Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
Campbell River, British Columbia
Campbell River or Wiwek̓a̱m is a coastal city in British Columbia on the east coast of Vancouver Island at the south end of Discovery Passage, which lies along the important Inside Passage shipping route. Campbell River has a population of 35,138 and has long been touted as "the Salmon Capital of the World". Campbell River and Region is in close proximity to the neighboring communities of Quadra and the Discovery Islands, Oyster River, Gold River and Zeballos; the first settlers known in the area were members of the Island Comox and related Coast Salish peoples. During the 18th century a migration of Kwakwaka'wakw people of the Wakashan cultural and linguistic group migrated south from the area of Fort Rupert and established themselves in the Campbell River area, at first enslaving and absorbing the Comox, became infamous as raiders of the Coast Salish peoples farther south, known to history as the Euclataws, spelled Yucultas and is a variant on their name for themselves, the Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok or Legwildok.
Of this group known as the Southern Kwakiutl, there are two subdivisions, the Wekayi or Weiwaikai of the Cape Mudge Indian Band on Quadra Island and the Weiwaikum of the Campbell River Band located in and around the city of Campbell River. Captain George Vancouver reached Campbell River in 1792 aboard the ships HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham; the channel between Quadra Island and Campbell River is named Discovery Passage after HMS Discovery. The captain and his botanist, Mr Archibald Menzies, discovered a small tribe of 350 natives who spoke the Salish language. A Lekwiltok war party armed with European rifles, paddled south from Johnstone Strait in the middle of the 19th century and were in control of the area when HMS Plumper came through on a cartography mission under Captain George Henry Richards around 1859. Dr Samuel Campbell was the ship surgeon, historians believe his name was given to the river by Richards; the community took the name of "Campbell River" when its post office was constructed in 1907.
The name of HMS Discovery's First Lieutenant Zachary Mudge is preserved in the nearby Cape Mudge. Sports fishermen travelled to the area as early as the 1880s after the tales from anglers such as Sir Richard Musgrave and Sir John Rogers; the formation of the Campbell River Tyee Club in 1924, over concern regarding over-fishing of the salmon stocks, served to popularize the area among fishermen. E. P. Painter, for instance, moved to Campbell River the following year and opened his Painter's Lodge in 1929. Painter's Lodge attracted clientele from Hollywood and regular patrons included Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. Commercial fishing was a large industry for many years; the town's magistrate Roderick Haig-Brown purchased a fishing cabin on Campbell River and wrote a number of books on fly fishing for both sport fishermen and conservationists. Industrial logging took off in the 1920s with Merrill Ring and Company, Bloedel and Welch and Comox Logging. A large forest fire started near Buttle Lake and burned much of the valley in 1938.
Rock Bay, Menzies Bay, Englewood all were big logging camps. After 1912, Campbell River became a supply point for northern Vancouver Island, Quadra Island and Cortes Island; the E and N Railway was surveyed to Campbell River, yet it only reached Courtenay, forty miles south. After the Second World War, Campbell River became a boom town and industrial centre with the building of the John Hart Dam, Elk Falls pulp mill, nearby mills in Tahsis and Gold River. Logging and mining in the area prospered. There is a lead zinc mine nearby, coal mines, while a large copper mine operated to the north. In recent years Campbell River, about half-way up Vancouver Island, has continued to mark the boundary between the more developed south and the wild and natural areas in the northern part of the island. Local fish hatcheries help to maintain salmon stocks for the fishing industry. Campbell River has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate Csb; the most precipitation is measured at 231 millimeters on average. January tends to see 152 millimeters on average.
In the winter months occasional Arctic bursts from the interior of British Columbia can make their way onto the coast bringing temperatures below freezing. If a Pacific low reaches the coast a large snowfall can occur. Snowfalls in excess of 45 centimetres have been recorded in a 24-hour period and the greatest snowfall was 53.3 centimetres in 1978. Campbell River has a variety of growing industries and small businesses suitable to an oceanside community; as of 2012 the focus of business is directed towards aquaculture, clean energy development, creative industries, fishing, health care, international education, mining and tourism. While logging continues to be a source of employment in the area, since Elk Falls Mill, one of the largest employers in the area, shut down in 2009. There have been many cases of former mill employees moving away to other places with higher demands for a similar labour force Fort McMurray, Alberta. Public schools are administered by School District 72 Campbell River.
North Island College has a campus in Campbell River. Campbell River has developed a new international program accepting students from Germany and various other countries across Europe, South America and Asia. Along with School District 72, there is a private K
University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia. Established in 1908, UBC is British Columbia's oldest university; the university is ranked among the top 20 public universities worldwide and among the top three in Canada. With an annual research budget of $600 million, UBC funds over 8,000 projects a year; the Vancouver campus is situated about 10 km west of Downtown Vancouver. UBC is home to TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, which houses the world's largest cyclotron. In addition to the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies and Stuart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute, UBC and the Max Planck Society collectively established the first Max Planck Institute in North America, specializing in quantum materials. One of the largest research libraries in Canada, the UBC Library system has over 9.9 million volumes among its 21 branches. The Okanagan campus, acquired in 2005, is located in Kelowna, British Columbia.
As of 2017, eight Nobel laureates, 71 Rhodes scholars, 65 Olympians, eight Fellows in both American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Royal Society, 208 Fellows to the Royal Society of Canada have been affiliated with UBC. Three Canadian prime ministers, including Canada's first female prime minister Kim Campbell and current prime minister Justin Trudeau have been educated at UBC. In 1877, six years after British Columbia joined Canada, the Superintendent of Education, John Jessop, submitted a proposal for the formation of a provincial university; the provincial legislature passed An Act Respecting the University of British Columbia in 1890, but disagreements arose over whether to build the university on Vancouver Island or the mainland. The British Columbia University Act of 1908 formally called a provincial university into being, although its location was not specified; the governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which created a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The Act constituted a twenty-one member senate with Francis Carter-Cotton of Vancouver as chancellor. Before the University Act, there had been several attempts at creating a degree-granting university with help from the Universities of Toronto and McGill. Columbian College in New Westminster, through its affiliation with Victoria College of the University of Toronto, began to offer university-level credit at the turn-of-the-century, but McGill came to dominate higher education in the early 1900s. Building on a successful affiliation between Vancouver and Victoria high schools with McGill University, Henry Marshall Tory helped establish the McGill University College of British Columbia. From 1906 to 1915, McGill BC operated as a private institution providing the first few years toward a degree at McGill University or elsewhere; the Henry Marshall Tory Medal was established in 1941 by Tory, founding president of the University of Alberta and of the National Research Council of Canada, a co-founder of Carleton University.
In the meantime, appeals were made to the government to revive the earlier legislation for a provincial institution, leading to the University Endowment Act in 1907, the University Act in 1908. In 1910 the Point Grey site was chosen, the government appointed Dr. Frank Fairchild Wesbrook as president in 1913, Leonard Klinck as dean of Agriculture in 1914. A declining economy and the outbreak of war in August 1914 compelled the University to postpone plans for building at Point Grey, instead the former McGill University College site at Fairview became home to the University until 1925. On the first day of lectures was September 30, 1915, the new independent university absorbed McGill University College; the University of British Columbia awarded its first degrees in 1916, Klinck became the second president in 1919, serving until 1940. World War I dominated campus life, the student body was "decimated" by enlistments for active service, with three hundred UBC students in Company "D" alone. By the war's end, 697 members of the University had enlisted.
109 students graduated in the three war-time congregations, all but one in the Faculty of Arts and Science. By 1920, the university had only three faculties: Arts, Applied Science, Agriculture, it only awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Applied Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. There were 576 male students and 386 female students in the 1920–21 winter session, but only 64 academic staff, including 6 women. In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Although UBC did not offer degrees in these fields, it began to offer degrees in new professional areas such as engineering, agriculture and school teaching, it introduced graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis, with students completing M. A. degrees in natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. In 1922, the twelve-hundred-strong student body embarked on a "Build the University" campaign.
Students marched through the streets of Vancouver to draw attention to their plight, enlist popular support, embarrass the government. Fifty-six thousand signatures were presented at legislature in support of the campaign, which
1958 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1958 was the 24th general election in Canada's history. It was held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 24th Parliament of Canada on March 31, 1958, just nine months after the 23rd election, it transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbaker's minority into the largest majority government in Canadian history and the second largest percentage of the popular vote. Although the Tories would surpass their 1958-seat total in the 1984 election, the 1958 result remains unmatched both in terms of percentage of seats and the size of the Government majority over all opposition parties. Voter turnout was 79.4%. Diefenbaker called a snap election and capitalized on three factors: Nationally, the Liberals had just chosen a new leader, Lester Pearson, who had given an ill-advised maiden speech in Commons that asked Diefenbaker to resign and recommend the Governor General allow the Liberals to form a government without an election due to the recent economic downturn.
Diefenbaker seized on the remark by describing a series of classified Liberal Cabinet documents stating that the economy would face a downturn in that year. This contrasted with the Liberals' 1957 campaign promises. A turnaround in Quebec: Quebec had been Liberal since the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but upon the resignation of former Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, the province had no favourite son leader, as they had since 1948, its voters were open to new options. Seeking a greater voice in Ottawa, Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis's Union Nationale used their party machine to ally with the Tories, allowing Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservatives to win two thirds of the seats in what had been a Liberal stronghold for a generation. While the Liberals finished only four percentage points behind the Tories in Quebec, much of their vote was wasted racking up large majorities in their traditional safest seats; the 25 seats the Liberals won in Quebec accounted for more than half of their decimated caucus, on a proportional basis was their best performance after Newfoundland.
A collapse in support for the Social Credit Party which lost all 19 of its seats. Prior to the 1957 election, the Socreds were seen as a credible threat to replace the Tories as the main right wing party in the country, as they had done in British Columbia and Alberta, but the popularity of the Diefenbaker government persuaded many Social Credit supporters to abandon their party; this allowed the Tories to pick up not only Social Credit seats, but proved decisive in many seats that featured a fractured vote between the PCs, Social Credit, CCF. Notably, the Tories swept all seventeen seats in Alberta, where they had held just three seats to Social Credit's thirteen; the election proved to be the start of a long decline for the federal Social Credit Party. It would never challenge the PCs dominance in the West again in federal politics, although the BC Social Credit Party governed that province for all but three years until 1991. Notes: "Previous" refers to standings at previous election, not to standings in the House of Commons at dissolution.
* The party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. X - less than 0.005% of the popular vote xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 24th Canadian Parliament The Elections of 1957 and 1958, by P. E. Bryden Electoral Results by Party, on Parliament of Canada site
1972 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 29th Parliament of Canada. It resulted in a slim victory for the governing Liberal Party, which won 109 seats, compared to 107 seats for the opposition Progressive Conservatives. A further 48 seats were won by other independents. On election night, the results appeared to give 109 seats to the Tories, but once the counting had finished the next day, the final results gave the Liberals a minority government and left the New Democratic Party led by David Lewis holding the balance of power. See 29th Canadian parliament for a full list of MPs elected; the election was the second fought by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The Liberals entered the election high in the polls, but the spirit of Trudeaumania had worn off, a slumping economy hurt his party; the Tories were led by Robert Stanfield, the former premier of Nova Scotia, who had an honest but bumbling image. The Tories tried to capitalize on the public's perception that the Liberals were mismanaging the economy with the slogan, "A Progressive Conservative government will do better."
The Liberals campaigned on the slogan, "The Land is Strong", television ads illustrating Canada's scenery. The slogan became much derided, the party had developed few real issues to campaign on; as a result, their entire campaign was viewed as being one of the worst managed in recent decades. Liberal Party: increase bilingualism in the civil service. Progressive Conservative Party: increase the discipline in government spending, increase the power of the Auditor General to fight waste and inefficiency in government. New Democratic Party: eliminate 3% increase in personal income tax rates scheduled for January 1, 1973, reduce rates by 8% for ordinary Canadians. Social Credit Party: reform the monetary system in line with social credit theories; the voter turn-out was 76.7%. One independent candidate was elected: Roch LaSalle was re-elected in his Quebec riding. LaSalle had left the PC caucus to protest the party's failure to recognize Quebec's right to self-determination, was the only candidate to win the support of the separatist Parti Québécois.
One candidate with no affiliation was elected: Lucien Lamoureux, in the Ontario riding of Stormont-Dundas-Glengarry. Lamoureux elected as a Liberal, had been serving as Speaker of the House of Commons, he ran without affiliation. He retired after this Parliament, did not run in the 1974 election; the Liberals won a minority government, with the New Democratic Party led by David Lewis holding the balance of power. Despite having won both the popular vote and the most seats in every province and territory except for Quebec, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories, the Tories were kept out of power by their continued inability to make any headway into Quebec, as well as a failure to more decisively win in Ontario, where the Liberals finished a close second. Requiring NDP support to continue, the government would move to the political left, including the creation of Petro-Canada. Notes: "% change" refers to change from previous election 1 Indicates increase from total Social Credit + Ralliement creditiste seats/vote in 1968.
2 Roch LaSalle, elected in 1968 as a Progressive Conservative, won re-election as an independent. 3 Lucien Lamoureux, elected as a Liberal but served as Speaker of the House, won re-election with no party affiliation. 4 The Rhinoceros Party ran a total of 12 candidates, but because it was not recognized by Elections Canada as a registered party, its candidates were listed as independents. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 29th Canadian Parliament Social
1957 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1957 was held June 10, 1957, to select the 265 members of the House of Commons of Canada. In one of the great upsets in Canadian political history, the Progressive Conservative Party, led by John Diefenbaker, brought an end to 22 years of Liberal rule, as the Tories were able to form a minority government; the Liberal Party had governed Canada since 1935. Under Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent, the government built a welfare state. During the Liberals's fifth term in office, the opposition parties depicted them as arrogant and unresponsive to Canadians' needs. Controversial events, such as the 1956 "Pipeline Debate" over the construction of the Trans-Canada Pipeline, had hurt the government. St. Laurent, nicknamed'Uncle Louis', remained popular, but exercised little supervision over his cabinet ministers. In 1956, Tory leader George A. Drew unexpectedly resigned due to ill health. In his place, the PC party elected charismatic Diefenbaker.
The Tories ran a campaign centred on their new leader, who attracted large crowds to rallies and made a strong impression on television. The Liberals ran a lacklustre campaign, St. Laurent made few television appearances. Uncomfortable with the medium, the Prime Minister read his speeches from a script and refused to wear makeup. Abandoning their usual strategy of trying to make major inroads in Liberal-dominated Quebec, the Tories focused on winning seats in the other provinces, they were successful. With the remaining seats won by other parties, the PC party only had a plurality in the House of Commons, but the margin was sufficient to make John Diefenbaker Canada's first Tory Prime Minister since 1935; the Tories had last governed Canada under R. B. Bennett, elected in 1930. Bennett's government had limited success in dealing with the Depression, was defeated in 1935, as Liberal William Lyon Mackenzie King, who had served two times as Prime Minister, was restored to power; the Liberals won five consecutive majorities between 1935 and 1953.
The Liberals worked with the civil service and their years of dominance saw prosperity. When Mackenzie King retired in 1948, he was succeeded by his Minister of Justice, Louis St. Laurent, a bilingual Quebecer who took office at the age of 66. An adept politician, St. Laurent projected a gentle persona and was affectionately known to many Canadians as Uncle Louis. In actuality, St. Laurent was uncomfortable away from Ottawa, was subject to fits of depression, on political trips was managed by advertising men from the firm of Cockfield Brown. St. Laurent led the Liberals to an overwhelming triumph in the 1949 election, campaigning under the slogan "You never had it so good"; the Liberals won a fifth successive mandate in 1953, with St. Laurent content to exercise a relaxed leadership style. With over twenty years of parliamentary majorities, Liberal ministers did as they wished with little regard for the opposition parties; the Mackenzie King and St. Laurent governments laid the groundwork for the welfare state, a development opposed by many Tories.
C. D. Howe, considered one of the leading forces of the St. Laurent government, told his Tory opponents when they alleged that the Liberals would abolish tariffs if the people would let them, "Who would stop us?... Don't take yourselves too seriously. If we wanted to get away with it, who would stop us?" At the start of 1956, the Tories were led by former Ontario premier George A. Drew, elected PC leader in 1948 over Saskatchewan MP John Diefenbaker. Drew was the fifth man to lead the Tories in their 21 years out of power. None had come close to defeating the Liberals; the Liberals, had won 125 seats, maintained their majority. In the 1953 election, the PC party won 51 seats out of the 265 in the House of Commons. Subsequently, the Tories picked up two seats from the Liberals in by-elections, the Liberals lost an additional seat to the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. After over two decades in opposition, the Tories were associated with that role in the public eye; the Tories were seen as the party of the wealthy and of English-speaking Canada and drew about 30% of the vote in federal elections.
The Tories had enjoyed little success in Quebec in the past forty years. By 1956, the Social Credit Party was becoming a potential rival to the Tories as Canada's main right-wing party. Canadian journalist and author Bruce Hutchison discussed the state of the Tories in 1956: When a party calling itself Conservative can think of nothing better than to outbid the Government's election promises. In 1955, the Tories, through a determined filibuster, were able to defeat amendments to the Defence Procurement Act, which would have made temporary, extraordinary powers granted to the government permanent. Drew led the Tories in a second battle with the government the following year: in the so-called "Pipeline Debate", the government invoked closure repe
1945 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1945 was the 20th general election in Canadian history. It was held June 11, 1945 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 20th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal government was re-elected to its third consecutive government, although this time with a minority government as the Liberals fell five seats short of a majority. Although the election resulted in a minority government, the election of eight "Independent Liberal" MPs, most of whom did not run as official Liberals because of their opposition to conscription, gave the King government an effective working majority in parliament. Most of the Independent Liberal MPs joined the Liberal caucus following World War II when the conscription issue became moot; as King was defeated in his own riding of Prince Albert, fellow Liberal William MacDiarmid, re-elected in the safe seat of Glengarry, resigned so that a by-election could be held, subsequently won by King.
The federal election was the first since the victory of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the Saskatchewan provincial election, many predicted a major breakthrough for the CCF nationally. A Gallup poll from September 1943 showed the CCF with a one-point lead over both the Liberals and Conservatives; the party was expected to win 70 to 100 seats even enough to form a minority government. Despite the expectations, the party only won 28 seats. 1945 was the first test of the newly named Progressive Conservatives. The Conservative Party had changed its name in 1942 when former Progressive Party Premier of Manitoba John Bracken became its leader; the party improved its standing in terms of number of seats compared to the old Conservative Party, but recorded a reduced share of the popular vote and fell far short of challenging Liberal hegemony. Operation Downfall, the invasion of Japan, was scheduled for late 1945-early 1946. Bracken had promised conscription for the invasion of Japan whereas King had promised to commit one division of volunteers to the planned invasion of Japan.
Based on the way that the Japanese had fought the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa it was expected that the invasion of the Japanese home islands would be a bloody campaign, Bracken's promise of conscription for the planned invasion of Japan did much to turn voters against his party. A key issue in this election seems to have been electing a stable government; the Liberals urged voters to "Return the Mackenzie King Government", argued that only the Liberal Party had a "preponderance of members in all nine provinces". Mackenzie King threatened to call a new election if he was not given a majority: "We would have confusion to deal with at a time when the world will be in a disturbed situation; the war in Europe is over, but unrest in the east is not over." The Progressive Conservatives tried to capitalize on the massive mid-campaign victory by the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party in the 1945 Ontario provincial election. PC campaign ads exhorted voters to rally behind their party: "Ontario shows!
Only Bracken can win!", suggesting that it would be impossible to form a majority government in the country without a plurality of seats in Ontario, which only the Tories could win. In the event, the Liberals fell just short of a majority though they won only 34 seats in Ontario to the PCs' 48 seats. Eight "Independent Liberal" MPs could be expected to support the government. Social welfare programs were an issue in the campaign. Another Liberal slogan encouraged voters to "Build a New Social Order" by endorsing the Liberal platform, which included $750 million to provide land and business support for veterans. Campaigning under the slogan, "Work and Freedom for All -- with the CCF", the CCF promised to retain war-time taxes on high incomes and excess profits in order to fund social services, to abolish the Senate of Canada; the CCF fought hard to prevent the support of labour from going to the Labor-Progressive Party. The LPP, for its part, pointed out that the CCF's refusal to enter into an electoral pact with the LPP had cost the CCF 100,000 votes in the Ontario election, had given victory to the Ontario PCs.
It urged voters to "Make Labour a Partner in Government." The Social Credit Party of Canada tried, with modest success, to capitalize on the positive image of the Alberta Socred government of William Aberhart, asking voters, "Good Government in Alberta -- Why Not at Ottawa?". Referring to social credit monetary theories, the party encouraged voters to "Vote for the National Dividend". Notes: * The party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. X - less than 0.005% of the popular vote. 1 1945 Progressive Conservative vote compared to 1940 National Government + Conservative vote. 2 1945 Social Credit vote compared to 1940 New Democracy + Social Credit vote. 3 1945 Labor-Progressive vote compared to 1940 Communist vote. 4 The successful "Independent CCF" candidate ran as a People's Co-operative Commonwealth Federation candidate. 5 One Progressive Conservative candidate ran under the "National Government" label that the party had used in the 1940 election. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote.
Argyle, Ray. Turning Points: The Campaigns That Changed Canada - 2011 and Before excerpt and text search ch 9 List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 20th Canadian Parliament