Rushden is a small village and civil parish which forms part of the grouped parish council of Rushden and Wallington in the North Hertfordshire district, in the county of Hertfordshire, England. Rushden is located just off the A507 between Buntingford. Rushden Community Website
Callimachus was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. He was a poet and scholar at the Library of Alexandria and enjoyed the patronage of the Egyptian–Greek Pharaohs Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy III Euergetes. Although he was never made chief librarian, he was responsible for producing a bibliographic survey based upon the contents of the Library. This, his Pinakes, 120 volumes long, provided the foundation for work on the history of ancient Greek literature, he is among the most influential scholar-poets of the Hellenistic age. Callimachus was of Libyan Greek origin, he was born c. 310/305 BC and raised in Cyrene, as member of a distinguished family, his parents being Mesatme and Battus, supposed descendant of the first Greek king of Cyrene, Battus I, through whom Callimachus claimed to be a descendant of the Battiad dynasty, the Libyan Greek monarchs that ruled Cyrenaica for eight generations and the first Greek Royal family to have reigned in Africa. He was named after his grandfather, an "elder" Callimachus, regarded by the Cyrenaean citizens and had served as a general.
Callimachus married. However, it is unknown, he had a sister called Megatime but little is known about her: she married a Cyrenaean man called Stasenorus or Stasenor to whom she bore a son, who became a poet, author of "The Island". In years, he was educated in Athens; when he returned to North Africa, he moved to Alexandria. Elitist and erudite, claiming to "abhor all common things," Callimachus is best known for his short poems and epigrams. During the Hellenistic period, a major trend in Greek-language poetry was to reject epics modelled after Homer. Instead, Callimachus urged poets to "drive their wagons on untrodden fields," rather than following in the well worn tracks of Homer, idealizing a form of poetry, brief, yet formed and worded, a style at which he excelled. "Big book, big evil" is another saying attributed to him thought to be attacking long, old-fashioned poetry. Callimachus wrote poems in praise of his royal patrons, a wide variety of other poetic styles, as well as prose and criticism.
Due to Callimachus' strong stance against the epic, he and his younger student Apollonius of Rhodes, who favored epic and wrote the Argonautica, had a long and bitter feud, trading barbed comments and personal attacks for over thirty years. It is now known, through a papyrus fragment from Oxyrhynchus listing the earliest chief librarians of the Library of Alexandria that Ptolemy II never offered the post to Callimachus, but passed him over for Apollonius Rhodius; some classicists, including Peter Green, speculate. According to the current scholarly consensus, the evidence for this putative feud is lacking, it is to be specious. Moreover, without knowing the precise nature of the role, it is impossible to conclude what should be inferred from Callimachus' failure to become chief librarian. Though Callimachus was an opponent of "big books", the Suda puts his number of works at 800, suggesting that he found large quantities of small works more acceptable. Of these, only six hymns, sixty-four epigrams, some fragments are extant.
His Aetia, another rare longer work surviving only in tattered papyrus fragments and quotations in authors, was a collection of elegiac poems in four books, dealing with the foundation of cities, obscure religious ceremonies, unique local traditions chosen for their oddity, other customs, throughout the Hellenic world. In the first three books at least, the formula appears to ask a question of the Muse, of the form, "Why, on Paros, do worshippers of the Charites use neither flutes nor crowns?" "Why, at Argos is a month named for'lambs'?" "Why, at Leucas, does the image of Artemis have a mortar on its head?" A series of questions can be reconstituted from the fragments. One passage of the Aetia, the so-called Coma Berenices, has been reconstructed from papyrus remains and the celebrated Latin adaptation of Catullus; the extant hymns are learned, written in a style that some have criticised as labored and artificial. The epigrams are more respected, several have been incorporated into the Greek Anthology.
According to Quintilian he was the chief of the elegiac poets. Many modern classicists hold Callimachus in high regard for his major influence on Latin poetry. Callimachus' most famous prose work is the Pinakes, a bibliographical survey of authors of the works held in the Library of Alexandria; the Pinakes was one of the first known documents that lists and categorizes a library’s holdings. By consulting the Pinakes, a library patron could find out if the library contained a work by a particular author, how it was categorized, where it might be found, it is important to note that Callimachus did not seem to have any models for his pinakes, invented this system on his own. Pfeiffer, R. Callimachus, vol. I: Fragmenta. ISBN 978-0-19-814115-0. Pfeiffer, R. Callimachus, vol. ii: Hymni
Richard Lovelace was an English poet in the seventeenth century. He was a cavalier poet, his best known works are "To Althea, from Prison", "To Lucasta, Going to the Warres". Richard Lovelace was born on 9 December 1617, his exact birthplace is unknown, may have been Woolwich, Kent, or Holland. He was the oldest son of Anne Barne Lovelace, he had three sisters. His father was from legal family, his father, Sir William Lovelace, knt. was a member of the Virginia Company and an incorporator in the second Virginia Company in 1609. He was a soldier and died during the war with Spain and the Dutch Republic in the Siege of Groenlo a few days before the town fell. Richard was nine years old. Lovelace's father was the son of Sir William Lovelace and Elizabeth Aucher, the daughter of Mabel Wroths and Edward Aucher, who inherited, under his father's will, the manors of Bishopsbourne and Hautsborne. Elizabeth's nephew was Sir Anthony Aucher an English politician and Cavalier during the English Civil War, he was the son of his wife Hester Collett.
Lovelace's mother, Anne Barne, was the daughter of Sir William Barne and the granddaughter of Sir George Barne III, the Lord Mayor of London and a prominent merchant and public official from London during the reign of Elizabeth I and Anne Gerrard, daughter of Sir William Garrard, Lord Mayor of London in 1555. Lovelace's maternal grandmother was Anne Sandys, his great-grandmother was Cicely Wilford and his great-grandfather Most Reverend Dr Edwin Sandys, an Anglican church leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and was one of the translators of the Bishops' Bible. His mother, Anne Barne Lovelace, married as her second husband, on 20 January 1630, at Greenwich, the Very Rev Dr Jonathan Browne They were the parents of one child, Anne Browne, Richard's half-sister, who married Herbert Crofte, STP. and DD and was the mother of Sir Herbert Croft, 1st Baronet see Croft baronets. Lovelace's brother, Francis Lovelace, was the second governor of the New York Colony appointed by the Duke of York King James II of England.
They were great nephews of both George Sandys, an English traveller and poet. In 1629, when Lovelace was eleven, he went to Sutton's Foundation at Charterhouse School in London. There is no clear record that Lovelace attended, he spent five years at Charterhouse, three of which were spent with Richard Crashaw, who became a poet. On 5 May 1631, Lovelace was sworn in as a Gentleman Wayter Extraordinary to King Charles I, an honorary position for which one paid a fee, he went on to Gloucester Hall, Oxford, in 1634. Lovelace attended the University of Oxford and was praised by his contemporary Anthony Wood as "the most amiable and beautiful person that eye beheld. While at college, he tried to portray himself more as a social connoisseur than as a scholar, continuing his image of being a Cavalier. Being a Cavalier poet, Lovelace wrote to praise a friend or fellow poet, to give advice in grief or love, to define a relationship, to articulate the precise amount of attention a man owes a woman, to celebrate beauty, to persuade to love.
Lovelace wrote The Scholars, while at Oxford. He left for the University of Cambridge for a few months, where he met Lord Goring, who led him into political trouble. At the age of eighteen he was granted the degree of Master of Arts. Lovelace's poetry was influenced by his experiences with politics and association with important figures of his time. At the age of nineteen he contributed a verse to a volume of elegies commemorating Princess Katharine. In 1639 Lovelace joined the regiment of Lord Goring, serving first as a senior ensign and as a captain in the Bishops' Wars; this experience inspired "Sonnet. To Generall Goring", the poem "To Lucasta, Going to the Warres" and the tragedy The Soldier. On his return to his home in Kent in 1640, Lovelace served as a country gentleman and a justice of the peace, encountering civil turmoil over religion and politics. In 1641, Lovelace led a group of men to seize and destroy a petition for the abolition of Episcopal rule, signed by 15,000 people; the following year he presented the House of Commons with Dering's pro-Royalist petition, supposed to have been burned.
These actions resulted in Lovelace's first imprisonment. He was shortly released on bail, with the stipulation that he avoid communication with the House of Commons without permission; this prevented Lovelace, who had done everything to prove himself during the Bishops' Wars, from participating in the first phase of the English Civil War. This first experience of imprisonment brought him to write one of his best known lyrics, "To Althea, from Prison", in which he illustrates his noble and paradoxical nature. Lovelace did everything he could to remain in the king's favor despite his inability to participate in the war. During the political chaos of 1648 he was again i
Strand is a major thoroughfare in the City of Westminster, Central London. It runs just over 3⁄4 mile from Trafalgar Square eastwards to Temple Bar, where the road becomes Fleet Street inside the City of London, is part of the A4, a main road running west from inner London; the road's name comes from the Old English strond, meaning the edge of a river, as it ran alongside the north bank of the River Thames. The street was popular with the British upper classes between the 12th and 17th centuries, with many important mansions being built between the Strand and the river; these included Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, Savoy Palace, Durham House and Cecil House. The aristocracy moved to the West End over the 17th century, following which the Strand became well known for coffee shops and taverns; the street was a centre point for theatre and music hall during the 19th century, several venues remain on the Strand. At the east end of the street are two historic churches: St Mary le Strand and St Clement Danes.
This easternmost stretch of the Strand is home to King's College, one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. Several authors and philosophers have lived on or near the Strand, including Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Virginia Woolf; the street has been commemorated in the song "Let's All Go Down the Strand", now recognised as a typical piece of Cockney music hall. The street is the main link between the two cities of London, it runs eastward from Trafalgar Square, parallel to the River Thames, to Temple Bar, the boundary between the two cities at this point. Traffic travelling eastbound follows a short crescent around Aldwych, connected at both ends to the Strand; the road marks the southern boundary of the Covent Garden district and forms part of the Northbank business improvement district. The name was first recorded in 1002 as strondway in 1185 as Stronde and in 1220 as la Stranda, it is formed from the Old English word ` strond'. It referred to the shallow bank of the once much wider Thames, before the construction of the Victoria Embankment.
The name was applied to the road itself. In the 13th century it was known as'Densemanestret' or'street of the Danes', referring to the community of Danes in the area. Two London Underground stations were once named Strand: a Piccadilly line station that operated between 1907 and 1994 and a former Northern line station which today forms part of Charing Cross station.'Strand Bridge' was the name given to Waterloo Bridge during its construction. London Bus routes 6, 23, 139 and 176 all run along the Strand. During Roman Britain, what is now the Strand was part of the route to Silchester, known as "Iter VIII" on the Antonine Itinerary, which became known by the name Akeman Street, it was part of a trading town called Lundenwic that developed around 600 AD, stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great moved the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the area returned to fields. In the Middle Ages, the Strand became the principal route between the separate settlements of the City of London and the royal Palace of Westminster.
In the archaeological record, there is considerable evidence of occupation to the north of Aldwych, but much along the former foreshore has been covered by rubble from the demolition of the Tudor Somerset Place, a former royal residence, to create a large platform for the building of the first Somerset House, in the 17th century. The landmark Eleanor's Cross was built in the 13th century at the western end of the Strand at Charing Cross by Edward I commemorating his wife Eleanor of Castile, it was demolished in 1647 by the request of Parliament during the First English Civil War, but reconstructed in 1865. The west part of the Strand was in the parish of St Martin in the Fields and in the east it extended into the parishes of St Clement Danes and St Mary le Strand. Most of its length was in the Liberty of Westminster, although part of the eastern section in St Clement Danes was in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex; the Strand was the northern boundary of the precinct of the Savoy, where the approach to Waterloo Bridge is now.
All of these parishes and places became part of the Strand District in 1855, except St Martin in the Fields, governed separately. The Strand District Board of Works was based at No. 22, Tavistock Street. Strand District was abolished in October 1900 and became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. From the 12th century onwards, large mansions lined the Strand including several palaces and townhouses inhabited by bishops and royal courtiers on the south side, with their own river gates and landings directly on the Thames; the road was poorly maintained, with many pits and sloughs, a paving order was issued in 1532 to improve traffic. What became Essex House on the Strand was an Outer Temple of the Knights Templar in the 11th century. In 1313, ownership passed to the Knights of St John. Henry VIII gave the house to William, Baron Paget in the early 16th century. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, rebuilt the house in 1563 calling it Leicester House, it was renamed Essex House after being inherited by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, in 1588.
It was demolished around 1674 and Essex Street, leading up to the Strand, was built o
For the ancient Phoenician writer, see Mochus. For the 6th century A. D. Syrian writer, see Joannes Moschus. Moschus is the genus of the musk deer. Moschus, ancient Greek bucolic poet and student of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, was born at Syracuse and flourished about 150 BC. Aside from his poetry, he was known for his grammatical work, his few surviving works consist of an epyllion, the Europa, on the myth of Europa, three bucolic fragments and a whole short bucolic poem Runaway Love, an epigram in elegiac couplets. His surviving bucolic material is short on pastoral themes and is erotic and mythological. Moschus' poetry is edited along with other bucolic poets, as in the used Oxford text by A. S. F. Gow, but the Europa has received separate scholarly editions, as by Winfried Bühler and Malcolm Campbell; the epigram is normally published with the edition by Maximos Planoudes of the Greek Anthology. The Europa, along with Callimachus' Hecale and such Latin examples as Catullus 64, is a major example of the Hellenistic phenomenon of the epyllion.
Although it is hard to tell because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence, Moschus' influence on Greek bucolic poetry is to have been significant. In European literature his work was imitated or translated by such authors as Torquato Tasso and Ben Jonson. Two other poems, attributed to him at one time or another but no longer thought to be his, are commonly edited with his work; the best known is the Epitaph on Bion, which had a long history of influence on the pastoral lament for a poet. The other is a miniature epic on Megara, consisting of an epic dialogue between Heracles' mother and his wife on his absence; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Moschus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. For a recent overview of Moschus see A. Porro in Eikasmos 10 125–25. There are English translations by J. Banks in Bohn's Classical Library, by Andrew Lang, together with Bion of Smyrna and Theocritus. See Franz Susemihl, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in der Alexandrinerzeit.
I. 231. Works written by or about Moschus at Wikisource Works by Moschus at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Moschus at Internet Archive Poems by Moschus English translations Works of Moschus at Theoi Project translated by J. M. Edmonds, 1912 Anacreon and Moschus, etc. translated by Thomas Stanley Europa. Perseus Digital Library Greek Theocritus, Bion et Moschus graece et latine. Accedunt virorum doctorum animadversiones scholia, indices, L. F. Heindorfius, sumtibus Whittaker, Treacher, et Arnot, 1829, vol. 2 pp. 35-77. Poetae bucolici et didactici. Theocritus, Moschus, Oppianus, Marcellus de piscibus, poeta de herbis, C. Fr. Ameis, F. S. Lehrs, editore Ambrosio Firmin Didot, 1862, pp. 77-86
The Clouds is a Greek comedy play written by the playwright Aristophanes. A lampooning of intellectual fashions in classical Athens, it was produced at the City Dionysia in 423 BC and was not as well received as the author had hoped, coming last of the three plays competing at the festival that year, it was thereafter circulated in manuscript form. No copy of the original production survives, scholarly analysis indicates that the revised version is an incomplete form of Old Comedy; this incompleteness, however, is not obvious in modern performances. Retrospectively, The Clouds can be considered the world's first extant "comedy of ideas" and is considered by literary critics to be among the finest examples of the genre; the play however, remains notorious for its caricature of Socrates and is mentioned in Plato's Apology as a contributor to the philosopher's trial and execution. The play begins with Strepsiades sitting up in bed while his son, remains blissfully asleep in the bed next to him. Strepsiades complains to the audience that he is too worried about household debts to get any sleep – his wife has encouraged their son's expensive interest in horses.
Strepsiades, having thought up a plan to get out of debt, wakes the youth and pleads with him to do something for him. Pheidippides at first agrees to do as he's asked changes his mind when he learns that his father wants to enroll him in The Thinkery, a school for wastrels and bums that no self-respecting, athletic young man dares to be associated with. Strepsiades explains that students of The Thinkery learn how to turn inferior arguments into winning arguments and this is the only way he can beat their aggrieved creditors in court. Pheidippides however will not be persuaded and Strepsiades decides to enroll himself in The Thinkery in spite of his advanced age. There he meets a student who tells him about some of the recent discoveries made by Socrates, the head of The Thinkery, including a new unit of measurement for ascertaining the distance jumped by a flea, the exact cause of the buzzing noise made by a gnat and a new use for a large pair of compasses. Impressed, Strepsiades begs to be introduced to the man behind these discoveries.
The wish is soon granted: Socrates appears overhead, wafted in a basket at the end of a rope, the better to observe the Sun and other meteorological phenomena. The philosopher descends and begins the induction ceremony for the new elderly student, the highlight of, a parade of the Clouds, the patron goddesses of thinkers and other layabouts; the Clouds arrive singing majestically of the regions whence they arose and of the land they have now come to visit, loveliest in all being Greece. Introduced to them as a new devotee, Strepsiades begs them to make him the best orator in Greece by a hundred miles, they reply with the promise of a brilliant future. Socrates leads him into the dingy Thinkery for his first lesson and The Clouds step forward to address the audience. Putting aside their cloud-like costumes, The Chorus declares that this is the author's cleverest play and that it cost him the greatest effort, it reproaches the audience for the play's failure at the festival, where it was beaten by the works of inferior authors, it praises the author for originality and for his courage in lampooning influential politicians such as Cleon.
The Chorus resumes its appearance as clouds, promising divine favours if the audience punishes Cleon for corruption and rebuking Athenians for messing about with the calendar, since this has put Athens out of step with the moon. Socrates returns to the stage in a huff, protesting against the ineptitude of his new elderly student, he summons Strepsiades outside and attempts further lessons, including a form of meditative incubation in which the old man lies under a blanket while thoughts are supposed to arise in his mind naturally. The incubation results in Strepsiades masturbating under the blanket and Socrates refuses to have anything more to do with him; the Clouds advise him to find someone younger to do the learning for him. His son, subsequently yields to threats by Strepsiades and reluctantly returns with him to the Thinkery, where they encounter the personified arguments Superior and Inferior, associates of Socrates. Superior Argument and Inferior Argument debate with each other over which of them can offer the best education.
Superior Argument sides with Justice and the gods, offering to prepare Pheidippides for an earnest life of discipline, typical of men who respect the old ways. At the end of the debate, a quick survey of the audience reveals that buggers – people schooled by Inferior Arguments – have got into the most powerful positions in Athens. Superior Argument accepts his inevitable defeat, Inferior Argument leads Pheidippides into the Thinkery for a life-changing education and Strepsiades goes home happy; the Clouds step forward to address the audience a second time, demanding to be awarded first place in the festival competition, in return for which they promise good rains – otherwise they'll destroy crops, smash roofs and spoil weddings. The story resumes with Strepsiades returning to The Thinkery to fetch his son. A new Pheidippides emerges, startlingly transformed into the pale nerd and intellectual man that he had once feared to become. Rejoicing in the prosp
St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican church at the north-east corner of Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London. It is dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours. There has been a church on the site since the medieval period; the present building was constructed in a Neoclassical design by James Gibbs in 1722–1726. Excavations at the site in 2006 led to the discovery of a grave from about 410 AD; the site is outside the city limits of Roman London but is interesting for being so far outside, this is leading to a reappraisal of Westminster's importance at that time. The burial is thought by some to mark a Christian centre of that time; the earliest extant reference to the church is from 1222, with a dispute between the Abbot of Westminster and the Bishop of London as to who had control over it. The Archbishop of Canterbury decided in favour of Westminster, the monks of Westminster Abbey began to use it. Henry VIII rebuilt the church in 1542 to keep plague victims in the area from having to pass through his Palace of Whitehall.
At this time, it was "in the fields", an isolated position between the cities of Westminster and London. By the beginning of the reign of James I, the church had become inadequate for the size of its congregation, due to the great increase in population in the area. In 1606 the king granted an acre of ground to the west of St. Martin's Lane for a new churchyard, the building was enlarged eastwards over the old burial ground, increasing the length of the church by about half. At the same time the church was, in the phrase of the time "repaired and beautified". In the 17th century capacity was further increased with the addition of galleries; the creation of the new parishes of St Anne, St James and the opening of a chapel in Oxenden Street relieved some of the pressure on space. As it stood at the beginning of the 18th century, the church was built of brick, rendered over, with stone facings; the roof was tiled, there was a stone tower, with buttresses. The ceiling was arched, supported with what Edward Hatton described as "Pillars of the Tuscan and Modern Gothick orders".
The interior was wainscotted in oak to a height of 6 ft, while the galleries, on the north and west sides, were of painted deal. The church was 62 ft wide; the tower was about 90 ft high. A number of notables were buried in this phase of the church, including Robert Boyle, Nell Gwyn, John Parkinson and Sir John Birkenhead. A survey of 1710 found. In 1720, Parliament passed an act for the rebuilding of the church allowing for a sum of up to £22,000, to be raised by a rate on the parishioners. A temporary church was erected on the churchyard and on ground in Lancaster Court. Advertisements were placed in the newspapers that bodies and monuments of those buried in the church or churchyard could be taken away for reinterment by relatives; the rebuilding commissioners selected James Gibbs to design the new church. His first suggestion was for a church with a circular nave and domed ceiling, but the commissioners considered this scheme too expensive. Gibbs produced a simpler, rectilinear plan, which they accepted.
The foundation stone was laid on 19 March 1722, the last stone of the spire was placed into position in December 1724. The total cost was £33,661 including the architect's fees; the west front of St Martin's has a portico with a pediment supported by a giant order of Corinthian columns, six wide. The order is continued around the church by pilasters. In designing the church, Gibbs drew upon the works of Christopher Wren, but departed from Wren's practice in his integration of the tower into the church. Rather than considering it as an adjunct to the main body of the building, he constructed it within the west wall, so that it rises above the roof behind the portico, an arrangement used at around the same time by John James at St George, Hanover Square, although James' steeple is much less ambitious; the spire of St Martin's rises 192 ft above the level of the church floor. The church is rectangular in plan, with the five-bay nave divided from the aisles by arcades of Corinthian columns. There are galleries at the west end.
The nave ceiling is a flattened barrel vault, divided into panels by ribs. The panels are decorated in stucco with cherubs, clouds and scroll work, executed by Giuseppe Artari and Giovanni Bagutti; until the creation of Trafalgar Square in the 1820s, Gibbs's church was crowded by other buildings. J. P. Malcolm, writing in 1807, said that the its west front "would have a grand effect if the execrable watch-house and sheds before it were removed" and described the sides of the church as "lost in courts, where houses approach them to contact"; the design was criticised at the time, but subsequently became famous, being copied widely in the United States. In Britain, the design of the 1830s St Andrew's in the Square church in Glasgow was inspired by it. In India, St. Andrew's Church, Madras, is modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields. In South Africa, the Dutch Reformed Church in Cradock is modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields. Various notables were soon buried in the new church, including the émigré sculptor Louis-François Roubiliac and the furniture-maker Thomas Chippendale, along with Jack Sheppard in the adjoining churchyard.
This churchyard, which lay to t