridge Place lay empty for twenty years. During that time, the infamous Groombridge Gang began smuggling.
Several times, dragoons were called to restore order in Groombridge. One persistent legend which dates back to that time is that of a tunnel between the cellars at Groombridge Place and those of the nearby Crown Inn, although no such tunnel has been found. Though Groombridge Place has remained untouched since it was built over 350 years ago, the manor has undergone its share of restoration. In the 1920s, electricity and bathrooms were installed. In 1986, the roof timbers and the chimneys were rebuilt to their original design, as heavy growth of ivy had damaged them; the house itself is not open to the public, although the gardens are. Diarist and horticulturist John Evelyn's help was enlisted by friend Phillip Packer for the planning of the new leisure gardens, it is said. On the steep hillsides within the forest are a series of contemporary gardens created in recent years. One famous garden is the drunken garden, a favourite of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's, it was at Groombridge Place that his world-famous Sherlock Holmes novel "The Valley of Fear" is set, although the House is renamed "Birlstone Manor".
A zeedonk, a small donkey, a herd of fallow deer inhabit the grounds. The gate to the secret garden leads to a tiny hidden corner where a tiny stream tumbles into the moat, it was here. Towards the end of the fifteenth century the owner of Groombridge Place, Richard Waller, fell in love with Cicely Neville, known for her beauty, she was the wife of Richard of York and mother of Richard III. Legend claims when she died in 1495 she was buried in Groombridge churchyard and Waller planted a hawthorn tree over her grave. In 1900 a branch was taken in an attempt to strike new growth but the attempt failed. A piece of Waller's love-tree still resides in the Secret Garden in a box on the wall. Sadly this theory is untrue. Historical evidence doesn't support it, Cicely Neville is buried in Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire. Groombridge Place is home to a bird of The Raptor Centre, it is still run today by Eddie Hare. It provides flying demonstrations for the public twice a day throughout the summer season, their breeding program is very successful – producing many birds for release, other breeding programs and as flying birds.
In 2010 the Centre produced 114 young. Many of these were hatched for other people in an incubation service – hatching for other people where they have problem parent birds. Over the years the Centre has rehabilitated hundreds of birds, working in close conjunction with the RSPCA, RSPB, the police and the general public. In the Joe Wright film adaptation of Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice, Groombridge is featured as the Longbourn manor, the home of the Bennet family; the 1982 Peter Greenaway film, The Draughtsman's Contract was filmed at Groombridge in the formal gardens and maze of Groombridge Place Garden. The 2009 BBC production of The Day of the Triffids used this location for Shirning, Bill Masen's father's home; the heir, a wonderful Vita Sackville-West’s novel, was inspired by Groombridge Place. The modernist writer, in her own words, had known Groombridge Place and the two Misses Sant who lived there. After the death of the last Miss Sant, when the property came up for sale, she went there with a rich and florid South American acquaintance of her, who thought of buying it, whose attitude towards it shocked her into writing the story.
Groombridge Place is the model for Birlstone Manor, the se
Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, it threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, most of the buildings of the City authorities, it is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but was traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded; this reasoning has been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C; the Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, spread west across the City of London.
The major firefighting technique of the time was to create firebreaks by means of demolition. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm that defeated such measures; the fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires; the fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Coordinated firefighting efforts were mobilising; the social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. Evacuation from London and resettlement elsewhere were encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite several radical proposals, London was reconstructed on the same street plan used before the fire.
By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants. However, due to the Great Plague of London during the last winter, its population was lower than before it. John Evelyn, contrasting London to the Baroque magnificence of Paris, called it a "wooden and inartificial congestion of Houses", expressed alarm about the fire hazards posed by the wood and the congestion. By "inartificial", Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth and unregulated urban sprawl. London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall, it had pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch and Southwark, had reached far enough to include the independent City of Westminster. By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the River Thames—was only a part of London, covering some 700 acres, home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants.
The City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs where most Londoners lived. The City was as now, the commercial heart of the capital, was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes; the aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district, the site of King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the traffic-clogged, unhealthy City after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the Plague Year of 1665; the relationship was tense between the City and the Crown. The City of London had been a stronghold of republicanism during the Civil War, the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s; the City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma.
They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources. In such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was out of control; the City was medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used; the only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surroun
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
John Thorpe or Thorp was an English architect. Little is known of his life, his work is dubiously inferred, rather than known, from a folio of drawings in the Sir John Soane's Museum, to which Horace Walpole called attention, in 1780, in his Anecdotes of Painting, he was engaged on a number of important English houses of his time, several, such as Longleat, have been attributed to him on grounds which cannot be sustained, because they were built before he was born. In 1570 when he was five years old, he laid the foundation stone of Kirby Hall, Northamptonshire his father being the Master mason of the project, he was the designer of Charlton House, in Charlton, London. Thorpe's major-but-little-trumpeted contribution to world architecture is the humble and now-ubiquitous corridor "for a house in Chelsea", England, in 1597, allowing "independent access to individual rooms"; the fashion was the so-called enfilade arrangement of rooms in a dwelling in which each room led to the next via connecting internal doors.
The enfilade remained popular in continental Europe long after the corridor was adopted in England. Flanders believes Thorpe's inspiration was the one-sided covered walkway common in monastic cloisters. Given their similarities, this is a reasonable prima facie conjecture. Thorpe joined the Office of Works as a clerk practised independently as a land surveyor. From 1611 he was assistant to Robert Tresswell, Surveyor-General of Woods South of the Trent, he retired in the 1630s but seems to have lived to an advanced age, dying around 1655. Aston Hall, Aston Audley End, Essex Thornton College, Lincolnshire for Sir Vincent Skinner c1607-1610. Charlton House, London Holland House, Kensington Kirby Hall, Northamptonshire Longford Castle, Wiltshire Rushton Hall, Northamptonshire Somerhill House, Kent This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Thorpe, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Airs, Malcolm. "Thorpe, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27378. H. M. Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 ISBN 0-300-07207-4
Charles IX of France
Charles IX was King of France from 1560 until his death in 1574 from tuberculosis. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II in 1561. Charles was the twelfth king from the House of Valois, the fifth from the Valois-Orléans branch, the fourth from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant nobleman, in the line of succession to the French throne, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici; this event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement, though religious civil warfare soon began anew.
Charles sought to take advantage of the disarray of the Huguenots by ordering the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. Much of his decision making was influenced by his mother Catherine de' Medici, a fervent Roman Catholic who sought peace between Catholics and Protestants, but after the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre supported the persecution of Huguenots. Charles died of tuberculosis without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III, he was born Charles Maximilian, third son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, in the royal chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled since birth as Duke of Angoulême, he was created Duke of Orléans after the death of his older brother Louis, his parents' second son, who had died in infancy on 24 October 1550; the royal children were raised under the supervision of the governor and governess of the royal children, Claude d'Urfé and Françoise d'Humières, under the orders of Diane de Poitiers.
On 14 May 1564, Charles was presented the Order of the Garter by Henry Carey. His father died in 1559, was succeeded by his elder brother, King Francis II. After Francis's short rule, the ten-year-old Charles was proclaimed king on 5 December 1560; when Francis II died, the Privy Council appointed his mother, Catherine de' Medici, as governor of France, with sweeping powers, at first acting as regent for her young son. On 15 May 1561, Charles was consecrated in the cathedral at Reims. Antoine of Bourbon, himself in line to the French throne and husband to Queen Joan III of Navarre, was appointed Lieutenant-General of France. Charles' reign was dominated by the French Wars of Religion, which pitted various factions against each other; the Huguenots, the French adherents of Calvinism, had a considerable following among the nobility, while their enemies organised into the Catholic League, were led by the House of Guise, a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine. Queen Catherine, though nominally a Catholic tried to steer a middle course between the two factions, attempting to keep the peace and augment royal power.
The factions had engaged in violence before Charles' accession: in 1560 a group of Huguenot nobles at Amboise had planned to try to abduct King Francis II and arrest the Catholic leaders Francis, Duke of Guise, his brother Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. The plot was found out ahead of time, the Guises were prepared, executing hundreds of Huguenots; this was followed by cases of Catholic reprisals. The regent Catherine tried to foster reconciliation at the Colloquy at Poissy and, after that failed, made several concessions to the Huguenots in the Edict of Saint-Germain in January 1562. Nonetheless, war broke out when some retainers of the House of Guise, hoping to avenge the attempt of Amboise. In Wassy, France on 1 March 1562, Duke of Guise and his troops attacked and killed or wounded over 100 Huguenot worshipers and citizens; the tragedy is identified as the first major event in the French Wars of Religion. Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Condé, brother of the Lieutenant-General and the suspected architect of the Amboise conspiracy, had prepared for war and, taking Wassy as the pretext, assumed the role of a protector of Protestantism and began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire Valley.
In return, the monarchy revoked the concessions given to the Huguenots. After the military leaders of both sides were either killed or captured in battles at Rouen and Orléans, the regent mediated a truce and issued the Edict of Amboise; the war was followed by four years of an uneasy "armed peace", during which Catherine tried to unite the factions in the successful effort to recapture Le Havre from the English. After this victory, Charles declared his legal majority in August 1563. However, Catherine would continue to play a principal role in politics and dominated her son. In March 1564, the King and his mother set out from Fontainebleau on a grand tour of France, their tour spanned two years and brought them through Bar, Salon-de-Provence, Toulouse, Bayonne, La Rochelle, Moulins. During this trip, Charles IX issued the Edict of Roussillon, which standardised 1 January as the first day of the year throughout France. War again broke out in 1567 after reports of iconoclasm in Flanders prompted Charles to support Catholics there.
Huguenots, fearing a Catholic attack was imminent, tried to abduct the king at Meaux, seized various cities, massacred Catholics at Nîmes in an