Hugo Theodor Christoph
Hugo Theodor Christoph was a German and Russian entomologist. Born in Herrnhut in Saxony, Hugo Theodor Christoph moved to Russia in 1858, he became a member of the Russian Entomological Society in 1861. From 1880, he was curator of the Lepidoptera collection of Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, his own collection was sold to Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham, a member of the Royal Entomological Society, it is now in the Natural History Museum in London. Anon 1895 Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 31:30
Gentlemen v Players
Gentlemen v Players was a first-class cricket match held in England twice or more a year for well over a century. It was held between teams consisting of professionals; the difference between the two was defined by the English class structure of the time, with the Players deemed to be working-class wage-earners and the Gentlemen members of the middle and upper classes products of the English public school system. Whereas the Players were paid wages by their county clubs or fees by match organisers, the Gentlemen nominally claimed expenses; the whole subject of expenses was controversial and it was held that some leading amateurs were paid more for playing cricket than any professional. The inaugural fixture took place in 1806, with a return match the same year, but it was not continued in 1807 and, with cricket in decline during the Napoleonic Wars, it was not revived until 1819. Thereafter, it was played on a annual basis until 1962, with two or more games each season, it lacked repute in the middle years of the 19th century because the Gentlemen were outclassed but gained in prestige during the career of W. G. Grace as the matches became competitive.
The advent of Test cricket coupled with social change in the 20th century saw its importance decline in the aftermath of the Second World War. On 31 January 1963, the committee of the Marylebone Cricket Club agreed unanimously to abolish the concept of amateurism and all first-class cricketers became professional; the Gentlemen v Players fixture was by viewed as an anachronism and was discontinued. A substitute fixture was sought but never instituted as the limited overs Gillette Cup competition began in 1963. A total of 274 Gentlemen v Players matches were played from 1806 to 1962; the Players won 125 and the Gentlemen 68. There were one tie. At its height from the 1860s until 1914, the fixture was a prestigious one, though in terms of quality it fell far short of Test matches and of the rival North v. South fixture; until the 1860s, the Gentlemen teams were very weak compared with the professionals, on occasion the fixture had to be arranged on an odds basis, so that the Players eleven took on a greater number of Gentlemen.
The Gentlemen famously became competitive during the career of W. G. Grace, whose performances were so outstanding that the Gentlemen could enjoy some long-awaited success; the fixture confirmed the held view of an imbalance between amateur and professional in that amateurs tended to be batsmen first and foremost, hence there were few good amateur bowlers. The Players could nearly always field a strong bowling side; the game was played over three days on all but a handful of occasions throughout its history. The most frequent venue for the match was Lord's, but a number of other grounds were used, notably The Oval and Scarborough, it was at Scarborough that the last Gentlemen v Players game was played, in September 1962; the same format of amateurs playing professionals was used in a number of other fixtures, some of which were given first-class status, but these matches became less common after the beginning of the 20th century, the last such game was "Gentlemen of the South v Players of the South" in 1920, after which all first-class Gentlemen v Players matches were between teams known by those names.
The Gentlemen v Players series ended after the 1962 season, when the distinction between amateur and professional players was abolished. Charles Williams has described several reports on the subject which were submitted to MCC by its Amateur Status Standing Committee and, on 31 January 1963, the MCC committee unanimously agreed to abolish amateurism. Williams says a substitute fixture was sought but it was decided not to pursue this as the new Gillette Cup limited overs competition was beginning in 1963. There were contrasting views about the passing of Gentlemen v Players; some traditionalists like E. W. Swanton and the editor of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack "lamented the passing of an era" but social change had rendered the whole concept an anachronism and Fred Trueman spoke for many when he summarised amateurism as a "ludicrous business", "thankfully abolished" after the 1962 season; the inaugural fixture was a three-day match at the original Lord's ground from 7 to 9 July 1806. It was soon followed by the second, held on the same ground from 21 to 25 July.
In the first match, the Gentlemen played with two "given men" and these were the two outstanding professionals of the day, Billy Beldham and William Lambert. Lambert made a significant contribution with the bat and the Gentlemen won by an innings and 14 runs. For the return, the Gentlemen retained Lambert. Beldham played for the Players; the Gentlemen won a low-scoring game by 82 runs and Lambert was again a significant factor, although the leading amateur Lord Frederick Beauclerk made two good scores. A curiosity of these matches is that they featured the veteran professional Tom Walker and the rookie amateur John Willes; these are the two players both credited with devising the roundarm style of bowling, but there is no evidence to suggest they used roundarm in 1806. Described by H. S. Altham as the "most famous of all domestic matches", the fixture disappeared until 1819. Altham says he does not know why but the Napoleonic Wars must have been a factor as cricket was in decline from 1810 until after Waterloo in 1815.
In 1819, the amateurs lost by six wickets. There was only one run between the sides on first innings but the Gentlemen collapsed in the second against the bowling of Tom Howard and John Sherman to be all out
I Zingari are English and Australian amateur cricket clubs. The English club was formed on 4 July 1845 by a group of Old Harrovians at a dinner party and thus is one of the oldest cricket clubs still in existence; the English team still plays around 20 matches each year. Known as IZ, I Zingari is a wandering club, having no home ground. Uniquely for an amateur club, Wisden reported all of its matches since 1867, but ceased to do so in 2005. I Zingari was founded by John Loraine Baldwin, the Hon. Frederick Ponsonby, the Hon. Spencer Ponsonby and Richard Penruddocke Long, who were dining at the Blenheim Hotel in London's Bond Street after a match against Harrow School, they decided to form a club to foster the spirit of amateur cricket, the club rules are famously idiosyncratic. William Boland, a barrister, was appointed the Perpetual President, remains in post after his death; as a result, the leader of the club is termed its "Governor". Recent Governors of I Zingari have included Charles Lyttelton, 10th Viscount Cobham, Alec Douglas-Home, George Mann, Dennis Silk and Mike Griffith.
The club was at its strongest in the nineteenth century. It played seventeen first-class matches between 1849 and 1904, including matches against the Australians in 1882 and 1884, its club colours are black and gold, symbolizing the motto "out of darkness, through fire, into light". The colours are curiously similar to the egg-and-bacon colours adopted by the MCC in 1860, except on the tie the stripes go in the opposite direction; the Australian club, I Zingari Australia, was formed in 1888, claims to be the oldest social cricket club in Australia, although there are older school and district teams. It first played on 29 September 1888, defeating Newington College Present by 37 runs; the Australian club was recognised by the English club in 1891 and given permission to wear the club colours. The Australian team still plays 70 fixtures each year against other club and representative sides. In Australia, an I Zingari Rowing Club was established in Adelaide in 1882. I Zingari: The Club, the Cricket, the Characters, R.
L. Arrowsmith, B. J. W. Hill, A. Winlaw, ISBN 1-899163-82-4 The History of I Zingari, R. L. Arrowsmith, B. J. W. Hill, ISBN 0-09-150550-X The vagrant gypsy life, 150 years of I Zingari, Wisden, 1995 I Zingari I Zingari Australia Hon. Sir Edward Chandos Leigh History of Adelaide Rowing Club
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy", he made the Conservatives the party most identified with the power of the British Empire. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth, he was a novelist, publishing works of fiction as prime minister. Disraeli was born in Bloomsbury a part of Middlesex, his father left Judaism after a dispute at his synagogue. After several unsuccessful attempts, Disraeli entered the House of Commons in 1837. In 1846 the Prime Minister at the time, Sir Robert Peel, split the party over his proposal to repeal the Corn Laws, which involved ending the tariff on imported grain.
Disraeli clashed with Peel in the House of Commons. Disraeli became a major figure in the party; when Lord Derby, the party leader, thrice formed governments in the 1850s and 1860s, Disraeli served as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Upon Derby's retirement in 1868, Disraeli became Prime Minister before losing that year's general election, he returned to the Opposition, before leading the party to winning a majority in the 1874 general election. He maintained a close friendship with Queen Victoria, who in 1876 appointed him Earl of Beaconsfield. Disraeli's second term was dominated by the Eastern Question—the slow decay of the Ottoman Empire and the desire of other European powers, such as Russia, to gain at its expense. Disraeli arranged for the British to purchase a major interest in the Suez Canal Company. In 1878, faced with Russian victories against the Ottomans, he worked at the Congress of Berlin to obtain peace in the Balkans at terms favourable to Britain and unfavourable to Russia, its longstanding enemy.
This diplomatic victory over Russia established Disraeli as one of Europe's leading statesmen. World events thereafter moved against the Conservatives. Controversial wars in Afghanistan and South Africa undermined his public support, he angered British farmers by refusing to reinstitute the Corn Laws in response to poor harvests and cheap imported grain. With Gladstone conducting a massive speaking campaign, his Liberals bested Disraeli's Conservatives at the 1880 general election. In his final months, Disraeli led the Conservatives in Opposition, he had throughout his career written novels, beginning in 1826, he published his last completed novel, shortly before he died at the age of 76. Disraeli was born on 21 December 1804 at 6 King's Road, Bedford Row, London, the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli, a literary critic and historian, Maria, née Basevi; the family was of Sephardic Jewish Italian mercantile background. All Disraeli's grandparents and great-grandparents were born in Italy.
Disraeli romanticised his origins, claiming that his father's family was of grand Spanish and Venetian descent. Historians differ on Disraeli's motives for rewriting his family history: Bernard Glassman argues that it was intended to give him status comparable to that of England's ruling elite. Disraeli's siblings were Sarah, Naphtali and James, he was close to his sister, on affectionate but more distant terms with his surviving brothers. Details of his schooling are sketchy. From the age of about six he was a day boy at a dame school in Islington that one of his biographers described as "for those days a high-class establishment". Two years or so—the exact date has not been ascertained—he was sent as a boarder to Rev John Potticary's St Piran's school at Blackheath. While he was there events at the family home changed the course of Disraeli's education and of his whole life: his father renounced Judaism and had the four children baptised into the Church of England in July and August 1817. Isaac D'Israeli had never taken religion seriously, but had remained a conforming member of the Bevis Marks Synagogue.
His father, the elder Benjamin, was a devout member. After Benjamin senior died in 1816 Isaac felt free to leave the congregation following a second dispute. Isaac's friend Sharon Turner, a solicitor, convinced him that although he could comfortably remain unattached to any formal religion it would be disadvantageous to the children if they did so. Turner stood as godfather when Benjamin was baptised, aged twelve, on 31 July 1817. Conversion to Christianity enabled Disraeli to contemplate a career in politics. Britain in the early-nineteenth century was not a anti-Semitic society, there had been Members of Parliament from Jewish families since Samson Gideon in 1770, but until 1858, MPs were required to take the oath of allegiance "on the true faith of a Christian", necessitating at least nominal conversion. It is not known whether Disraeli formed any ambition for a parliamentary career at
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, earthworms, land snails, slugs; this wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, biomechanics, systematics, developmental biology, ecology and paleontology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as as the 16th century. William Kirby is considered as the father of Entomology.
In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world. Entomology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries, was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch, two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Insect identification is an common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera. However, insects other than Lepidoptera are identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs.
Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, subtle, this is very difficult for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Many entomologists specialize in a single order or a family of insects, a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names derived from the scientific name of the group: Coleopterology – beetles Dipterology – flies Odonatology – dragonflies and damselflies Hemipterology – true bugs Isopterology – termites Lepidopterology – moths and butterflies Melittology – bees Myrmecology – ants Orthopterology – grasshoppers, etc.
Trichopterology – caddis flies Vespology – Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local and international organizations. There are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Amateur Entomologists' Society Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Entomological Society of America Entomological Society of Canada Entomological Society of Japan Entomologischer Verein Krefeld Entomological Society of India International Union for the Study of Social Insects Netherlands Entomological Society Royal Belgian Entomological Society Royal Entomological Society of London Société entomologique de France Here is a list of selected museums which contain large insect collections. Zoological survey of India National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Pakistan Museum of Natural History Garden Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan Natal Museum, South Africa Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France Museum für Naturkunde, Germany Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Scotland Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum Natural History Museum, Geneva Natural History Museum, the Netherlands Natural History Museum, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science Naturhistorisches Museum, Austria Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History, New York City Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Ala
Théobald Chartran was a classical French propaganda painter. As "T", he was one of the artists responsible for occasional caricatures of Vanity Fair magazine, specializing in French and Italian subjects, his work for Vanity Fair included Pope Leo XIII, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Umberto I of Italy, William Henry Waddington, all in 1878, Charles Gounod, Giuseppe Verdi, Ernest Renan, Jules Grévy, Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Victor Hugo, Marshal MacMahon, Granier de Cassagnac, Louis Blanc, Alexandre Dumas, all in 1879. President Theodore Roosevelt's official portrait was commissioned to Theobald Chartran in 1902, but when Roosevelt saw the final product he hated it and hid it in the darkest corner of the White House; when family members called it the "Mewing Cat" for making him look so harmless, he had it destroyed and hired John Singer Sargent to paint a more masculine portrait. Among Chartran's work is his portrait of René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec, the inventor of the stethoscope. Place des États-Unis Théobald Chartran exhibition catalogs
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's cricket ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood, England. The club was the governing body of cricket in England and Wales and, as the sport's legislator, held considerable global influence. In 1788, the MCC took responsibility for the Laws of Cricket. Although changes to the Laws are now determined by the International Cricket Council, the copyright is still owned by MCC. For much of the 20th century, commencing with the 1903–04 tour of Australia and ending with the 1976–77 tour of India, MCC organised international tours in which the England cricket team played Test matches. On these tours, the England team was called MCC in non-international matches. In 1993, its administrative and governance functions were transferred to the ICC and the Test and County Cricket Board; the club's own teams are ad hoc because they have never taken part in any formal competition. MCC teams have always held first-class status depending on the quality of the opposition.
To mark the beginning of each English season, MCC plays the reigning County Champions. The origin of MCC was as a gentlemen's club that had flourished through most of the 18th century, including, at least in part, an existence as the original London Cricket Club, which had played at the Artillery Ground through the middle years of the century. Many of its members became involved with the Hambledon Club through the 1770s and in the early 1780s, had returned to the London area where the White Conduit Club had begun in Islington, it is not known for certain when the White Conduit was founded but it seems to have been after 1780 and by 1785. According to Pelham Warner, it was formed in 1782 as an offshoot from a West End convivial club called the Je-ne-sais-quoi, some of whose members frequented the White Conduit House in Islington and played matches on the neighbouring White Conduit Fields, a prominent venue for cricket in the 1720s. Arthur Haygarth said in Scores and Biographies that "the Marylebone Club was founded in 1787 from the White Conduit's members" but the date of the formation of the White Conduit "could not be found".
This gentlemen's club, multi-purpose, had a social meeting place at the Star and Garter on Pall Mall. It was the same club, responsible for drafting the Laws of Cricket at various times, most notably in 1744 and 1774, this lawgiving responsibility was soon to be vested in the MCC as the final repose of these cricketing gentlemen; when the White Conduit began, its leading lights were George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea and the Hon. Colonel Charles Lennox, who became the 4th Duke of Richmond. White Conduit was nominally an exclusive club that only "gentlemen" might play for, but the club did employ professionals and one of these was the bowler Thomas Lord, a man, recognised for his business acumen as well as his bowling ability; the new club might have continued except that White Conduit Fields was an open area allowing members of the public, including the rowdier elements, to watch the matches and to voice their opinions on the play and the players. The White Conduit gentlemen were not amused by such interruptions and decided to look for a more private venue of their own.
Winchilsea and Lennox asked Lord to find a new ground and offered him a guarantee against any losses he may suffer in the venture. Lord took a lease from the Portman Estate on some land at Dorset Fields where Dorset Square is now sited, it was called the New Cricket Ground because it was off what was called "the New Road" in Marylebone, when the first known match was played there on 21 May but, by the end of July, it was known as Lord's. As it was in Marylebone, the White Conduit members who relocated to it soon decided to call themselves the "Mary-le-bone Club"; the exact date of MCC's foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787. On 10 & 11 July 1837, a South v North match was staged at Lord's to commemorate the MCC's Golden Jubilee. Warner described it as "a Grand Match to celebrate the Jubilee of the Club" and reproduced the full scorecard. On Wednesday, 25 April 1787, the London Morning Herald newspaper carried a notice: "The Members of the Cricket Club are desired to meet at the Star and Garter, Pall Mall, on Mon.
April 30. Dinner on table at half past five o'clock. N. B; the favour of an answer is desired". The agenda is unknown but, only three weeks on Saturday, 19 May, the Morning Herald advertised: "A grand match will be played on Monday, 21 May in the New Cricket Ground, the New Road, Mary-le-bone, between eleven Noblemen of the White Conduit Club and eleven Gentlemen of the County of Middlesex with two men given, for 500 guineas a side; the wickets to be pitched at ten o'clock, the match to be played out". No post-match report has been found but, as G. B. Buckley said, it was "apparently the first match to be played on Lord's new ground". A total of eight matches are known to have been played at Lord's in 1787, one of them a single wicket event; the only one which featured the Mary-le-bone Club took place on 30 July. It was advertised in The World on Friday, 27 July 1787: "On Monday, 30 July will be played a match between 11 gentlemen of the Mary-le-bone Club and 11 gentlemen of the Islington Club".
Buckley stated that "this is the earliest notice of the Marylebone Club". As with the inaugural match at Lord's, no post-match report of the inaugural MCC match has been found. There have been three Lord's grounds: the original on the Portman Estate and two on the Eyre Estate