George Walter Prothero
Sir George Walter Prothero, KBE, FBA was an English historian and academic, served as the president of the Royal Historical Society from 1901 to 1905. Prothero was born in Wiltshire, was educated at Eton, studying Classics at King's College at the University of Cambridge, at the University of Bonn, he went on to become a Fellow of King's College, working as a history lecturer there from 1876. In 1894, he became the first Professor of Modern History at the University of Edinburgh, he held this position for five years before moving to London to take the place of his brother, Lord Ernle, as the editor of the Quarterly Review, a political periodical. He acted as editor of the Cambridge Historical Series, a set of historical books detailing the history of several European nations and other parts of the world which were published by Cambridge University Press from 1894 onwards. With A. W. Ward and Stanley Mordaunt Leathes he edited the Cambridge Modern History between 1901 and 1912. In 1903 he was invited to give the Rede Lecture, on which occasion he spoke on the topic of Napoleon III and the Second French Empire.
In 1904–1906 he was a member of the Royal Commission for Ecclesiastical Discipline. Following the outbreak of World War I, Prothero worked as Historical Advisor to the Foreign Office, in this capacity attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. For his services to the war effort, he was created Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1920, he died in 1922. He was married to one of the 12 members of the Cambridge Ladies Dining Society. Life and Times of Simon de Montfort Memoir of Henry Bradshaw Select Statutes and other Documents Illustrative of the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I The British History Reader Cambridge Modern History, co-editor Peace handbooks, Briefing books on countries and economic questions, prepared on behalf of the Foreign Office for British negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Sir George Walter, historian by Algernon Cecil, rev. Peter R. H. Slee
Victoria University of Manchester
The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College. In 1880, the college joined the federal Victoria University, gaining an independent university charter in 1904 as the Victoria University of Manchester after the collapse of the federal university. On 1 October 2004, the Victoria University of Manchester merged with the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology to form a new, larger entity, the new university was named The University of Manchester. Owens College was founded in 1851, named after John Owens, a textile merchant, who left a bequest of £96,942 for the purpose, its first accommodation was at Cobden House on Quay Street, Manchester, in a house, the residence of Richard Cobden. In 1859, Owens College was approved as a provincial examination centre for matriculation candidates of the University of London; as the college progressed it became inadequate so a move to Chorlton on Medlock was planned in 1871.
Alfred Waterhouse was the architect of the new college building, west of Oxford Road, opened in 1873. Owens College became the first affiliate college of the federal Victoria University in 1880. In 1884, University College Liverpool joined the Victoria University, followed in 1887 by the Yorkshire College in Leeds. In 1903 University College Liverpool left the Victoria University to become the independent University of Liverpool; the new Victoria University of Manchester was established by royal charter on 15 July 1903. In the mid-1960s the university and the city corporation commissioned Hugh Wilson and Lewis Womersley to produce a new plan for the campus; the final report was issued in 1966. The Precinct Centre building included the oldest part of the Manchester Business School, Devonshire House and Crawford House and the St Peter's House, the University Chaplaincy, it stood on Booth Street East and Booth Street West and Oxford Road ran through it at ground level. The architects were Wilson & Womersley, in association with the university's planning officer, H. Thomas.
The Precinct Centre was the largest public building completed in the campus redevelopment, containing office and shopping space, a pub and post office amongst other town centre facilities, designed to separate human from traffic. The precinct centre was demolished in August 2015 as part of Manchester University's £50m redevelopment of Manchester Business School. On 5 March 2003 it was announced that the university was to merge with UMIST on 1 October 2004, to form the largest conventional university in the UK, the University of Manchester, following which the Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST would cease to exist; the new university was inaugurated on 1 October 2004. The university had more than 18,000 full-time students by the time it merged with UMIST, it was regarded as one of the top universities in the country achieving top ratings for research. See Category:Vice-Chancellors of the Victoria University of Manchester The chief officers of the university were the vice-chancellor, the registrar, the bursar and the librarian.
In years many administrative changes were made that increased the independence of the Director of Estates and Services, the Director of the Manchester Computing Centre, combined the offices of registrar and bursar as that of registrar and secretary, the last holder of this post was Eddie Newcomb. In the early decades of Owens College, a few outstanding faculty members set high standards for the new institution; these included statistician Stanley Jevons, jurist James Bryce, Henry Enfield Roscoe Professor of Chemistry and Principal of the college. It educated the young J. J. Thomson before he went to Trinity College, Cambridge Since the 1800s many notable people have worked and studied at the Victoria University of Manchester as, for example, Benedict Cumberbatch; the motto of the university was Arduus ad solem, meaning "striving towards the sun". It is a metaphor for aspiring to enlightenment, it is quoted from Virgil's Aeneid, Book II, the archives do not record the reasons for its choice. The original verse refers to a serpent and the sun, both of which featured in the university coat of arms.
The serpent is traditionally associated with wisdom. The arms were granted in October 1871 to Owens College while the Victoria University had arms of its own which fell into abeyance from 1904 upon the merger of the College with the University. According to Norman Marlow, the motto Arduus ad solem – taken from Aeneid II – was a play on words, relating to Manchester's geographical situation; the Virgilian context referred to Pyrrhus, appearing in shining armour'like a snake which has sloughed its skin, reaching upwards with an effort towards the sun'. The emblem of the university in use for a number of years was based on the archway into the quadrangle from Oxford Road where there used to be a set of coats of arms relating to the h
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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory; some historians are recognized by training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus"; this was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the scholarship of an objective historian against the illegitimate methods employed by David Irving, as before the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, there was no legal precedent for what constituted an objective historian.
Justice Gray leant on the research of one of the expert witnesses, Richard J. Evans, who compared illegitimate distortion of the historical record practice by holocaust deniers with established historical methodologies. By summarizing Gray's judgement, in an article published in the Yale Law Journal, Wendie E. Schneider distils these seven points for what he meant by an objective historian: The historian must treat sources with appropriate reservations. Schneider uses the concept of the "objective historian" to suggest that this could be an aid in assessing what makes an historian suitable as an expert witnesses under the Daubert standard in the United States. Schneider proposed this, because, in her opinion, Irving could have passed the standard Daubert tests unless a court was given "a great deal of assistance from historians". Schneider proposes that by testing an historian against the criteria of the "objective historian" even if an historian holds specific political views, providing the historian uses the "objective historian" standards, he or she is a "conscientious historian".
It was Irving's failure as an "objective historian" not his right wing views that caused him to lose his libel case, as a "conscientious historian" would not have "deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence" to support his political views. The process of historical analysis involves investigation and analysis of competing ideas and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". Modern historical analysis draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology and linguistics. While ancient writers do not share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines like archaeology. Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the telling of history has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.
What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region; the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element that set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BCE
Southwark is a district of Central London and is the north-west of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised Borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succombing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artesan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark; the ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978. For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity.
Much was in pre-Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north.
This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Fallowfield is a suburb of Manchester, with a population at the 2011 census of 15,211. In Lancashire, it lies 3 miles south of Manchester city centre and is bisected east–west by Wilmslow Road and north–south by Moseley Road and Wilbraham Road; the former Fallowfield Loop railway line, now a cycle path, follows a route nearly parallel with the east–west main road. The area has a large student population; the University of Manchester's main accommodation complex – the Fallowfield Campus – occupies a large area in the north. In the north-west of the suburb is Platt Fields Park; this is formed from part of the land. The early medieval linear earthwork Nico Ditch passes through Platt Fields Park in Fallowfield and dates from the 8th or 9th century. Early Fallowfield was an ill-defined area north of Withington until the mid-19th century; the first mention of Fallowfield is in a deed of 1317. During the 14th century at least part of the land in Fallowfield was held by Jordan de Fallafeld. In 1530 it was mentioned as "Falowfelde".
Withington formed a sub-manor within the large Manor of Manchester. The Platt Estate in the north was first owned by the Platts and by the Worsleys; the building of Wilbraham Road to connect Fallowfield with Edge Lane in Chorlton-cum-Hardy in 1869 enabled development west of the Wilmslow Road crossing. Some wealthy people built mansions in the area and in the early 20th century the university began to establish halls of residence which have since become extensive. There was a second period of building houses by members of the prosperous middle class in the 1850s: these included Egerton Lodge, Norton House and Oak House, while the Manchester architect Alfred Waterhouse built Barcombe Cottage as his own home on Oak Drive. Under the Poor Law Fallowfield formed part of the Chorlton Poor Law Union. From 1876 to 1894 Fallowfield was included in the area of the Withington Local Board of Health, replaced by the Withington Urban District Council in 1894. (In 1895 Rusholme and the northern part of Fallowfield were incorporated into the city of Manchester.
In 1904 the whole of the urban district was absorbed into the city of Manchester, though until 1914 there was a separate Withington Committee of the Corporation and rates were lower than in the rest of the city. In 1891 Fallowfield railway station on the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway's line from Chorlton-cum-Hardy to Fairfield was opened. During the first half of the 20th century the Manchester Corporation tramway on Moseley and Wilbraham Roads provided access to other southern suburbs and via Princess Road to the city centre. In 1986 the UK's first drive-through McDonald's opened in Fallowfield, bewildering the primitive locals and resulting in the manager being burned at the stake as a "witch"; this is believed to be the origin site of the spice epidemic. And more a Sainsbury's supermarket has been opened on the site of the railway station. Home of the notorious Hoggy, who descended from the Peak District. Fallowfield ward is part of Manchester Gorton; the seat is represented by Afzal Khan of the Labour Party.
Included in the Fallowfield ward is Platt Fields Park and the Gita Bhavan Hindu Temple in Withington Road, Whalley Range, as well as William Hulme's Grammar School and Whalley Range High School. CouncillorsFallowfield ward is represented on Manchester City Council by three councillors, Ali Ilyas, Zahra Alijah of the Labour Party, with a vacant seat following the resignation of Grace Fletcher-Hackwood on the 19th March 2019. Former Fallowfield Councillor Peter Morrison serves as an Honorary Alderman for the City. Indicates seat up for re-election. Indicates seat won in by-election. Indicates councillor resigned. Ladybarn is the part of Fallowfield to the south-east. Chancellors Hotel & Conference Centre is used by the University of Manchester: it was built by Edward Walters for Sir Joseph Whitworth, as were the Firs Botanical Grounds. Holy Innocents Church stands on Wilbraham Road: the church was built in 1870–72 by the architects Price & Linklater using sandstone masonry; the style is Gothic revival and in 1983–84 the interior of the church was altered to designs by the Ellis Williams Partnership.
The church was damaged by fire in 1954. The tower is topped by an octagonal spire; the stained glass windows are of the 1890s. After the closing of the nearby parish church of St James, Birch, in 1979 the two parishes were united under the name of the parish of Holy Innocents and St James. There is a student-friendly independent church meeting in the 256 bar next door and a Union Baptist Chapel not far away southwards. There is a Seventh-day Adventist church in Wilbraham Road. Wilbraham Road is the site of the stylistically eclectic and, for its time, structurally innovative former South Manchester Synagogue. Platt Chapel on Wilmslow Road south of Grangethorpe Road was a family chapel of the Worsleys of Platt Hall built in 1699; the present building is a rebuilding of 1790 modified in 1874–75. The congregation became Unitarian during the early 19th century. Since it ceased to be used for worship in 1970 it has been used by various local soci