Albert S. Willis
Albert Shelby Willis was a United States Representative from Kentucky and a Minister to Hawaii. Born in Shelbyville, Willis attended the common schools, graduated from the Louisville Male High School in 1860, he taught school for four years before graduating from the University of Louisville School of Law in 1866. He commenced the practice of law in Louisville, he served as prosecuting attorney for Jefferson County from 1874 to 1877. Willis was elected as a Democrat to the four succeeding Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Rivers and Harbors during the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Congresses. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1886, he resumed the practice of law before being appointed Minister to Hawaii by President Grover Cleveland in 1893. Willis was sent to Hawaii on a secret mission to meet with deposed Queen Liliʻuokalani and obtain a promise of amnesty for those involved in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii if Cleveland restored her to the throne.
Willis reported to the Secretary of State in Washington. There was a dispute: Willis said the Queen said "beheading"; the Queen reversed herself and told Willis she could issue an amnesty. On December 18, 1893, Willis demanded on behalf of Cleveland to dissolve the Provisional Government of Hawaii and restore the Queen to power. Willis' mission was a failure when Sanford B. Dole sent a written reply declining the surrender of his authority to the deposed queen. President Cleveland referred the matter to Congress, which commissioned the Morgan Report, which exonerated the U. S. minister and peacekeepers from taking any part in the Hawaiian Revolution. Following the Morgan Report, Cleveland reversed his stance, rebuffed the queen's further pleas for interference, maintained normal diplomatic relations with both the Provisional Government and its successor the Republic of Hawaii. Willis served as Minister to Hawaii until his death in Honolulu on January 6, 1897. An elaborate state funeral was held for him in the ʻIolani Palace.
He was interred in Cave Hill Cemetery, Kentucky. Media related to Albert S. Willis at Wikimedia Commons United States Congress. "Albert S. Willis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. McAfee, John J.. Kentucky politicians: sketches of representative Corncrackers and other miscellany. Louisville, Kentucky: Press of the Courier-Journal job printing company. Pp. 168–171. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Andrew Rechmond Boone was a United States Representative from Kentucky. He was born in Davidson County and moved with his parents to Mayfield, Kentucky in 1833, he attended the public schools. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1852 and practiced in Mayfield. Boone was elected judge of the Graves County court in 1854 and reelected in 1858 and served until 1861, when he resigned, he was a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1861 and a circuit judge for the first judicial district of Kentucky 1868-1874. He was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses but was not a candidate for reelection in 1878. After leaving Congress, he was chairman of the Kentucky Railroad Commission 1882-1886, he was buried in Mayfield Cemetery. United States Congress. "Andrew Boone". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Centre College is a private liberal arts college located in Danville, Kentucky, a community of 16,000 in Boyle County, about 35 miles south of Lexington, Kentucky. Centre is an undergraduate four-year institution with an enrollment of 1,400 students. Centre was founded by Presbyterian leaders, it maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church, it was chartered by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1819. The college is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South and the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities; the Kentucky General Assembly established Centre College on January 21, 1819. The college was named for its proximate location in the geographic "centre" of the Commonwealth, using early nineteenth century America's contemporaneous spelling of the word. Auspiciously, the legislature placed many of Kentucky's most prominent citizens in charge of Centre College's Board of Trustees, with Isaac Shelby, the Commonwealth's first governor, serving as chair. Classes began in the fall of 1820 in Old Centre, the first building on campus and the oldest college administration building west of the Allegheny Mountains.
In its early years, Centre navigated financial hardships, disputes within and outside the Presbyterian Church, six wars, including the occupation of Old Centre by both Confederate and Union troops during the Civil War. A Centre alumnus, John Todd Stuart, played a formative role in American history by encouraging Abraham Lincoln to study for the bar, providing his first set of law books, serving as Lincoln's professional and political mentor. From 1830 to 1857, President John C. Young oversaw a vast enlargement of the faculty and a five-fold increase in the student body. Following the Civil War, Centre affiliated itself with several other educational institutions. From 1894 until 1912, J. Proctor Knott, a former Kentucky Governor and U. S. Congressman, operated a law school at Centre as its dean; the Centre College Board of Trustees controlled the Kentucky School for the Deaf in Danville, during its early years. In 1921, Centre upset Harvard University's undefeated football team 6–0, a feat which led The New York Times to call it "Football's Upset of the Century".
ESPN described Centre's victory as one of the biggest upsets in all sports during the twentieth century. "C6H0" remains a point of pride among students and alumni and is the answer to "What is the formula for a winning football team?" To this day, "C6HO" is inscribed in large white figures on the brick exterior of Centre's old post office. During the 1960s the college's financial resources doubled. Eleven new buildings were added to the campus and enrollment increased from 450 to 800. In 1988, Centre set a national record when it achieved a 75.4% participation rate for alumni giving, a mark that remains unbroken to this day. From the latter twentieth century to the present, strong levels of alumni giving and participation—often the highest in the nation—fueled the college's growth. Today, enrollment is around 1,300 with nearly 150 faculty members. Dr. John A. Roush, who took office in 1998, is the college's 20th president. In 2000, Centre became the smallest college to host a national election debate.
Dick Cheney and Senator Joe Lieberman debated on October 5 at Centre's Norton Center for the Arts with CNN's Bernard Shaw acting as moderator. In 2012, Centre again hosted a vice presidential debate in the Norton Center for the Arts, which featured Vice President Joe Biden and Rep. Paul Ryan; the physical campus has changed during the past decade. In 2005, the college completed The College Centre, a $22-million project to expand and renovate Suttcliffe Hall, the Crounse Academic Center and Grace Doherty Library, the largest construction project on campus since the Norton Center was built in 1973. Additionally, a new student residence, Pearl Hall, was completed in 2008. In August 2011, Centre announced the construction of Brockman Residential Commons, a 125-bed facility offering apartment and townhouse living for upperclassmen; the residence facility was completed at the beginning of the 2012–13 school year. Classes at Centre are held in spite of several federal holidays—including Martin Luther King, Jr. Presidents, Labor and Veterans Days—and cancelled, which are points of pride among students and alumni.
During the Confederate occupation of Old Centre in 1862, classes were held at Old Sayre library. However, the Battle of Perryville forced the faculty to suspend classes for 13 days, the college's only cancellation during the Civil War. Classes were cancelled one day due to the Great Blizzard of 1978. In 1994 and 1998, when severe snow and ice storms shut down much of the Commonwealth, classes were delayed by half a day. In 2000, classes were cancelled prior to the Vice Presidential Debate and in the spring due to a hazardous chemical spill on the train tracks found at the end of Greek Row. On March 7, 2006, classes were cut short to allow students and staff to attend a symposium honoring retiring Dean John Ward. Following a large snow storm in 1997, Dean John Ward told the college community, "Centre didn't cancel classes during parts of the Civil War, yet classes were cancelled at Centre on March 2014, due to weather conditions. On Thursday, October 5, 2000, Centre College hosted the Vice Presidential Debate, becoming the
Mount Sterling, Kentucky
Mount Sterling – written as Mt. Sterling – is a home rule-class city in Montgomery County, Kentucky, in the United States; the population was 6,895 at the 2010 U. S. census. It is the county seat of Montgomery County and the principal city of the Mount Sterling micropolitan area. Mount Sterling is named for an ancient burial mound called Little Mountain, for the town of Stirling in Scotland, it was named by the first developer of Hugh Forbes. The Kentucky Assembly passed an act in 1792 establishing the town as Mt. Sterling, a misspelling, retained; the area was part of the thick wilderness of central Kentucky. Explorers and surveyors traveling along a trail called Old Harper's Trace noted a 125-foot-high tree-covered mound which they called The Little Mountain. Excavations showed it to be a burial site; the site of the mound is now the intersection of Locust Streets in Mt. Sterling; the first cabin in the area was built in 1779. The first permanent settlement was established around 1790, when Forbes began to sell lots and laid out a road, now Locust Street.
In 1796 the town was established as the county seat of newly created Montgomery County. At that time the town consisted of 33 town lots, four retail stores, three taverns. A courthouse was built. A jail and a town pump were installed. A large brick market house where farm produce was bought and sold confirmed the town as the commercial center of the surrounding area. Baptist and Methodist churches were established during the town's first decade. During the Civil War the town was occupied alternately by Union and Confederate troops on multiple occasions; the Battle of Mt. Sterling in June 1864, which ended in a Confederate defeat, was the last of the fighting in Montgomery County. Mt. Sterling is located at 38°3′24″N 83°56′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,876 people, 2,478 households, 1,536 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,708.9 people per square mile. There were 2,768 housing units at an average density of 805.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 89.09% White, 8.73% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.75% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.68% of the population. There were 2,478 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,050, the median income for a family was $54,074.
Males had a median income of $30,584 versus $21,081 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,585. About 17.1% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.4% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. The Mt. Sterling–Montgomery County Library was established in 1871; the library moved to a location, accessible from both Main and Locust Streets, in July 1984. The building was dedicated on September 30, 1984 and close in 2017; the local library added a branch in Camargo in October, 2008. The current location, on Maysville Street, was opened in late 2017. Early Mount Sterling was the trading center for a vast part of Eastern Kentucky, it was the site of several prominent hotels and theaters, which served as meeting places, entertainment sites, stagecoach stops and mail depositories for post riders. Beginning in the eighteenth century, Court Day became the annual trading day for the area, it remains a big event today, held on the third Monday in October and the weekend prior.
130,000 people from all parts of the country gather for the four-day event that specializes in many different arts and crafts and music. The Gateway Regional Arts Center hold classes and exhibitions in the former First United Methodist Church, a historic building listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Mt. Sterling has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Lawrence Chenault, African American film actor James Lewis Dalton, father of several brothers who were in the infamous Dalton Gang Rep. Henry Daniel Rep. Amos Davis Ernie Fletcher, Governor of Kentucky Nancy Green, the original Aunt Jemima Robert E. Payne, United States District Judge Jeremy Sumpter, actor James L. White, screenwriter Court Day from official city site Official city site
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Transylvania University is a private university in Lexington, United States. Transylvania was founded in 1780, it offers 36 major programs, as well as dual-degree engineering programs, is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Transylvania's name, meaning "across the woods" in Latin, stems from the university's founding in the forested region of western Virginia known as the Transylvania Colony, which became most of Kentucky in 1792. Transylvania is the alma mater of two U. S. vice presidents, two U. S. Supreme Court justices, 50 U. S. senators, 101 U. S. representatives, 36 U. S. governors, the one Confederate President, 34 U. S. ambassadors, making it a large producer of U. S. statesmen. Its medical program graduated 8,000 physicians by 1859, its enduring footprint, both in national and Southern academia, makes it among the most prolific cultural establishments and the most storied institutions in the South. Transylvania was the first college west of the Allegheny Mountains, was named for the Colony of Transylvania, Latin for across the woods, which aimed to educate good citizens.
Thomas Jefferson was governor of Virginia when the Virginia Assembly chartered Transylvania Seminary in 1780. Called Transylvania University by 1799, its first sponsor was the Christ Episcopal Church's rector, the Reverend Moore; the school became affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. Situated in a log cabin in Boyle County, the school moved to Lexington in 1789; the first site in Lexington was a single building in. By 1818, a new main building was constructed for students' classes. In 1829, that building burned, the school was moved to its present location north of Third Street. Old Morrison, the only campus building at the time, was constructed 1830–34, under the supervision of Henry Clay, who both taught law and was a member of Transylvania's Board. After 1818, the university included a medical school, a law school, a divinity school, a college of arts and sciences. An institution that aided in the development of today's Transylvania University was Bacon College of Georgetown, named after Sir Francis Bacon, a school that would, for a brief time, be known as Kentucky University.
This school was not affiliated with the modern University of Kentucky. Founded by Baptist churches in Kentucky, Bacon College operated from 1837 to 1851, it was distinct from nearby Georgetown College, another Baptist-supported institution. Bacon College closed due to lack of funding, but seven years in 1858, Bacon College's charter was amended to establish Kentucky University when the school had secured significant financial backing and was moved to donated land in Harrodsburg; this school closed in 1860 and its Harrodsburg building burned in 1864. By mutual agreement and an act of the state legislature the college was merged with Transylvania University in 1865. From these early years, Transylvania has dominated academe in the bluegrass region, was the sought-out destination for the children of the South's political and folk leadership, military families, business elite, it attracted many politically ambitious young men including the founder of Texas. Following the devastating Civil War, Kentucky University was hit by a major fire, both it and Transylvania University were left in dire financial straits.
In 1865, both institutions secured permission to merge. The new institution used Transylvania's campus in Lexington while perpetuating the Kentucky University name; the university was reorganized around several new colleges, including the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, publicly chartered as a department of Kentucky University as a land-grant institution under the Morrill Act. However, due to questions regarding having a federally funded land-grant college controlled by a religious body, the A&M college was spun off in 1878 as an independent, state-run institution; the A&M of Kentucky soon developed into one of the state's flagship public universities, the University of Kentucky. Kentucky University's College of the Bible, which traced its roots to Bacon College's Department of Hebrew Literature, received a separate charter in 1878. Transylvania's seminary became a separate institution, but remained housed on the Kentucky University campus until 1950, it changed its name to the Lexington Theological Seminary.
In 1903, Hamilton College, a Lexington-based women's college founded in 1869, merged into Kentucky University. Due to confusion between Kentucky University and its daughter institution, the University of Kentucky, the institution was renamed "Transylvania University," in 1908. In 1988, Transylvania University experienced an infringement on the institution's trademark when Hallmark Cards began selling Transylvania University T-shirts; the product, developed for the 1988 Halloween season, was intended to be a novelty item purporting to be college wear from the fictional Count Dracula's alma mater. When contacted by Transylvania University, Hallmark admitted that they were not aware of the Kentucky-based institution and recalled all unsold product immediately. Transylvania University is now affiliated with the Disciples of Christ. Robert Penn Warren set part of his novel All the King's Men at Transylvania University. Robert Lowell referred to the university in his sonnet "The Graduate." The poem states gleefully that "Transylvania's Greek Revival Chapel is one of the best Greek Revival things in the South."
A 2004 heist at Transylvania University's special collections library was the subject of true-crime drama film American Animals, released in 2018. Transylvania is home to the Judy Gaines Young Book Aw
John G. Carlisle
John Griffin Carlisle was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. He served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, from 1883 to 1889 and afterward served as Secretary of the Treasury, from 1893 to 1897, during the Panic of 1893; as a Bourbon Democrat he was a leader of the conservative, pro-business wing of the party, along with President Grover Cleveland. Carlisle was born in what is now Kenton County and began his public life as a lawyer in Covington, under John W. Stevenson. Carlisle married Mary Jane Goodson on January 15, 1857, they had two sons: William Kinkead Carlisle and Logan Griffin Carlisle. Mary Jane Goodson was born in Covington, August 2, 1835, her father, Major John Adam Goodson, served in the war of 1812, for several terms represented his district in the House of Representatives. Both William Kinkead Carlisle and Logan Griffin Carlisle were lawyers by profession. William Carlisle had three children.
Despite the political difficulties that taking a neutral position during the American Civil War caused him, Carlisle spent most of the 1860s in the Kentucky General Assembly, serving in the Kentucky House of Representatives and two terms in the Kentucky State Senate, was elected Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky in 1871, succeeding his former law mentor Stevenson. After Carlisle's term as Lieutenant Governor ended in 1875, he ran for and won a seat in the United States House of Representatives for Kentucky's 6th district. On the main issues of the day, Carlisle was in favor of coining silver, but not for free coinage, favored lower tariffs, he became a leader of the low-tariff wing of the Democratic Party, was chosen by House Democrats to become Speaker in 1883 over Samuel J. Randall, a leader of the party's protectionist wing. Carlisle became a leader of the conservative Bourbon Democrats and was mentioned as a presidential candidate but the Democrats passed him over at their conventions for Winfield S. Hancock in 1880 and Grover Cleveland in 1884.
Discomfort with nominating a southerner after the Civil War played a role in Carlisle's failure to win either nomination. In 1892 Carlisle was again proposed as a candidate for president at the Democratic convention, but this time Carlisle asked that he not be considered, it was reported at the time that Carlisle dropped out with the understanding that Cleveland, once nominated, would appoint him to his Cabinet. In 1890, Carlisle was appointed to the United States Senate to fill the unexpired term of James B. Beck; when Cleveland was again elected to the Presidency in 1892, he chose Carlisle as his Secretary of the Treasury. Carlisle's tenure as Secretary was marred by the Panic of 1893, a financial and economic disaster so severe that it ended Carlisle's political career. In response to a run on the American gold supply, Carlisle felt forced to end silver coinage, he felt compelled to oppose the 1894 Wilson-Gorman Tariff bill. These two stands were unpopular among agrarian Democrats. In 1896 Carlisle strenuously opposed Democratic presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan, supporting a splinter Gold Democrat candidate, once-Illinois Governor Palmer, instead.
By 1896, the once remarkably popular Carlisle was so disliked due to his stewardship of the currency that he was forced to leave the stage in the middle of a speech in his home town of Covington due to a barrage of rotten eggs. By May 1899, the North American Trust Company had directors such as John G. Carlisle, Adlai E. Stevenson, Wager Swayne, he moved to New York City, where he practiced law, died on July 31, 1910, at age 75, is buried in Linden Grove Cemetery in Covington, Kentucky. Carlisle County, Kentucky was established in 1886. United States Congress. "John G. Carlisle". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Barnes, James A. John G. Carlisle: Financial Statesman. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1931. Beito, David T. and Linda Royster Beito. Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism from 1896 to 1900, Independent Review 4, 555-75. Encyclopedia of Kentucky. New York, New York: Somerset Publishers. 1987. Pp. 127–129. ISBN 0-403-09981-1. Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography, vol.
4, "Carlisle, John G.". New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. McAfee, John J.. Kentucky politicians: sketches of representative Corncrackers and other miscellany. Louisville, Kentucky: Press of the Courier-Journal job printing company. Pp. 44–47. Williams, R. Hal. Years of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s. New York: Wiley, 1978. John G. Carlisle at Linden Grove Cemetery "Carlisle, John Griffin". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900