William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman, the first Home Secretary in 1782 and Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy, he was well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art. Lord Shelburne spent his formative years in Ireland. After attending Oxford University he served in the British army during the Seven Years' War, he took part in the Raid on the Battle of Minden. As a reward for his conduct at the Battle of Kloster Kampen, Shelburne was appointed an aide-de-camp to George III, he became involved in politics, becoming a member of parliament in 1760. After his father's death in 1761 he was elevated to the House of Lords, he took an active role in politics. He served as President of the Board of Trade in the Grenville Ministry but resigned this position after only a few months and began to associate with the opposition leader William Pitt.
When Pitt was made Prime Minister in 1766, Shelburne was appointed as Southern Secretary, a position which he held for two years. He joined the Opposition. Along with Pitt he was an advocate of a conciliatory policy towards Britain's American Colonies and a long-term critic of the North Government's measures in America. Following the fall of the North government, Shelburne joined its replacement under Lord Rockingham. Shelburne was made Prime Minister in 1782 following Rockingham's death, with the American War still being fought. Shelburne's government was brought down due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end, its terms were considered excessively generous, because they gave the new nation control of vast trans-Appalachian lands. Shelburne, had a vision of long-term benefit to Britain through trade with a large and prosperous United States, without the risk of warfare over the western territories. After he was forced from office in 1783 at age 45, he permanently lost his influence.
Shelburne lamented that his career had been a failure, despite the many high offices he held over 17 years, his undoubted abilities as a debater. He blamed his poor education—although it was as good as that of most peers—and said the real problem was that "it has been my fate through life to fall in with clever but unpopular connections." Historians, point to a nasty personality that alienated friend and enemy alike. His contemporaries distrusted him as too prone to duplicity. Biographer John Cannon says "His uneasiness prompted him to alternate flattery and hectoring, which most of his colleagues found unpleasant, to suspiciousness... In debate he was vituperative and sarcastic." Success came too early, produced jealousy when he was tagged as an upstart Irishman. He never understood the power of the House of Commons, he advocated numerous reforms free trade, religious toleration, parliamentary reform. He was ahead of his time, but was unable to build an adequate network of support from his colleagues who distrusted his motives.
In turn he distrusted others, tried to do all the work himself so that it would be done right. He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry. Lord Kerry had married Anne Petty, the daughter of Sir William Petty, Surveyor General of Ireland, whose elder son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1688 and whose younger son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1699 and Earl of Shelburne in 1719. On the younger son's death the Petty estates passed to the aforementioned John Fitzmaurice, who changed his branch of the family's surname to "Petty" in place of "Fitzmaurice", was created Viscount Fitzmaurice in 1751 and Earl of Shelburne in 1753, his grandfather Lord Kerry died when he was four, but Fitzmaurice grew up with other people's grim memories of the old man as a "Tyrant" whose family and servants lived in permanent fear of him. Fitzmaurice spent his childhood "in the remotest parts of the south of Ireland," and, according to his own account, when he entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1755, he had "both everything to learn and everything to unlearn".
From a tutor whom he describes as "narrow-minded" he received advantageous guidance in his studies, but he attributes his improvement in manners and in knowledge of the world chiefly to the fact that, as was his "fate through life", he fell in "with clever but unpopular connexions". Shortly after leaving the university he served in 20th Foot regiment commanded by James Wolfe during the Seven Years' War, he became friends with one of his fellow officers Charles Grey whose career he assisted. In 1757 he took part in the amphibious Raid on Rochefort which withdrew without making any serious attempt on the town; the following year he was sent to serve in Germany and distinguished himself at Minden and Kloster-Kampen. For his services he was appointed aide-de-camp to the new King, George III, with the rank of Colonel; this brought protests from several members of the cabinet as it meant he was promoted ahead of much more senior officers. In response to the appointment the Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household.
Though he had no active military career after this, his early promotion as colonel meant that he would be further promoted through seniority to
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Marquess of Bath
Marquess of Bath is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for Viscount Weymouth; the Marquess holds the subsidiary titles Baron Thynne, of Warminster in the County of Wiltshire, Viscount Weymouth, both created in 1682 in the Peerage of England. He is a baronet in the Baronetage of England; the Thynne family descends from the soldier and courtier Sir John Thynne, who constructed Longleat House between 1567 and 1579. In 1641 his great-grandson Henry Frederick Thynne was created a Baronet, of Caus Castle, in the Baronetage of England, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. He represented Oxford University and Tamworth in the House of Commons and served as Envoy to Sweden. In 1682 he was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Thynne, of Warminster in the County of Wilts, Viscount Weymouth, in the County of Dorset, with remainder to his younger brothers James Thynne and Henry Frederick Thynne and the heirs male of their bodies. Lord Weymouth died without surviving male issue in 1714 and was succeeded in the peerages by his great-nephew, the second Viscount.
He was the grandson of brother of the first Viscount. He married as his second wife Lady Louisa Carteret, daughter of John, Earl Granville, a female-line grandson of John, Earl of Bath. Lord Weymouth was succeeded by the third Viscount, he was a prominent statesman and served as Secretary of State for the Northern Department and as Secretary of State for the Southern Department. In 1789 the Bath title held by his ancestors was revived, his son, the second Marquess, sat as Tory Member of Parliament for Weobley and Bath and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Somerset. His eldest son Thomas Thynne, Viscount Weymouth, represented Weobly in Parliament but predeceased his father by two months. Lord Bath was therefore succeeded by his second son, the third Marquess, who died three months later, he was a Captain in the Royal Navy and sat as Member of Parliament for Weobly. His son, the fourth Marquess, succeeded at age six, he was succeeded by the fifth Marquess. He was a Conservative politician and served as Under-Secretary of State for India in 1895.
His second but eldest surviving son, the sixth Marquess, represented Frome in the House of Commons as a Conservative. The titles are held by the latter's second but eldest surviving son, the seventh Marquess, who succeeded in 1992, he is a well-known politician and artist. In 2015 the Times described him as "a steaming pile of ancient kaftans and one of our wuffliest and weirdest mad-hatter aristocrats, he is best known for swanning around Longleat, his enormous Elizabethan pad in Wiltshire, entertaining his 75 concubines, or as he calls them, “wifelets”. The wifelets have included former Bond girls and Sri Lankan teenagers, as well as housewives and, according to some, in a couple of unfortunate cases actual prostitutes; the deal is simple: the wifelets get to hang out with Lord Bath in a jewel of a palace and in return he gets unlimited sex." The Honourable Henry Thynne, second son of the second Viscount, succeeded to the Carteret estates through his mother and assumed the surname of Carteret in lieu of Thynne.
In 1784 he was created Baron Carteret with remainder to the younger sons of his brother the first Marquess of Bath. Several other members of the Thynne family have gained distinction; the Reverend Lord John Thynne, third son of the second Marquess, was sub-Dean of Westminster Abbey. Lord Henry Thynne, second son of the third Marquess, was a Conservative politician and notably served as Treasurer of the Household from 1875 to 1880. Lord Alexander Thynne, third son of the fourth Marquess, represented Bath in the House of Commons from 1910 to 1918; the family seat is Longleat House. The arms borne by the Thynne family are: Quarterly: 4th, barry of ten Or and Sable; this can be translated as: a shield divided into quarters, the top left and bottom right made of ten horizontal bars alternating gold and black. Sir John Thynne the Elder, the builder of Longleat Sir John Thynne the Younger, son of Sir John Thynne the Elder Sir Thomas Thynne, son of Sir John Thynne the Younger Sir James Thynne, son of Sir Thomas Thynne Thomas Thynne, nephew of Sir James Thynne, grandson of Sir Thomas Thynne.
Sir Henry Frederick Thynne, 1st Baronet, son of Sir Thomas Thynne Sir Thomas Thynne, 2nd Baronet Thomas Thynne, 1st Viscount Weymouth Hon. Henry Thynne Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath Henry Frederick Thynne, 3rd Marquess of Bath John Alexander Thynne, 4th Marquess of Bath Thomas Henry Thynne, 5th Marquess
Henry Howard, 12th Earl of Suffolk
Henry Howard, 12th Earl of Suffolk, 5th Earl of Berkshire, KG, PC was a British politician, styled Viscount Andover from 1756 to 1757. Educated at Eton and Magdalen College, Oxford, he succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Suffolk in 1757, he was awarded a MA degree from Oxford in 1759 and a DCL degree in 1761. He was High Steward of Malmesbury from 1763 to 1767, Deputy Earl Marshal from 1763 to 1765. On 25 May 1764, he married Hon. Maria Constantia Hampden-Trevor, daughter of Robert Hampden-Trevor, 1st Viscount Hampden, who died on 7 February 1767 giving birth to their only child: Maria Constantia Howard In 1771, he was appointed a Privy Counsellor and served as Lord Privy Seal before becoming Secretary of State for the Northern Department under Lord North from 1771 to 1779. In this capacity he secured the use of Hessian and Hanoverian mercenaries to help suppress the American Revolution. In the same capacity he helped to secure the survival of Sweden as an independent nation by counteracting Russia's plan to undo the Revolution of Gustavus III in 1772.
He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1778. On 14 August 1777, Suffolk married Lady Charlotte Finch, daughter of Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Aylesford, by whom he had two children: George Howard, Viscount Andover Henry Howard, 13th Earl of Suffolk He died on 7 March 1779, he is buried in Charlton Church, together with his first wife. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Henry, twelfth earl of Suffolk and fifth earl of Berkshire, politician, by Peter D. G. Thomas
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Dissolution of the Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories and friaries in England and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, provided for their former personnel and functions. Although the policy was envisaged as increasing the regular income of the Crown, much former monastic property was sold off to fund Henry's military campaigns in the 1540s, he was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, by the First Suppression Act and the Second Suppression Act. Professor George W. Bernard argues: The dissolution of the monasteries in the late 1530s was one of the most revolutionary events in English history. There were nearly 900 religious houses in England, around 260 for monks, 300 for regular canons, 142 nunneries and 183 friaries.
If the adult male population was 500,000, that meant that one adult man in fifty was in religious orders. At the time of their suppression, a small number of English and Welsh religious houses could trace their origins to Anglo-Saxon or Celtic foundations before the Norman Conquest, but the overwhelming majority of the 625 monastic communities dissolved by Henry VIII had developed in the wave of monastic enthusiasm that had swept western Christendom in the 11th and 12th centuries. Few English houses had been founded than the end of the 13th century. 11th- and 12th-century founders had endowed monastic houses with both'temporal' income in the form of revenues from landed estates, and'spiritual' income in the form of tithes appropriated from parish churches under the founder's patronage. In consequence of this, religious houses in the 16th century controlled appointment to about two-fifths of all parish benefices in England, disposed of about half of all ecclesiastical income, owned around a quarter of the nation's landed wealth.
An English medieval proverb said that if the Abbot of Glastonbury married the Abbess of Shaftesbury, the heir would have more land than the King of England. The 200 houses of friars in England and Wales constituted a second distinct wave of foundations all occurring in the 13th century. Friaries, for the most part, were concentrated in urban areas. Unlike monasteries, friaries had eschewed income-bearing endowments; the Dissolution of the Monasteries in England and Ireland took place in the political context of other attacks on the ecclesiastical institutions of Western Roman Catholicism, under way for some time. Many of these were related to the Protestant Reformation in Continental Europe. By the end of the 16th century, monasticism had entirely disappeared from those European states whose rulers had adopted Lutheran or Reformed confessions of faith, they continued, albeit in reduced numbers and radically changed forms, in those states that remained Catholic. But, the religious and political changes in England under Henry VIII and Edward VI were of a different nature from those taking place in Germany, France and Geneva.
Across much of continental Europe, the seizure of monastic property was associated with mass discontent among the common people and the lower level of clergy and civil society against powerful and wealthy ecclesiastical institutions. Such popular hostility against the church was rare in England before 1558; these changes were met with widespread popular suspicion. Dissatisfaction with the general state of regular religious life, with the gross extent of monastic wealth, was near to universal amongst late medieval secular and ecclesiastical rulers in the Latin West. Bernard says there was widespread concern in the 15th and early 16th centuries about the condition of the monasteries. A leading figure here is the scholar and theologian Desiderius Erasmus who satirized monasteries as lax, as comfortably worldly, as wasteful of scarce resources, as superstitious. At that time, quite a few bishops across Europe had come to believe that resources expensively deployed on an unceasing round of services by men and women in theory set apart from the world be better spent on endowing grammar schools and university colleges to train men who would serve the laity as parish priests, on reforming the antiquated structures of over-large dioceses such as that of Lincoln.
Pastoral care was seen as much more important and vital than the monastic focus on contemplation and performance of the daily office. Erasmus had made a threefold criticism of the monks and nuns of his day, saying that: in withdrawing from the world into their own communal life, they elevated man-made monastic vows of poverty and obedience above the God-given vows of sacramental
St George Hanover Square
St George Hanover Square was a civil parish in the metropolitan area of London, England. The creation of the parish accompanied the building of the Church of St George's, Hanover Square, constructed by the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches to meet the demands of the growing population; the parish was formed in 1724 from part of the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields in the Liberty of Westminster and county of Middlesex. It included some of the most fashionable areas of the West End of London, including Belgravia and Mayfair. Civil parish administration, known as a select vestry, was dominated by members of the British nobility until the parish adopted the Vestries Act 1831; the vestry was reformed again in 1855 by the Metropolis Management Act. In 1889 the parish became part of the County of London and the vestry was abolished in 1900, replaced by Westminster City Council; the parish continued to have nominal existence until 1922. As created, it was a parish for both church and civil purposes, but the boundaries of the ecclesiastical parish were adjusted in 1830, 1835 and 1865.
The New Churches in London and Westminster Act 1710 created the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches with the purpose of building new churches to deal with the increasing population. The commission chose the boundaries of the new parishes and selected suitable persons to be parish officers and vestrymen. Within the parish were some of the most fashionable areas of the West End of London, with an aristocratic population; the select vestry created by the commission included 100 men. Much of the population of the parish was resident for only part of the year; the parish was created in 1724 from part of the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields. It was within the county of Middlesex; the parish vestry therefore had overlapping jurisdiction with the Westminster Court of Burgesses as well as the Westminster and Middlesex sessions. The northern boundary was Bayswater Road and Oxford Street from Lancaster Gate, past Marble Arch, to Oxford Circus; the western boundary was the River Westbourne.
The southern boundary was the River Thames. The parish included the part of Hyde Park northeast of the Mayfair area. To the south it narrowed, including the Belgravia area, Victoria Station and Pimlico. Hanover Square was located near to the northeastern boundary, it included within its boundaries the grounds of Buckingham Palace, although the palace itself was in St Martin in the Fields. The parish adopted the Vestries Act 1831, which provided for election of vestrymen by all ratepayers; the aristocratic dominance of the vestry declined. In 1815, 40% of vestrymen had titles and in 1845 it was half that. In 1855, the parish vestry became a local authority within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards. So the incorporated vestry inherited these wards and assigned vestrymen to them: Dover, Grosvenor, Curzon and The Out, it was a parish for both ecclesiastical and civil purposes.
However, by 1865 it was divided into eleven ecclesiastical districts. St George was a local act parish and so it did not become part of the New Poor Law system, following the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834; this meant it did not form part of a union and the parish vestry remained in control of poor law functions, instead of a separately elected board of guardians as was typical. Following the Metropolitan Poor Act 1867, it was joined with St Margaret and St John for this purpose in 1870 as the St George's Union and a board of guardians elected. In 1889 the parish became part of the County of London; the vestry was abolished in 1900 and replaced by Westminster City Council when it became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. It was abolished as a civil parish in 1922