Lowell Cemetery is a cemetery located in Lowell, Massachusetts. Founded in 1841 and located on the banks of the Concord River, the cemetery is one of the oldest garden cemeteries in the nation, inspired by Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Many of Lowell's wealthy industrialists are buried here, under ornate Victorian tombstones. A 73-acre portion of the 84 acres cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998; the cemetery is located in the central eastern part of the city bounded on the north by Fort Hill Park, on the east by Shedd Park, on the south by railroad tracks, on the west by the Concord River, from which it is separated by Lawrence Street, where its historic main gate is located. It occupies 84 acres of rolling terrain, much of, developed; the main gate is a moumental granite structure designed by C. W. Painter and built in 1862. There is a secondary gate on Knapp Avenue at the cemetery's northeast corner, added in 1905. There are two buildings in the cemetery: the Talbot Memorial Chapel and the Superintendent's Office, both Gothic Revival structures designed by Boston architect Frederick Stickney.
Roadways in the cemetery were laid out to take advantage of the natural terrain providing vistas. The main circulation route, Washington Avenue encircles the property, with several roads providing access across the central areas; the cemetery was laid out in 1841 to a design by George P. Worcester, a civil engineer, applying principles of the rural cemetery movement, just coming into vogue; the cemetery has a wide variety of funerary art in diverse styles, from typical Victorian forms to the Egyptian Revival and Art Deco. Many prominent Lowell residents of the 19th and 20th centuries are interred here. Henry Livermore Abbott - Brevet Brigadier General in the Union Army during the American Civil War Charles Herbert Allen - Congressman. Lowell Cemetery. Retrieved 2007-11-18
The Middlesex Canal was a 27-mile barge canal connecting the Merrimack River with the port of Boston. When operational it was 30 feet wide, 3 feet deep, with 20 locks, each 80 feet long and between 10 and 11 feet wide, it had 8 aqueducts. The canal was one of the first civil engineering projects of its type in the United States, was studied by engineers working on other major canal projects such as the Erie Canal. A number of innovations made the canal possible, including hydraulic cement, used to mortar its locks, an ingenious floating towpath to span the Concord River. By 1790, England had thirty years and all of continental Europe's many canals to draw on for experience. In the years after the American Revolutionary War, the young United States began a period of economic expansion away from the coast. American men of influence had always kept an eye on news from Europe that from Great Britain, so when in the four years 1790–1794 the British Parliament passed eighty-one canal and navigation acts, American leaders were paying attention.
Because of poor roads, the cost of bringing goods such as lumber, ashes and fur to the coast could be quite high if water transport was unavailable. Most American rivers were made unnavigable by waterfalls. Up and down the Atlantic coast, companies were formed to build canals as cheaper ways to move goods between the interior of the country and the coast. Well aware that to stay independent the nation needed to grow strong and develop industries, the news from Europe rekindled a number of dropped canal or navigations projects and began discussions leading in the next decades to many others; the year 1790 is credited as the start of the American Canal Age. In Massachusetts several ideas were proposed for bringing goods to the principal port and connecting to the interior. For about three years various luminaries were focused on plans to connect the upper reaches of the Connecticut River, above the falls at Enfield, to Boston through a canal to the Charles; the Connecticut was believed to rise at similar elevations to the Merrimack River's, which could be reached by a string of streams, ponds and manmade canals—if the canals were built.
In the first two years, rough surveys sought the best route up to the Connecticut Valley. A few true believers, but lesser socialites, needed a champion and pestered Henry Knox to ignite the project. After the collapse of stocks in early 1793 put paid to a scheme to join the Charles River with the Connecticut, championed by the Secretary of War, Henry Knox, a group of leading Massachusetts businessmen and politicians led by States Attorney General James Sullivan proposed a connection from the Merrimack River to Boston Harbor in 1793; this became the Middlesex Canal system. The Middlesex Canal Corporation was chartered on June 22, 1793, with a signature by Governor John Hancock, who purchased shares, along with such other luminaries as John Adams, John Quincy Adams, James Sullivan, Christopher Gore; the incorporators were James Sullivan. The route of the canal was first surveyed in August 1793. Local lore is that it is on this expedition that Baldwin was introduced to a particular apple variety that now bears his name.
The route survey, was sufficiently uncertain that a second survey was made in October. Due to discrepancies in their results, Baldwin was authorized by the proprietors to travel to Philadelphia in an effort to secure the services of William Weston, a British engineer working on several canal and turnpike projects in Pennsylvania under contract to the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Navigation Company. Baldwin's application to the Navigation company was successful: Weston was authorized to travel to Massachusetts. In July and August 1794, accompanied by Baldwin and several of the latter's sons surveyed and identified two possible routes for the proposed canal; the proprietors secured contracts to acquire the land for the canal, some of, donated by its owners. The basic plan was for the canal's principal water source to be the Concord River at its highest point in North Billerica, with additional water to be drawn as needed from Horn Pond in Woburn; the site where the canal met the Concord River had been the site of a grist mill since the 17th century, which the proprietors purchased along with all of its water rights.
From this point the canal descended six miles to the Merrimack River in East Chelmsford and 22 miles to the Charles River in Charlestown. In late September 1794 ground was broken in North Billerica. Work on the canal was performed by a number of contractors. In some instances local workers were contracted to dig sections, while in other areas contract labor was brought in from Massachusetts and New Hampshire for the construction work. A variety of engineering challenges were overcome, leading to innovations in construction materials and equipment. A form of hydraulic cement was used to make the stone locks watertight; because of its cost and the cost of working in stone, a number of the locks were made of wood instead. An innovation was
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts. The constitutional honorific title for the office is His, or Honor; the Massachusetts Constitution provides that when a governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the office of governor remains vacant for the rest of the 4-year term. The lieutenant governor discharges powers and duties as Acting Governor and does not assume the office of governor; the first time this came into use was five years after the constitution's adoption in 1785, when Governor John Hancock resigned his post five months before the election and inauguration of his successor, James Bowdoin, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci; the lieutenant governor serves in place of the governor when he or she is outside the borders of Massachusetts.
A one-year term, the office of lieutenant governor now carries a four-year term, the same as that of the governor. The lieutenant governor is not on a ticket with the governor; the 1780 constitution required a candidate for either office to have lived in Massachusetts for at least seven years preceding election, own at least £1,000 worth of real property and to "declare himself to be of the Christian religion". However, only the residency requirement remains in effect, both men and women have served in the office. Amendment Article LXIV changed the election from every year to every two years, Amendment Article LXXXII changed it again to every four years; the office is held by Karyn Polito, inaugurated in January 2015. Part the Second, Chapter II, Section II, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads, There shall be annually elected a lieutenant governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, whose title shall be, His Honor and who shall be qualified, in point of religion and residence in the commonwealth, in the same manner with the governor: and the day and manner of his or her election, the qualifications of the electors, shall be the same as are required in the election of a governor.
The Lieutenant Governor serves ex officio as a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Massachusetts law provides for the lieutenant governor to serve as the chairman of the award selection committee for the Madeline Amy Sweeney Award for Civilian Bravery; the lieutenant governor is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, ensuring that they have the same political party affiliation. When the state constitution was first enacted in 1780, elections for the two offices were independent, were held annually. Constitutional amendments enacted in 1918 extended the terms of both offices to two years, with elections in even-numbered years. In 1964 the constitution was amended again to extend the terms to four years, in 1966 to allow for the grouping of governor and lieutenant governor on the ballot by political party. Elections are held in even-numbered years. Lieutenant governors who acted as governor during a portion of their terms are marked by asterisks. Parties Democratic Democratic-Republican Federalist Know Nothing Republican Whig As of January 2017, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Massachusetts who are living at this time, the oldest lieutenant governor of Massachusetts being Francis X. Bellotti.
The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Massachusetts was that of Paul Cellucci, on June 8, 2013. List of Governors of Massachusetts Government of Massachusetts Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006 Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2002 Office of the Governor CNN.com 2006 election results OurCampaigns.com
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fiber into yarn into fabric; these are dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibers are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fiber. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: Cultivating and Harvesting Preparatory Processes Spinning Weaving or Knitting Finishing Marketing Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for machine production.
Planting is from September to mid November and the crop is harvested between March and June. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers, that remove the entire boll from the plant; the cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant, attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.5 cm long. GinningThe seed cotton goes into a Cotton gin; the cotton gin removes the "trash" from the fibre. In a saw gin, circular saws grab the fibre and pull it through a grating, too narrow for the seeds to pass. A roller gin is used with longer staple cotton. Here a leather roller captures the cotton. A knife blade, set close to the roller, detaches the seeds by drawing them through teeth in circular saws and revolving brushes which clean them away; the ginned cotton fibre, known as lint, is compressed into bales which are about 1.5 m tall and weigh 220 kg. Only 33% of the crop is usable lint. Commercial cotton is priced by quality, that broadly relates to the average length of the staple, the variety of the plant.
Longer staple cotton is called Egyptian, medium staple is called American upland and short staple is called Indian. The cotton seed is pressed into a cooking oil; the husks and meal are processed into animal feed, the stems into paper. Ginning, bale-making and transportation is done in the country of origin. Opening and cleaning Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in 500 pound bales; when the cotton comes out of a bale, it still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes, it is called an Opener. In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines; the cotton is fed into a machine known as a picker, gets beaten with a beater bar in order to loosen it up. It is fed through various rollers; the cotton, aided by fans collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap. Blending and ScutchingScutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities.
The first scutching machine was invented in 1797, but did not come into further mainstream use until after 1808 or 1809, when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England. By 1816, it had become adopted; the scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out; this process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars. Carding Carding: the fibres are separated and assembled into a loose strand at the conclusion of this stage; the cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, is taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin; the carding machine consists of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer.
The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver. Note: In a wider sense Carding can refer to these four processes: Willowing- loosening the fibres. Combing is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn. Drawing the fibres are straightenedSeveral slivers are combined; each sliver will have thin and thick spots, by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached. Since combining several slivers produces a thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings; these rovings are what are used in the spinning process. Speaking, for machine processing, a roving is about the width of a pencil. Drawing frame: Draws the strand out Slubbing Frame: adds twist, winds onto bobbins Intermediate Frames: are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn. Roving frames: reduces to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and in thickness, winds onto a smaller tube. Sp
Billerica Mills Historic District
The Billerica Mills Historic District is a historic district between the Concord River, Treble Cove Terrace, Kohlrausch Avenue, Indian Road, Holt Ruggles, Rogers Streets in the village of North Billerica, Massachusetts. The C. P. Talbot & Company mill building still stands in the center of the district; the buildings were planned and sited over decades, spanning from the mid-19th century until the 1920s. The Talbot brothers were able to secure land bordering the Concord Falls from the defunct Middlesex Canal Company in 1851; the dam, water power and 20 acres of MCC land were secured for $10,000. In 1857, CP Talbot secured additional property from neighbor Faulkner and an agreement with Faulkner over water power rights. In 1857 they partnered with the Lowell-based Belvidere Company for 5 years, supplying water power while Belvidere gave the equipment and know-how; the exact date of the large brick building and clock tower is not known, but between 1865 and 1870. It was at this time that the Talbot brothers built the first tenement company housing for workers as well.
The company operated and existed for 100 years until 1956. The Talbot brothers were the children of Charles and Phoebe Talbot whose children were Charles P. and Thomas among six others. From Cambridge, New York, they moved to Vermont and Northampton, where the brothers learned the trades of the textile mills; the district, which encompasses the mill complex and worker housing along Wilson Street and Talbot Avenue built by the Talbots, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. National Register of Historic Places listings in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Williamsburg is a town in Hampshire County, United States. The population was 2,482 at the 2010 census, it is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The area was first settled in 1735 and was incorporated in 1771; the village of Haydensville was established and is now recogognized by the Haydensville Historic District. On the morning of May 16, 1874, a flood along Williamsburg's Mill River claimed 139 lives and left nearly 800 victims homeless throughout Hampshire County; the deluge occurred when the Williamsburg Reservoir Dam unexpectedly burst, sending a twenty-foot wall of water surging into the valley below. Every town and village along the river's placid flow was soon devastated by the great rush of water. Much of the flood's force was abated in Northampton, at the Mill River's confluence with the Connecticut River. Located over twelve miles from the breached dam in Williamsburg, Northampton was the last town to experience the flood's fury, with four additional victims swept away in the swell.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.7 square miles, of which 25.6 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.53%, are water. In addition to the main village of Williamsburg near the center of town, the town includes the villages of Haydenville and Searsville; the Mill River flows southeast from Williamsburg village, where the East and West branches join, through Haydenville and into Northampton, on its way to the Connecticut River. Searsville is referenced three times in the Hampshire County History, 1904, 300th Anniv Comm. p. 300, 315, 317-continuing on the highway between Williamsburg and Goshen approx one mile above the center of the village, is the settlement of Searsville. In 1795, Rufus Hyde moved his blacksmith shop down from Meetinghouse Hill to the banks of the stream in what was soon to become the industrial community of Searsville. Shortly after the turn of the 18th century, 3 or 4 small shops were established in Wmsbg and Searsville to specialize in the final processing of these goods.
The fulling and dressing operations. It was not until 1813 that weaving moved from household to factory. In 1819 Nathaniel Sears son of Rufus Sears and Priscilla Sears built a small shop for the dressing of woolen cloth in this community which became known as Searsville. Massachusetts Route 9 is the main highway through the town, leading southeast 7 miles to the center of Northampton and west 33 miles to Pittsfield. Massachusetts Route 143 leads west from Williamsburg village to Worthington; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,427 people, 1,027 households, 658 families residing in the town. The population density was 94.7 people per square mile. There were 1,073 housing units at an average density of 41.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.94% White, 0.25% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.66% of the population. There were 1,027 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 31.4% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $47,250, the median income for a family was $55,833. Males had a median income of $36,977 versus $28,906 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,813. About 1.2% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. Williamsburg is known in the region for its quaint town center which includes the Williamsburg General Store, the Williamsburg Market, the Meekins Library and the town Post Office.
Fay Jones, American artist Tracy Kidder and Pulitzer Prize winner Patricia MacLachlan, author of best-selling books such as Sarah and Tall Argalus Starks, Wisconsin state legislator Sarah Thomas, Vice President for Libraries, Harvard University Edward Thorndike, prominent educational psychologist and eugenicist Bob Toski and teaching professional, winner of 11 professional golf tournaments Chris Collingwood, lead singer of pop-punk band Fountains of Wayne Town of Williamsburg official website Williamsburg Public Libraries
Billerica is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 40,243 according to the 2010 census, it takes its name from the town of Billericay in England. In the early 1630s, a Praying Indian village named Shawshin was at the current site of Billerica spelled Shawsheen today, such as in the Shawsheen River. In 1638, Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop and Lt. Governor Thomas Dudley were granted land along the Concord River in the area, a dozen families from Cambridge and Charlestown Village had begun to occupy Shawshin by 1652; the settlers chose the name Billerica because some of the families came from the town of Billericay in Essex, England. The town was incorporated as Billerica in 1655, on the same day as neighboring Chelmsford and nearby Groton; the original plantation of Billerica was divided during the colonial period into the towns of Billerica, Bedford and Tewksbury. The oldest remaining homestead in the town is the Manning Manse built in 1696, the residence of William Manning, the author of The Key of Libberty, a critique of Federalist policies.
Other notable Revolutionary War era residents included Asa Pollard, the first soldier killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Thomas Ditson, tarred and feathered by the British in 1775 while on a visit to Boston. The song "Yankee Doodle" became a term of national pride instead of an insult because of this event; the town now celebrates "Yankee Doodle Weekend" every September. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.4 square miles, of which 25.9 square miles are land and 0.5 square miles is water. Billerica is located 20 miles north-northwest of Boston along the Northwest Expressway portion of U. S. Route 3, positioning it as the border between the Boston Metro region to the south and the Greater Lowell region to the north; the town is situated less than 3 miles from the Massachusetts Route 128/Interstate 95 High-Technology belt to the south and less than 2 miles from the Interstate 495 outer belt highway to the north. Billerica has several small neighborhoods.
Those villages are Billerica Center, East Billerica, North Billerica, Nutting Lake, West Billerica, River Pines and South Billerica. Billerica borders the following towns: Chelmsford, Tewksbury, Burlington and Carlisle; the border with Lowell is at a point in the middle of the Concord River where Billerica, Chelmsford and Tewksbury all meet. The Shawsheen River and Concord River are the two major waterways within the town. Nuttings Lake offers a public beach and other recreational water activities including canoeing and sailing; as of the census of 2000, there were 38,981 people, 12,919 households, 10,244 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,505.9 people per square mile. There were 13,071 housing units at an average density of 504.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.68% White, 1.11% African American, 0.10% Native American, 2.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.54% of the population.
There were 12,919 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.1% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.7% were non-families. 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.30. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 34.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.2 males. As of the 2010 census, the median income for a household in the town was $87,073, the median income for a family was $95,128; the per capita income for the town was $32,517. About 2.8% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over.
Billerica was a contender for CNN Money's "Best Places to Live" in 2009 but did not make the top 100 list for the nation. In 2016, Billerica was on the NeighborhoodScout's "America's Top 100 Safest Cities" list. Billerica Public Schools operate secondary schools; the Billerica public school system consists of six elementary schools, two middle schools, one high school. In addition, the town is home to a regional technical high school. Shawsheen Valley Technical Highschool; the current superintendent of public schools is Tim Piwowar. He was selected in March 2012, has been renewed twice. Ditson Elementary School Frederick J. Dutile Elementary School S. G. Hajjar Elementary School John F. Kennedy Elementary School Parker Elementary School Eugene C. Vining Elementary School Orland S. Marshall Middle School Cyril D. Locke Middle School Billerica Memorial High School Shawsheen Valley Technical High School Shawsheen Tech serves Billerica and four of its neighboring towns: Bedford, Burlington and Wilmington.
There are no parochial or private s