India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Calicut International Airport
Calicut International Airport, known as Karipur Airport, is an international airport serving the cities of Kozhikode and Malappuram in Kerala, India. It is located in Karipur, about 25 km from Malappuram and 28 km from Kozhikode, the airport serves as an operating base for Air India Express. It was the twelfth busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It is the third busiest airport in Kerala after Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram and it was given international airport status on 2 February 2006. The airport was inaugurated in April 1988, Calicut airport gained its sanction after a long period of struggle, which began in 1977, under the leadership of freedom fighter late K. P. In the 1990s, Gulf Malayalis played an important part in the development of the airport - they collected funds for the purpose and this led to the inception of, the Malabar International Airport Development Society, which helped raise funds for the airports development. Consequently, major developments of facilities, such as extension of runway from 6,000 feet to 9,000 feet to facilitate operation of big-bodied aircraft, were carried out, with loans from HUDCO.
It received the status of an airport on February 2,2006. It holds the distinction of being the 12th busiest airport in India, runway Re carpeting completed and 24 hour operation started on 01/03/2017. A15,000 m2 international terminal has opened to passengers. Five conveyor belts have been installed at the arrival terminal, the approach to Calicut airport runway is surrounded with hills and valleys. The approach funnel area of the runway 28 is a 30 m to 70 m deep undulated valley up to a distance of 6,000 m, immediately following the tabletop runway of 2,860 m long. This terrain needs a special type of approach lighting system to enhance safety for aircraft operations both during night and poor visibility conditions. Airports Authority of India have provided runway lead-in lighting system for the first time in India at Calicut airport as per the recommendations of the DGCA. As a result, Saudia and 2 Air India 747 flight operations had to move temporarily to Cochin International Airport during this time, AAI had earlier instructed all airports using widebody aircraft must have 240m of RESA on each direction vs Calicut airports 75m.
The major hurdle in extending the runway is the delay in acquiring the land which require a total of 385 acres of land for extending the runway, the state government has been finding the task difficult as it requires evacuation of 1500 families living around the airport. As of June 10,2016, not much action has taken for land acquisition to help increase the runway length. On 17 January 1969, Douglas C-47A VT-DTH of Hindu Publications crashed on take-off, the aircraft was operating a cargo flight
Climate of India
The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult. Many regions have different microclimates. The nation has four seasons, summer, a rainy season. As Earths highest and most massive mountain range, the Himalayas bar the influx of frigid katabatic winds from the icy Tibetan Plateau and northerly Central Asia. Most of North India is thus kept warm or is only mildly chilly or cold during winter, though the Tropic of Cancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the bulk of the country can be regarded as climatically tropical. There is one scientific opinion which states that in South Asia such climatic events are likely to change in unpredictability, during the Triassic period of some 251–199.6 Ma, the Indian subcontinent was part of a vast supercontinent known as Pangaea. India merged into the southern supercontinent Gondwana, a process beginning some 550–500 Ma and this is underscored by Indias vast coal reserves—much of it from the late Paleozoic sedimentary sequence—the fourth-largest reserves in the world.
During the Mesozoic, the world, including India, was warmer than today. With the coming of the Carboniferous, global cooling stoked extensive glaciation, which spread northwards from South Africa towards India, tectonic movement by the Indian Plate caused it to pass over a geologic hotspot—the Réunion hotspot—now occupied by the volcanic island of Réunion. This resulted in a flood basalt event that laid down the Deccan Traps some 60–68 Ma. This may have contributed to the global Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which caused India to experience significantly reduced insolation, elevated atmospheric levels of sulphur gases formed aerosols such as sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid, similar to those found in the atmosphere of Venus, these precipitated as acid rain. Elevated carbon dioxide emissions contributed to the effect, causing warmer weather that lasted long after the atmospheric shroud of dust. Further climatic changes 20 million years ago, long after India had crashed into the Laurasian landmass, were enough to cause the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.
The nations climate is influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. Simultaneously, the Thar Desert plays a role in attracting moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, four major climatic groupings predominate, into which fall seven climatic zones that, as designated by experts, are defined on the basis of such traits as temperature and precipitation. Groupings are assigned according to the Köppen climate classification system. A tropical rainy climate governs regions persistent to warm or high temperatures, India hosts two climatic subtypes- tropical monsoon climate, tropical wet and dry climate that fall under this group. 1) The most humid is the tropical wet climate—also known as a tropical monsoon climate—that covers a strip of southwestern lowlands abutting the Malabar Coast, the Western Ghats, Indias two island territories and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, are subject to this climate
Trivandrum International Airport
Trivandrum International Airport is in Thiruvananthapuram and is the first airport in the state of Kerala, India. It was the international airport of India declared by Prime Minister of India. The airport is a base for Air India Express operations and is a focus city for Air India, Jet Airways, SpiceJet. There are flights to Middle eastern and South eastern countries from here, Trivandrum International Airport operates two terminals. Terminal 1 handles domestic operations and Terminal 2 handles all international flight operations as well as all domestic flights by Air India. In addition to operations, Trivandrum Airport caters to the Indian Air Force. IAF have an apron to handle all their operations. Trivandrum airport caters to the Rajiv Gandhi Academy for Aviation Technology which carries out training activities. The airport was established in 1932 as part of the Royal Flying Club under the initiative of Colonel Goda Varma Raja, Consort Prince of HRH Queen Karthika Thirunal of Travancore Kingdom.
Col G. V Raja, a pilot, felt the need an airport to accommodate Travancore in the aviation map of India. A detailed report was made and presented to the King by Consort Prince in this regard, in 1935, on royal patronage of H. H Maharaja Chithira Thirunal, Tata Airlines made its maiden flight to the airport using DH. The first flight took off on 1 November 1935, carrying mails of Royal Anchal to Bombay, in 1938, the Royal Government of Travancore acquired a Dakota as Maharajas private aircraft and placed the first squadron of Royal Indian Air Force for protection of state from aerial attacks. After Independence, the airstrip was used for flights with construction of a domestic terminal. International operations were initiated by Air India to cities in the Arabian Peninsula in the late 1970s using Boeing 707, by early 80s, the Indian Airlines started service to Colombo, followed by service to Male. Later, SriLankan Airlines and Air Maldives, the cargo warehouse is on the airport premises. It has a capacity to import 21000 MT and export 27000 MT per annum, in 2010-11, the airport achieved MT of import cargo and MT of export cargo.
Major cargo jets such as Emirates has begun flights to Trivandrum International Airport, the air traffic control tower is 18 m tall. There are plans to build a new 43m tall ATC tower for Trivandrum airport near the new international terminal. The airport has an instrument landing system using distance measuring equipment, the Instrument Landing System allows aircraft landings in reduced visibility
Quilon Aerodrome or Kollam Airport was an aerodrome in the city of Kollam in the former state of Travancore, now in Kerala, India. During the 1920s, there were no other civil aerodromes in the kingdoms of Cochin, with the 1932 commissioning of Trivandrum International Airport in the state capital 57 kilometres to the south, the aerodrome fell into disuse and came to be known as the Asramam Maidan. The landing strip of the aerodrome was strengthened with red soil from the adjoining hills because the local loose soil was unsuitable for the purpose. There were no buildings in the aerodrome, however, a concrete pad for parking aircraft was built. The aerodrome was under the control of the Public Works Department, the aerodrome was used for training operations. These were stopped when an accident involving an aircraft at the boundary of the aerodrome, resulted in the death of the pilot. During 2009 -2012, local authorities made plans to revive the aerodrome for an academy with a 4,000 foot runway for light aircraft.
Trivandrum International Airport Cochin International Airport Calicut International Airport Kannur International Airport Aranmula International Airport List of airports in India
Pulikkali is a recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to people on the occasion of Onam. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations, performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, literal meaning of Pulikkali is the play of the tigers hence the performance revolve around the theme of tiger hunting. The folk art is mainly practiced in Thrissur district of Kerala, best place to watch the show is at Thrissur on the fourth day of Onam, where Pulikkali troupes from all over the district assemble to display their skills. The festival attracts thousands of people to the Thrissur city, Pulikkali is performed during various other festive seasons. Later, Konar of used to celebrate with great fervor and they popularised the folk genre with steps and body language peculiar to a tiger being stalked by a hunter, enacting a play of the hunter and the beast. Along with the celebrations, they used to perform the art form decked as tigers with peculiar steps resembling the tiger, Pulikkali in Thrissur is held in memory of this event.
Over the years, there has been changes in the adornment of Pulikkali dancers, in the early days, masks were not used and participants would have themselves painted all over, on their faces as well. But now, ready made masks, cosmetic teeth, beards, the tigers wear a broad belt with jingles around their waist. The festival in Thrissur has now become an all peoples event with huge response from people, especially youths who come forward to participate in the festival, and from sponsors. The event is organized by the Pulikkali Co-ordination Committee, a council of Pulikkali groups formed in 2004 in Thrissur to preserve. The Thrissur Municipal Corporation give a grant of Rs 30,000 for each Pulikkali troupe, a striking feature of this folk art is the colorful appearance of the performers. A particular combination of powder and varnish or enamel is used to make the paint. First of all, the remove the hair from the body, and then. It takes two to three hours for the coating to dry, after that, the second coat of paint is applied with enhanced design.
This entire procedure takes at least five to seven hours, a large number of artists gather to apply paint on the tigers. It is a process and often starts from the wee hours in the morning. Scenes such as the tiger preying on an animal, and a tiger being hunted by a game-hunter are enacted beautifully in between, thousands of spectators line the streets enjoying the dance, cheering the dancers some of them even trying to join in
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, created on 26 January 1972. At that time, the headquarters was at Kottayam. In June 1976 it was moved to Painavu, Idukki which lies in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Idukki is the second largest district in area but has the lowest population density, Idukki has a vast forest reserve area, more than a half of the district is covered by forests. The urban areas are densely populated villages are sparsely populated. The name of the district is derived from the Malayalam word Idukku, Idukki has an area of 4,358 km2 and is the second largest District of Kerala. Rugged mountains and forests cover about 97 percent of the area of the District. The district is only by road. Rail and airlink is not available, National Highway NH49 and State highways 13 and 33 passes through the district. Anamudi, the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas, is in the Kuttampuzha Panchayat of Adimali Block, thirteen other peaks in the district exceed a height of 2,000 m.
The Periyar and Thalayar are the important rivers of the district, Idukki Dam, Asias largest Arch Dam is located at Idukki Township of Idukki Taluk. The point where the Periyar flows through the gorge formed between two massive rocks known as Kuravan and Kurathi is the site of the Idukki arch dam. The Idukki Hydroelectic project caters for more than 60% of the requirements of the state of Kerala. According to the 2011 census Idukki district has a population of 1,107,453 and this ranks it as 416th among the 640 districts of India. The district has a density of 254 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −1. 93%, Idukki has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 92.2 per cent. According to the 2011 census, Hindus make up 48, 86% of the population, Christians 43. 42%, Muslims 7. 41%. Idukki district is the first district in India to get connected with super-fast broad band system as a part of Digital India Munnar was the resort of the British Government in the south
Harimattom pooram is the one of the famous pooram in Ernakulam. The most famous pooram in whole world is Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram which has a participation of 11 Lack people across the country. Most pooram festivals have at least one ornately decorated elephant being paraded in the procession out of the temple precincts. Vela is a festival like pooram, thrissur Pooram is the most famous of all poorams. The second best known Pooram in Kerala is Uthralikavu Pooram. A melam is a performance of different kind of musical instruments that are unique to Kerala and is something akin to the jazz. The most traditional of all melams is called Pandi Melam which is performed outside the temple. Another kind of melam is called Panchari Melam, which is similar to Pandi Melam going by the kind of instruments, panchavadyam is another classical musical ensemble performed in Kerala. Here, five different kinds of instruments create a breathtaking and fastmoving percussion performance, the five instruments are Madhalam, Edakka and Timila.
Interesting attractions of Pooram can be seen in the Valluvanad and Talappilly region, there is the Harijan Vela or Parayar Vela as well as the Tholpavakoothu, a traditional shadow puppetry show. Harimattom Temple is situated near Tripunithura, the temple festival is started on malayalm month medam star UTTRAM. The main highlight of the festival is harimattom pooram which is on the 7th day of the festival, the main attraction of this pooram is kudamattam and famous pandimellam with the presents of most the famous 10 elephants from Kerala. The one of the most important things is the Harimattom pooram and festival is conducting as per keeping the Kerala tradition and culture
Climatic regions of India
India has a large variation in climate from region to region, due to its vast size. India experiences climate from four major climate groups and these can be further subdivided into seven climatic types. For ecological regions, see Ecoregions of India, for Regions see List of regions of India, the regions belonging to this group experience persistent high temperatures which normally do not go below 18 °C even in the coolest month. Tropical wet The west coastal lowlands, the Western Ghats, and it is characterised by high temperatures throughout the year, even in the hills. The rainfall here is seasonal, but heavy and is above 78 cm in a year, Most of the rain is received in the period from May to November, and is adequate for the growth of vegetation during the entire year. December to March are the dry months with little rainfall. The heavy rain is responsible for the wet forests in these regions. Tropical wet and dry or savannah climate Most of the plateau of peninsula India enjoys this climate and early summer are long dry periods with temperature above 18 °C.
Summer is very hot and the temperatures in the low level areas can go above 45 °C during May. The rainy season is from June to September and the rainfall is between 75 and 150 cm. Only central eastern Tamil Nadu falls under this tract and receives rainfall during the months of late November to January. This group consists of regions where the rate of evaporation of water is higher than the rate of moisture received through precipitation. Tropical semi-arid climate A long stretch of land situated to the south of Tropic of Cancer and east of the western ghats and the Cardamom Hills experiences this climate. It includes Karnataka and western Tamil Nadu, western Andhra Pradesh and this region is a famine prone zone with very unreliable rainfall which varies between 40 and 75 cm annually. Towards the north of Krishna River the summer monsoon is responsible for most of the rainfall, the coldest month is December but even in this month the temperature remains between 20 °C and 24 °C. The months of March to May are hot and dry with mean temperatures of around 32 °C.
The vegetation mostly comprises grasses with a few scattered trees due to the rainfall, hence this area is not very well suited for permanent agriculture. Sub-tropical arid climate Most of western Rajasthan falls under this climate type characterised by scanty rainfall, cloud bursts are largely responsible for the all the rainfall seen in this region which is less than 30 cm
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions, the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by different ethnic groups throughout its history. Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, the new republic was declared to be a Union of States. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India, the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin.
The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners provinces and some states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, the only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states, as a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956, kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963, the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a territory and the shared capital of Punjab
Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport is an international airport situated in the city of Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India. It is the busiest and largest airport in the state of Kerala, the airstrip was converted into a military airport by the Indian Navy during World War II. The Royal Navy chose it as a site for their headquarters in Southern India and as an air station cum landing craft. The military facility hosted naval fighter planes and was intended to thwart possible Japanese air raids, a small naval unit set up just two days before the outbreak of World War II. After Indian Independence, the Indian Navy operated the airport, though it permitted civilian aircraft to use the facility, the Gulf economic boom of the 1980s made it necessary to develop international transportation to Kochi in the interests of expatriates working in the Middle East. The resolution was rejected by the Navy for security reasons, the government of Indias Airport Authority of India did not have enough funds to commence a greenfield airport.
This led to the formation of an idea of collecting funds from the public and individuals to construct an airport. The idea was put forward by Mr. V. J. Kurian, the original proposal for the airport outlined an estimated cost of ₹100 crore and an expected date of commission in 1997. Approval was granted in May 1993, a body called the Cochin International Airport Society, under the chairmanship of the chief minister of Kerala, was registered in July 1993 to execute the project. A total of 2,000 acres of land was acquired for the construction of the airport, approximately 2,300 landowners and 872 families were resettled under a rehabilitation package. Major electric lines and a canal had to be diverted. The facility was inaugurated by the President of India, KR Narayanan on 25 May 1999. The operations from the old airport were moved to CIAL on 1 July 1999. The airport had 18,580 m2 of floor space at its inauguration, CIAL envisioned six phases of expansion over 20 years, the third phase of which was completed in 2009.
The original airport terminal was small enough envisioned to handle just 100 passengers at a time, however, by 2001, the international passenger traffic were growing, making necessary to redevelop the terminal. Most of the expansion has occurred in the terminal, as it accounts for more than 78% of all traffic. In 2002 the original floor area had risen. As part of two of the expansion plans, an airline center complex of 7,500 m2 was constructed on the western side of the terminal to accommodate airline