Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 21,233, in 2017 the estimated population was 21,796. A historic seaport and popular summer tourist destination on the Piscataqua River bordering the state of Maine, Portsmouth was the home of the Strategic Air Command's Pease Air Force Base, since converted to Portsmouth International Airport at Pease. American Indians of the Abenaki and other Algonquian languages-speaking nations, their predecessors, inhabited the territory of coastal New Hampshire for thousands of years before European contact; the first known European to explore and write about the area was Martin Pring in 1603. The Piscataqua River forms a good natural harbor; the west bank of the harbor was settled by English colonists in 1630 and named Strawbery Banke, after the many wild strawberries growing there. The village was fortified by Fort Mary. Strategically located for trade between upstream industries and mercantile interests abroad, the port prospered.
Fishing and shipbuilding were principal businesses of the region. Enslaved Africans were imported as laborers as early as 1645 and were integral to building the city's prosperity. Portsmouth was part of the Triangle Trade. At the town's incorporation in 1653, it was named Portsmouth in honor of the colony's founder, John Mason, he had been captain of the port of Portsmouth, England, in the county of Hampshire, for which New Hampshire is named. When Queen Anne's War ended in 1712, Governor Joseph Dudley selected the town to host negotiations for the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth, which temporarily ended hostilities between the Abenaki Indians and English settlements of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire. In 1774, in the lead-up to the Revolution, Paul Revere rode to Portsmouth warning that the British were coming, with warships to subdue the port. Although Fort William and Mary protected the harbor, the rebel government moved the capital inland to Exeter, safe from the Royal Navy.
The Navy bombarded Falmouth on October 18, 1775. African Americans helped defend New England during the war. In 1779, 19 slaves from Portsmouth wrote a petition to the state legislature and asked that it abolish slavery, in recognition of their war contributions and in keeping with the principles of the Revolution, their petition was not answered, but New Hampshire ended slavery. Thomas Jefferson's 1807 embargo against trade with Britain withered New England's trade with Canada, several local fortunes were lost. Others were gained by men who were privateers during the War of 1812. In 1849, Portsmouth was incorporated as a city. Once one of the nation's busiest ports and shipbuilding cities, Portsmouth expressed its wealth in fine architecture, it has significant examples of Colonial and Federal style houses, some of which are now museums. Portsmouth's heart has stately brick Federalist stores and townhouses, built all-of-a-piece after devastating early 19th-century fires; the worst was in 1813. A fire district was created that required all new buildings within its boundaries to be built of brick with slate roofs.
The city was noted for the production of boldly wood-veneered Federalist furniture by the master cabinet maker Langley Boardman. The Industrial Revolution spurred economic growth in New Hampshire mill towns such as Dover, Laconia, Manchester and Rochester, where rivers provided water power for the mills, it shifted growth to the new mill towns. The port of Portsmouth declined, but the city survived Victorian-era doldrums, a time described in the works of Thomas Bailey Aldrich in his 1869 novel The Story of a Bad Boy. In the 20th century, the city founded a Historic District Commission, which has worked to protect much of the city's irreplaceable architectural legacy. In 2008, the National Trust for Historic Preservation named Portsmouth one of the "Dozen Distinctive Destinations"; the compact and walkable downtown on the waterfront draws tourists and artists, who each summer throng the cafes and shops around Market Square. Portsmouth annually celebrates the revitalization of its downtown with Market Square Day, a celebration dating back to 1977, produced by the non-profit Pro Portsmouth, Inc.
Portsmouth shipbuilding history has had a long symbiotic relationship with Kittery, across the Piscataqua River. In 1781–1782, the naval hero John Paul Jones lived in Portsmouth while he supervised construction of his ship Ranger, built on nearby Badger's Island in Kittery. During that time, he boarded at the Captain Gregory Purcell house, which now bears Jones' name, as it is the only surviving property in the United States associated with him. Built by the master housewright Hopestill Cheswell, an African American, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it now serves as the Portsmouth Historical Society Museum. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, established in 1800 as the first federal navy yard, is on Seavey's Island in Kittery, Maine; the base is famous for being the site of the 1905 signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth which ended the Russo-Japanese War. Though US President Theodore Roosevelt orchestrated the peace conference that brought Russian and Japanese diplomats to Portsmouth and the Shipyard, he never came to Portsmouth, relying on the Navy and people of New Hampshire as the hosts.
Roosevelt won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his diplomacy in bringing about an end to the War. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of
John Winthrop was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England, following Plymouth Colony. Winthrop led the first large wave of immigrants from England in 1630 and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years, his writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the governments and religions of neighboring colonies. Winthrop was born into a wealthy merchant family, he became Lord of the Manor at Groton in Suffolk. He was not involved in founding the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1628, but he became involved in 1629 when anti-Puritan King Charles I began a crackdown on Nonconformist religious thought. In October 1629, he was elected governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he led a group of colonists to the New World in April 1630, founding a number of communities on the shores of Massachusetts Bay and the Charles River.
Between 1629 and his death in 1649, he served 18 annual terms as governor or lieutenant-governor and was a force of comparative moderation in the religiously conservative colony, clashing with the more conservative Thomas Dudley and the more liberal Roger Williams and Henry Vane. Winthrop was a respected political figure, his attitude toward governance seems authoritarian to modern sensibilities, he resisted attempts to widen voting and other civil rights beyond a narrow class of religiously approved individuals, opposed attempts to codify a body of laws that the colonial magistrates would be bound by, opposed unconstrained democracy, calling it "the meanest and worst of all forms of government". The authoritarian and religiously conservative nature of Massachusetts rule was influential in the formation of neighboring colonies, which were formed in some instances by individuals and groups opposed to the rule of the Massachusetts elders. Winthrop's son John was one of the founders of the Connecticut Colony, Winthrop himself wrote one of the leading historical accounts of the early colonial period.
His long list of descendants includes famous Americans, his writings continue to influence politicians today. John Winthrop was born on 12 January 1587/8 to Adam and Anne Winthrop in Edwardstone, England, his birth was recorded in the parish register at Groton. His father's family had been successful in the textile business, his father was a lawyer and prosperous landowner with several properties in Suffolk, his mother's family was well-to-do, with properties in Suffolk and Essex. When Winthrop was young, his father became a director at Cambridge. Winthrop's uncle John emigrated to Ireland, the Winthrop family took up residence at Groton Manor. Winthrop was first tutored at home by John Chaplin and was assumed to have attended grammar school at Bury St. Edmunds, he was regularly exposed to religious discussions between his father and clergymen, thus came to a deep understanding of theology at an early age. He was admitted to Trinity College in December 1602, matriculating at the university a few months later.
Among the students with whom he would have interacted were John Cotton and John Wheelwright, two men who had important roles in New England. He was a close childhood and university friend of William Spring a Puritan Member of Parliament with whom he corresponded for the rest of his life; the teenage Winthrop admitted in his diary of the time to "lusts... so masterly as no good could fasten upon me." Biographer Francis Bremer suggests that Winthrop's need to control his baser impulses may have prompted him to leave school early and marry at an unusually early age. In 1604, Winthrop journeyed to Great Stambridge in Essex with a friend, they stayed at the home of a family friend, Winthrop was favorably impressed with their daughter Mary Forth. He left Trinity College to marry her on 16 April 1605 at Great Stambridge. Mary bore him five children; the oldest of their children was John Winthrop, the Younger, who became a governor and magistrate of Connecticut. Their last two children, two girls, died not long after birth, Mary died in 1615 from complications of the last birth.
The couple spent most of their time at Great Stambridge. In 1613, Adam Winthrop transferred the family holdings in Groton to Winthrop, who became Lord of the Manor at Groton; as Lord of the Manor, Winthrop was involved in the management of the estate, overseeing the agricultural activities and the manor house. He followed his father in practicing law in London, which would have brought him into contact with the city's business elite, he was appointed to the county commission of the peace, a position that gave him a wider exposure among other lawyers and landowners, a platform to advance what he saw as God's kingdom. The commission's responsibilities included overseeing countywide issues, including road and bridge maintenance and the issuance of licenses; some of its members were empowered to act as local judges for minor offenses, although Winthrop was only able to exercise this authority in cases affecting his estate. The full commission met quarterly, Winthrop forged a number of important connections through its activities.
Winthrop documented his religious life, keeping a journal beginning 1605 in which he described his religious experiences and feelings. In it, he described his failures to keep "divers vows", sought to reform his failings by God's grace, praying that God would "give me a new heart, joy in his spirit, he was somewhat distressed that his wife did not
Simon Bradstreet was a colonial magistrate, businessman and the last governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Arriving in Massachusetts on the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, Bradstreet was constantly involved in the politics of the colony but became its governor only in 1679, he served on diplomatic missions and as agent to the crown in London, served as a commissioner to the New England Confederation. He was politically comparatively moderate, arguing minority positions in favor of freedom of speech and for accommodation of the demands of King Charles II following his restoration to the throne. Bradstreet was married to Anne, the daughter of Massachusetts co-founder Thomas Dudley and New England's first published poet, he was a businessman, investing in shipping interests. Due to his advanced age Cotton Mather referred to him as the "Nestor of New England", his descendants include Jr. and David Souter. Simon Bradstreet was baptized on March 18, 1603/4 in Horbling, the second of three sons of Simon and Margaret Bradstreet.
His father was the rector of the parish church, was descended from minor Irish nobility. With his father a vocal Nonconformist, the young Simon acquired his Puritan religious views early in life. At the age of 16, Bradstreet entered Cambridge, he studied there for two years, before entering the service of the Earl of Lincoln as an assistant to Thomas Dudley in 1622. There is some uncertainty about whether Bradstreet returned to Emmanuel College in 1623–1624. According to Venn, a Simon Bradstreet attended Emmanuel during this time, receiving an M. A. degree, but genealogist Robert Anderson is of the opinion that this was not the same individual. During one of Bradstreet's stints at Emmanuel he was recommended by John Preston as a tutor or governor to Lord Rich, son of the Earl of Warwick. Rich would have been 12 in 1623, Preston was named Emmanuel's master in 1622. Bradstreet took over Dudley's position when the latter moved temporarily to Boston in 1624. On Dudley's return several years Bradstreet briefly served as a steward to the Dowager Countess of Warwick.
In 1628 he married Dudley's daughter Anne, when she was 16. In 1628, Dudley and others from the Earl of Lincoln's circle formed the Massachusetts Bay Company, with a view toward establishing a Puritan colony in North America. Bradstreet became involved with the company in 1629, in April 1630, the Bradstreets joined the Dudleys and colonial Governor John Winthrop on the fleet of ships that carried them to Massachusetts Bay. There they founded the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. After a brief stay in Boston, Bradstreet made his first residence in Newtowne, near the Dudleys in what is now Harvard Square. In 1637, during the Antinomian Controversy, he was one of the magistrates that sat at the trial of Anne Hutchinson, voted for her banishment from the colony. In 1639 he was granted land near that of John Endecott, he lived there for a time, moving in 1634 to Ipswich before becoming one of the founding settlers of Andover in 1648. In 1666 his Andover home was destroyed by fire because of "the carelessness of the maid".
He had varied business interests, speculating in land, investing with other colonists in a ship involved in the coasting trade. In 1660 he purchased shares in the Atherton Company, a land development company with interests in the "Narragansett Country", he became one of its leading figures, serving on the management committee, publishing handbills advertising its lands. When he died he owned more than 1,500 acres of land in five communities spread across the colony, he was known to own two slaves, a woman named her daughter Billah. Bradstreet was involved in colonial politics; when the council met for the first time in Boston, Bradstreet was selected to serve as colonial secretary, a post he would hold until 1644. He was politically moderate, arguing against legislation and judicial decisions punishing people for speaking out against the governing magistrates. Bradstreet was outspoken in opposition to the witch hysteria that infested his home town of Salem, culminating in numerous trials in 1692.
He served for many years as a commissioner representing Massachusetts to the New England Confederation, an organization that coordinated matters of common interest among most of the New England colonies. He was chosen as an assistant, serving on the council that dominated the public affairs of the colony, but did not reach higher office until 1678, when he was first elected deputy governor under John Leverett, he was against military actions against some of the colony's foreign neighbors, opposing official intervention in a French Acadian dispute in the 1640s, spoke against attacking the New Netherland during the First Anglo-Dutch War. Bradstreet was sent on a number of diplomatic missions, dealing with settlers, other English colonies, the Dutch in New Amsterdam. In 1650 he was sent to Hartford, where the Treaty of Hartford was negotiated to determine the boundary between the English colonies and New Amsterdam. In the following years he negotiated an agreement with settlers in York and Kittery to bring them under Massachusetts jurisdiction.
Following the 1660 restoration of Charles II to the throne of England, colonial authorities again became concerned about preserving their charter rights. Bradstreet in 1661 headed a legislative committee to "consider and debate such matters touching their patent rights, privileges, duty to his Majesty, as should to them seem proper." The
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
John Mason (governor)
Captain John Mason was a sailor and colonizer born at King's Lynn, Norfolk and educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge. He was appointed the second Proprietary Governor of Newfoundland's Cuper's Cove colony in 1615, succeeding John Guy. Mason explored much of the territory, he published a short tract of his findings. Mason drew up the first known English map of the island of Newfoundland. Published in William Vaughan's Cambrensium Caroleia in 1625, the map included established placenames as well as new ones such as Bristol's Hope and Butter Pots, near Renews, his tract entitled A Briefe Discourse of the New-Found-Land with the situation and commodities thereof, inciting our nation to go forward in the hopefull plantation begunnedead link], was published in 1620 by Mason while in England. In 1620 King James I's Privy Council issued Mason a commission and provided him with a ship to suppress piracy in Newfoundland. Mason ceased to be Cuper's Cove governor in 1621 and he was not replaced, although the settlement continued to be occupied throughout the seventeenth century.
Upon returning to England, Mason consulted with Sir William Alexander about colonizing Nova Scotia. In 1622, Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges received a patent from the Plymouth Council for New England for all the territory lying between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers. In 1629 they divided the grant along the Piscataqua River, with Mason receiving the southern portion; the colony was recharted as the Province of New Hampshire. It included most of the southeastern part of the current state of New Hampshire, as well as portions of present-day Massachusetts north of the Merrimack. Although Mason never set foot in New England, he was appointed first vice-admiral of New England in 1635, he died that same year while preparing for his first voyage to the new colony. Government House The Governorship of Newfoundland and Labrador Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Thomas Dudley was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne Cambridge and built the town's first home, he provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan, opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott; the son of a military man who died when he was young, Dudley saw military service himself during the French Wars of Religion, acquired some legal training before entering the service of his kinsman the Earl of Lincoln. Along with other Puritans in Lincoln's circle, Dudley helped organize the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sailing with Winthrop in 1630. Although he served only four one-year terms as governor of the colony, he was in other positions of authority.
Dudley's daughter Anne Bradstreet was a prominent early American poet. One of the gates of Harvard Yard, which existed from 1915 to 1947, was named in his honor, Harvard's Dudley House is named for the family, as is the town of Dudley, Massachusetts. Thomas Dudley was born in Yardley Hastings, a village near Northampton, England, on 12 October 1576, to Roger and Susanna Dudley, his father, a captain in the English army, was killed in battle. It was for some time believed he was killed in the 1590 Battle of Ivry, but this is unlikely because Susanna Dudley was found to be widowed by 1588; the 1586 battle of Zutphen has been suggested as the occasion of Roger Dudley's death. The family has long asserted connections to the Sutton-Dudleys of Dudley Castle. Like many other young men of good birth Thomas Dudley became a page, in his case in the household of William, Baron Compton at nearby Castle Ashby, he raised a company of men following a call to arms by Queen Elizabeth, served in the English army led by Sir Arthur Savage fighting with King Henry IV of France during the French Wars of Religion.
He fought the Spanish at the Siege of Amiens in 1597 which in September surrendered and was the final action of the war. After he was discharged from his military service, Dudley returned to Northamptonshire, he entered the service of Sir Augustine Nicolls, a relative of his mother's, as a clerk. Nicolls, a lawyer and a judge, was recognized for his honesty at a time when many judges were susceptible to bribery and other malfeasance, he was sympathetic to the Puritan cause. After Nicolls' sudden death in 1616, Dudley took a position with Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln, serving as a steward responsible for managing some of the earl's estates. Although there is a blood connection, the reason for the appointment may be that Dudley's soldier grandfather Henry had served under Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln; the earl's estate in Lincolnshire was a center of Nonconformist thought, Dudley was recognized for his Puritan virtues by the time he entered the earl's service. According to Cotton Mather's biography of Dudley, he disentangled a legacy of financial difficulties bequeathed to the earl, the earl came to depend on Dudley for financial advice.
Dudley's services were not pecuniary in nature: he is said to have had an important role in securing the engagement of Clinton to Lord Saye's daughter. In 1622, Dudley acquired the assistance of Simon Bradstreet, drawn to Dudley's daughter Anne; the two were married six years when she was 16. Dudley was out of Lincoln's service between about 1624 and 1628. During this time he lived with his growing family in Boston, where he was a parishioner at St Botolph's Church, where John Cotton preached; the Dudleys were known to be back on Lincoln's estate in 1628, when his daughter Anne came down with smallpox and was treated there. In 1628 Dudley and other Puritans decided to form the Massachusetts Bay Company, with a view toward establishing a Puritan colony in North America. Dudley's name does not appear on the land grant issued to the company that year, but he was certainly involved in the formative stages of the company, whose investors and supporters included many individuals in the Earl of Lincoln's circle.
The company sent a small group of colonists led by John Endecott to begin building a settlement, called Salem, on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. The company acquired a royal charter in April 1629, that year made the critical decision to transport the charter and the company's corporate governance to the colony; the Cambridge Agreement, which enabled the emigrating shareholders to buy out those that remained behind, may have been written by Dudley. In October 1629 John Winthrop was elected governor, John Humphrey was chosen as his deputy. However, as the fleet was preparing to sail in March 1630, Humphrey decided he would not leave England and Dudley was chosen as deputy governor in his place. Dudley and his family sailed for the New World on the Arbella, the flagship of the Winthrop Fleet, on 8 April 1630 and arrived in Salem Harbour on 22 June. Finding conditions at Salem inadequate for establishing a larger colony and Dudley led forays into the Charles River watershed, but were unable to agree on a si
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca