Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer was a politician and a Founding Father of the United States. Born long before conflicts with Great Britain emerged, he was a leader for many years in Maryland's colonial government. However, when conflict arose with Great Britain, he embraced the Patriot cause. Jenifer, born at Coates Retirement, an estate west of Port Tobacco in Charles County, was the son of a slave owner, Dr. Daniel Jenifer, Elizabeth Mason; as a young man, he acted as a receiver general, the local financial agent for the last two proprietors of Maryland. He was the uncle of Thomas Stone, Michael J. Stone, John Hoskins Stone. Jenifer served as justice of the peace for Charles County and for the western circuit of Maryland, he sat on a commission that settled a boundary dispute between Pennsylvania and Delaware and on the Governor's Council, the upper house of the Maryland legislature that served as the colony's court of appeals and as a board of senior advisers to the governor. Despite his close ties with the colonial government, Jenifer resented what he and most of the colonial gentry saw as Parliament's arbitrary interference with the colonies' affairs its laws concerning taxation and trade regulation.
Years before the struggle for independence began, he had defended the proprietors of Maryland against those who sought to make Maryland a Royal colony. When the Revolution came, Jenifer lent his considerable support as a wealthy landowner to the Patriot cause, despite the fact that many leading Patriots had been his enemies in the proprietorship struggle. Jenifer became the president of Maryland's Council of Safety, the Patriot body established to organize Maryland's military forces for the Revolution. When, in 1776, a new constitution was framed for the state of Maryland, Jenifer commented on the document's neglect of popular sovereignty: "The Senate does not appear to me to be a Child of the people at Large, therefore will not be Supported by them longer than there Subsists the most perfect Union between the different Legislative branches." During and after the war, Jenifer became concerned about national affairs. He represented his state in the Continental Congress while serving as president of Maryland's first senate.
As manager of his state's finances between 1782 and 1785, Jenifer drew on his experiences as a landholder to help the state survive the critical postwar economic depression. Along with James Madison, John Dickinson, George Mason and his good friend George Washington, Jenifer began to explore ways to solve the economic and political problems that had arisen under the weak Articles of Confederation, he attended the Mount Vernon Conference, a meeting that would lead to the Constitutional Convention. Like his old friend Benjamin Franklin, Jenifer enjoyed the status of elder statesman at the Convention, which took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Jenifer, one of the convention's oldest delegates like Franklin, used his prestige to work for a strong and permanent union of the states by reconciling opposing views and formulating the compromises that made the convention a success. Jenifer took stands on several important issues, although his advanced age restricted his activity in the day-to-day proceedings.
Business experience gained while managing a large plantation had convinced him that an active central government was needed to ensure financial and commercial stability. To that end, Jenifer favored a strong and permanent union of the states in which a Congress representing the people had the power to tax. Concerned with continuity in the new government, he favored a three-year term for the United States House of Representatives. Too frequent elections, he concluded, might lead to indifference and would make prominent men unwilling to seek office. Jenifer was outvoted on this point, but his reaction was to marvel at the delegates' ability to come to agreement on a plan of government: "The first month we only came to grips, the second it seemed as though we would fly apart forever, however we came as close as friends of eighty years in but days." When Maryland's other delegate, Luther Martin, said that he feared being hanged if the people of Maryland approved the Constitution, Jenifer quipped that Martin should stay in Philadelphia, so that he would not hang in his home state.
After the convention, Jenifer retired to his plantation at Stepney near Annapolis, where he died in 1790. He was buried at Ellerslie, the place of his birth, now on the National Register of Historic Places. In his will, Jenifer passed his 16,000-acre land holdings to his nephew, Daniel Jenifer, instructed that all his slaves be freed six years after his death; the following year the younger Jenifer had a son, named after his great-uncle. Daniel Jenifer, like his uncle served as magistrate in Charles County, as well as three terms in the U. S. House of Representatives, his family home, was located in Charles County, near one of the largest slave-trading ports of the era, Port Tobacco. Jenifer Street in Madison, Wisconsin, is named in honor of this elder Jenifer. There is a Jenifer Street in Washington, D. C; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "Daniel of St. Thomas Jennifer". United States Congress. "Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer".
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer at Find a Grave
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
The terms inoculation and immunization are used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases. However, there are current differences. In English medicine, inoculation referred only to the practice of variolation until the early 1800s; when Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation. Soon, to avoid confusion, smallpox inoculation continued to be referred to as variolation and cowpox inoculation was referred to as vaccination. In 1891, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms vaccine and vaccination should be extended to include the new protective procedures being developed. Immunization refers to the use of all vaccines but extends to the use of antitoxin, which contains preformed antibody such as to diphtheria or tetanus exotoxins. Inoculation is now more or less synonymous in nontechnical usage with injection and the like, questions along the lines of "Have you had your flu injection/vaccination/inoculation/immunization?" should not cause confusion.
The focus is on why, not the literal meaning of the technique used. Inoculation has a specific meaning for procedures done in vitro; these include the transfer of microorganisms into and from laboratory apparatus such as test tubes and petri dishes in research and diagnostic laboratories, in commercial applications such as brewing, baking and the production of antibiotics. In all cases the material inoculated is called the inoculum, or less the inoculant, although the term culture is used for work done in vitro; the term inoculation entered medical English through horticultural usage meaning to graft a bud from one plant into another. It is derived from the Latin in + oculus. Though "innoculation/innoculate" is sometimes seen, this is incorrect erroneously thought to be related to innocuous, derived from the Latin in + nocuus. Inoculation originated as a method for the prevention of smallpox by deliberate introduction of material from smallpox pustules into the skin; this produced a less severe infection than naturally-acquired smallpox, but still induced immunity to it.
This first method for smallpox prevention, smallpox inoculation, is now known as variolation. Inoculation has ancient origins and the technique was known in India and China; the earliest hints of the practice of inoculation for smallpox in China come during the 10th century. A Song dynasty chancellor of China, Wang Dan, lost his eldest son to smallpox and sought a means to spare the rest of his family from the disease, so he summoned physicians, wise men, magicians from all across the empire to convene at the capital in Kaifeng and share ideas on how to cure patients of it until a divine man from Mount Emei carried out inoculation. However, the sinologist Joseph Needham states that this information comes from the Zhongdou xinfa written in 1808 by Zhu Yiliang, centuries after the alleged events; the first clear and credible reference to smallpox inoculation in China comes from Wan Quan's Douzhen xinfa of 1549, which states that some women unexpectedly menstruate during the procedure, yet his text did not give details on techniques of inoculation.
Inoculation was first vividly described by Yu Chang in his book Yuyi cao, or Notes on My Judgment, published in 1643. Inoculation was not practised in China until the reign of the Longqing Emperor during the Ming dynasty, as written by Yu Tianchi in his Shadou jijie of 1727, which he alleges was based on Wang Zhangren's Douzhen jinjing lu of 1579. From these accounts, it is known that the Chinese banned the practice of using smallpox material from patients who had the full-blown disease of Variola major; this was called "to implant the sprouts", an idea of transplanting the disease which fit their conception of beansprouts in germination. Needham quotes an account from Zhang Yan's Zhongdou xinshu, or New book on smallpox inoculation, written in 1741 during the Qing dynasty, which shows how the Chinese process had become refined up until that point: Method of storing the material. Wrap the scabs in paper and put them into a small container bottle. Cork it so that the activity is not dissipated.
The container must not be warmed beside a fire. It is best to carry it for some time on the person so that the scabs dry and slowly; the container should be marked with the date on which the contents were taken from the patient. In winter, the material has yang potency within it, so it remains active after being kept from thirty to forty days, but in summer the yang potency will be lost in twenty days. The best material is that which had not been left too long, for when the yang potency is abundant it will give a'take' with nine persons out of ten people—and it becomes inactive, will not work at all. In situations where new scabs are rare and the requirement great, it is possible to mix new scabs with the more aged ones, but in this case more of the powder should be blown into the nostril when the inoculation is done. Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700.
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Charles Carroll, known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III to distinguish him from his similarly-named relatives, was a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and one of the signers of the American Declaration of Independence. He is sometimes referred to as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, although he was not involved in framing the United States Constitution, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Confederation Congress and as first United States Senator for Maryland. He was the sole Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll was the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence - and the longest lived. Carroll was known contemporaneously as the "First Citizen" of the American Colonies, a consequence of his editorials in the Maryland Gazette. Carroll was the wealthiest, the longest-lived survivor, possessed the highest formal education of all of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
A product of his 17-year Jesuit education in France, Carroll spoke five languages fluently. Born in Annapolis, Carroll inherited vast agricultural estates and was regarded as the wealthiest man in the American colonies when the American Revolution commenced in 1775, his personal fortune at this time was reputed to be 2,100,000 pounds sterling. In addition, Carroll presided over his manor in Maryland. Though barred from holding office in Maryland due to his religion, Carroll emerged as a leader of the state's movement for independence, he was a delegate to the Annapolis Convention and was selected as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776. He was part of an unsuccessful diplomatic mission that Congress sent to Canada in hopes of winning the support of French Canadians. Carroll served in the Maryland Senate from 1781 to 1800, he was elected as one of Maryland's inaugural representatives in the United States Senate, but resigned from the United States Senate in 1792 after Maryland passed a law barring individuals from serving in state and federal office.
After retiring from public office, he helped establish the Ohio Railroad. He was the longest-lived and last surviving signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying 56 years after the document was signed; the Carroll family were descendants of the Ó Cearbhaill lords of Éile in Ireland. Carroll's grandfather was the Irish-born Charles Carroll the Settler from Litterluna. Carroll left his native Ireland around the year 1659, emigrated to St. Mary's City, capital of the colony of Maryland, in 1689, with a commission as Attorney General from the colony's Catholic proprietor, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore. Charles Carroll the Settler was the son of Daniel O'Carroll of Litterluna; the "O'" in Irish surnames was dropped due to the Anglicisation policy of the occupying English during the period of the "Penal Laws". Charles Carroll the Settler had a son, born in 1702 and named Charles. To distinguish himself from his father he was known as Charles Carroll of Annapolis. Carroll was born on September 19, 1737, in Annapolis, the only child of Charles Carroll of Annapolis and Elizabeth Brooke.
He was born illegitimate, as his parents were not married at the time of his birth, for technical reasons to do with the inheritance of the Carroll family estates. They married in 1757; the young Carroll was educated at a Jesuit preparatory school known as Bohemia Manor in Cecil County on Maryland's Eastern Shore. At the age of eleven, he was sent to France, he continued his studies in Europe, read for the law in London before returning to Annapolis in 1765. Charles Carroll of Annapolis granted Carrollton Manor to his son, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, it is from this tract of land that he took his title, "Charles Carroll of Carrollton". Like his father, Carroll was a Roman Catholic, as a consequence was barred by Maryland statute from entering politics, practicing law and voting; this did not prevent him from becoming one of the wealthiest men in Maryland, owning extensive agricultural estates, most notably the large manor at Doughoregan, Hockley Forge and Mill, providing capital to finance new enterprises on the Western Shore.
Carroll was not interested in politics and in any event Catholics had been barred from holding office in Maryland since the 1704 Act seeking "to prevent the growth of Popery in this Province". But, as the dispute between Great Britain and her colonies intensified in the early 1770s, Carroll became a powerful voice for independence. In 1772 he engaged in a debate conducted through anonymous newspaper letters, maintaining the right of the colonies to control their own taxation. Writing in the Maryland Gazette under the pseudonym "First Citizen," he became a prominent spokesman against the governor's proclamation increasing legal fees to state officers and Protestant clergy. Opposing Carroll in these written debates and writing as "Antillon" was Daniel Dulany the Younger, a noted lawyer and loyalist politician. In these debates, Carroll argued that the government of Maryland had long been the monopoly of four families, the Ogles, the Taskers, the Bladens and the
William Stone (Maryland governor)
William Maximillian Stone, 3rd Proprietary Governor of Province of Maryland was an early, English settler in Maryland. He was governor of the colony of Maryland from 1649 to 1655. William Maximillian Stone was born in England. On 15 Sept 1619, William Stone set sail for the Virginia Colony, on the ship, Margaret of Bristol and was one of the new colonists, being sent to Berkeley Hundred, to work under Captain John Woodlief's supervision. Stone was supposed to serve the Society of Berkeley Hundred's investors for six years in exchange for 30 acres of land. Sometime, prior to 9 February 1629, he received a tobacco bill from Richard Wheeler. By 4 June 1635, William had patented 1,800 acres in Accomack. Local court records revealed, that he was the brother of Andrew Stone and Captain John Stone, trading, on the Eastern Shore, since 1626. By 1634, William Stone had become a commissioner of the county court. Sometime, prior to February 1636, he married the daughter of Captain Thomas Graves. William went on to become vestryman.
In 1645 he was residing in what had become Northampton County. By 1648, he had become the third proprietary governor of Maryland. Stone came to America, in 1619, with a group of Puritans, who settled on the Eastern shore, of Chesapeake Bay, in the colony of Virginia; the first Puritan settlement, in Virginia, but came into conflict with the established Episcopal Church. In 1648, William Stone reached an agreement, with Cecilius Calvert, the 2nd Lord Baltimore to resettle the Virginia Puritan colonists, in the central region of the Province of Maryland. On August 8, 1648, Lord Baltimore named Stone the Governor of his colony, he was the first Protestant Governor. The Assembly sought a confirmation of their religious liberty and in 1649 Governor Stone signed the Religious Toleration Act, which permitted liberty to all Christian denominations. In 1649, William Stone and Puritan exiles, from Virginia, founded the town of Providence, now Annapolis, Maryland, on the north shore, of the Severn River and across from, the future site of, the Maryland state capital of Annapolis.
In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, the victorious, Parliamentary forces assumed control of Maryland and Stone went into exile in Virginia. Per orders from Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier force. But, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was taken prisoner. William Stone was replaced as Governor by Josias Fendall, took no further part in public affairs. William Stone wrote his will on 3 Dec 1659, it was proved in Charles County, Maryland, on 21 Dec 1660. Verlinda Graves Stone wrote her will, on 3 March 1674-5 and the will was proved, on 13 July 1675, in Charles County. In 1660, the monarchy in England and the proprietor's government in Maryland were restored. Lord Baltimore granted William Stone as much land as he could ride, by horseback, in a day, as a reward for Stone's faithful service. Stone concentrated on developing his plantation at Poynton Manor in what is now Charles County, where he died in about 1660. Stone's great-grandson, David expanded the value of the estate at Poynton and returned the family to prominence.
William Stone's great-great-grandsons made major contributions to the foundation of Maryland as an American state: Thomas Stone signed the Declaration of Independence, Michael Jenifer Stone represented Maryland in the First United States Congress, John Hoskins Stone was Governor of Maryland 1794–97, William Murray Stone was the Episcopal Bishop of Baltimore. A great-great-great grandson, Barton W. Stone, was a prominent early leader of the Restoration Movement. List of colonial governors of Maryland Proprietary Governor Province of Maryland English Interregnum English Civil War The Protectorate Battle of the Severn
Province of Maryland
The Province of Maryland was an English and British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U. S. state of Maryland. Its first settlement and capital was St. Mary's City, in the southern end of St. Mary's County, a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay and is bordered by four tidal rivers; the province began as a proprietary colony of the English Lord Baltimore, who wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the new world at the time of the European wars of religion. Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the English colonies, religious strife among Anglicans, Puritans and Quakers was common in the early years, Puritan rebels seized control of the province. In 1689, the year following the Glorious Revolution, John Coode led a rebellion that removed Lord Baltimore from power in Maryland. Power in the colony was restored to the Baltimore family in 1715 when Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, insisted in public that he was a Protestant.
Despite early competition with the colony of Virginia to its south, the Dutch colony of New Netherland to its north, the Province of Maryland developed along similar lines to Virginia. Its early settlements and population centers tended to cluster around the rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay and, like Virginia, Maryland's economy became centered on the cultivation of tobacco, for sale in Europe; the need for cheap labor, with the mixed farming economy that developed when tobacco prices collapsed, led to a rapid expansion of indentured servitude, penal transportation, forcible immigration and enslavement of Africans. Maryland received a larger felon quota than any other province; the Province of Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, echoed events in New England by establishing committees of correspondence and hosting its own tea party similar to the one that took place in Boston. By 1776 the old order had been overthrown as Maryland citizens signed the Declaration of Independence, forcing the end of British colonial rule.
The Catholic George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, former Secretary of State to His Majesty, King Charles I, wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the New World. After having visited the Americas and founded a colony in the future Canadian province of Newfoundland called "Avalon", he convinced the King to grant him a second territory in more southern, temperate climes. Upon Baltimore's death in 1632 the grant was transferred to his eldest son Cecil. On 20 June 1632, Charles granted the original charter for Maryland, a proprietary colony of about twelve million acres, to the 2nd Baron Baltimore; some historians view this grant as a form of compensation for Calvert's father's having been stripped of his title of Secretary of State upon announcing his Roman Catholicism in 1625. The charter offered no guidelines on religion, although it was assumed that Catholics would not be molested in the new colony. Whatever the reason for granting the colony to Baltimore, the King had practical reasons to create a colony north of the Potomac in 1632.
The colony of New Netherland begun by England's great imperial rival in this era, the United Provinces claimed the Delaware River valley and was vague about its border with Virginia. Charles rejected all the Dutch claims on the Atlantic seaboard, but was anxious to bolster English claims by formally occupying the territory; the new colony was named after the devoutly Catholic Henrietta Maria of France, the Queen Consort, by an agreement between George Calvert and King Charles I. Colonial Maryland was larger than Maryland; the original charter granted the Calverts a province with a boundary line that started "from the promontory or headland, called Watkin's Point, situate upon the bay aforesaid near the river Wighco on the West, unto the main ocean on the east. From there, the boundary continued south to the southern bank of the Potomac River, continue along the southern river bank to the Chesapeake Bay, "thence by the shortest line unto the aforesaid promontory, or place, called Watkin's Point."p. 38.
Based on this deceptively imprecise description of the boundary, the land may have comprised up to 18,750 square miles. In Maryland, Baltimore sought to create a haven for English Catholics and to demonstrate that Catholics and Protestants could live together peacefully issuing the Act Concerning Religion in matters of religion. Cecil Calvert was himself a convert to Catholicism, a considerable political setback for a nobleman in 17th century England, where Roman Catholics could be considered enemies of the crown and potential traitors to their country. Like other aristocratic proprietors, he hoped to turn a profit on the new colony; the Calvert family recruited Catholic aristocrats and Protestant settlers for Maryland, luring them with generous land grants and a policy of religious toleration. To try to gain settlers, Maryland used what is known as the headright system, which originated in Jamestown. Settlers were given 50 acres of land for each person they brought into the colony, whether as settler, indentured servant, or slave.
Of the 200 or so initial settlers who traveled to Maryland on the ships Ark and Dove, the majority were
Plantations in the American South
Plantations are an important aspect of the history of the American South the antebellum era. The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, fertile soils of the southeastern United States allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of workers Africans held captive for slave labor, were required for agricultural production. An individual who owned a plantation was known as a planter. Historians of the antebellum South have defined "planter" most as a person owning property and 20 or more slaves; the wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than other farmers. Tobacco was the major cash crop in the Upper South; the development of cotton and sugar cultivation in the Deep South in the early 18th century led to the establishment of large plantations which had hundreds of slaves. The great majority of Southern farmers owned fewer than five slaves. Slaves were much more expensive than land. In the "Black Belt" counties of Alabama and Mississippi, the terms "planter" and "farmer" were synonymous.
While most Southerners were not slave-owners, while the majority of slaveholders held ten or fewer slaves, planters were those who held a significant number of slaves as agricultural labor. Planters are spoken of as belonging to the planter elite or to the planter aristocracy in the antebellum South; the historians Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman define large planters as those owning over 50 slaves, medium planters as those owning between 16 and 50 slaves. Historian David Williams, in A People's History of the Civil War: Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom, suggests that the minimum requirement for planter status was twenty negroes since a southern planter could exempt Confederate duty for one white male per twenty slaves owned. In his study of Black Belt counties in Alabama, Jonathan Weiner defines planters by ownership of real property, rather than of slaves. A planter, for Weiner, owned at least $10,000 worth of real estate in 1850 and $32,000 worth in 1860, equivalent to about the top 8 percent of landowners.
In his study of southwest Georgia, Lee Formwalt defines planters in terms of size of land holdings rather than in terms of numbers of slaves. Formwalt's planters are in the top 4.5 percent of landowners, translating into real estate worth six thousand dollars or more in 1850, 24,000 dollars or more in 1860, eleven thousand dollars or more in 1870. In his study of Harrison County, Randolph B. Campbell classifies large planters as owners of 20 slaves, small planters as owners of between 10 and 19 slaves. In Chicot and Phillips Counties, Carl H. Moneyhon defines large planters as owners of twenty or more slaves, of six hundred or more acres. Many nostalgic memoirs about plantation life were published in the post-bellum South. For example, James Battle Avirett, who grew up on the Avirett-Stephens Plantation in Onslow County, North Carolina and served as an Episcopal chaplain in the Confederate States Army, published The Old Plantation: How We Lived in Great House and Cabin before the War in 1901.
Such memoirs included descriptions of Christmas as the epitome of anti-modern order exemplified by the "great house" and extended family. On larger plantations an overseer represented the planter in matters of daily management. Portrayed as uncouth, ill-educated and low-class, he had the difficult and despised task of middleman and the contradictory goals of fostering both productivity and the enslaved work-force. Crops cultivated on antebellum plantations included cotton, sugar, rice, to a lesser extent okra, sweet potato and watermelon. By the late 18th century, most planters in the Upper South had switched from exclusive tobacco cultivation to mixed-crop production. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina before the American Revolution, planters in South Carolina owned hundreds of slaves; the 19th-century development of the Deep South for cotton cultivation depended on large tracts of land with much more acreage than was typical of the Chesapeake Bay area, for labor, planters held dozens, or sometimes hundreds, of slaves.
Antebellum architecture can be seen in many extant "plantation houses", the large residences of planters and their families. Over time in each region of the plantation south a regional architecture emerged inspired by those who settled the area. Most early plantation architecture was constructed to mitigate the hot subtropical climate and provide natural cooling; some of earliest plantation architecture occurred in southern Louisiana by the French. Using styles and building concepts they had learned in the Caribbean, the French created many of the grand plantation homes around New Orleans. French Creole architecture began around 1699, lasted well into the 1800s. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina and Georgia, the Dogtrot style house was built with a large center breezeway running through the house to mitigate the subtropical heat; the wealthiest planters in colonial Virginia constructed their manor houses in the Georgian style, e.g. the mansion of Shirley Plantation. In the 19th century, Greek Revival architecture became popular on some of the plantation homes of the deep south.
Common plants and trees incorporated in the landscape of Southern plantation manors included Southern live oak and Southern magnolia. Both of these large trees are native to the Southern United States and were classic sym