England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Metrojet (Russian airline)
Kogalymavia, DBA Metrojet, was a Russian airline based in Kogalym, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. Its home base was at Kogalym International Airport, with the main hub at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, it suspended all operations in December 2015. Kogalymavia started operations in May 1993. Since 2005 the airline flew international charter services to leisure destinations under the brand name Kolavia. In May 2012, Kogalymavia changed its marketing branding from Kolavia to Metrojet as part of their newly established joint-venture with TUI Russia & CIS, a subsidiary of German tourism company TUI Travel. Up until August 2014, when the joint-venture was broken up, Metrojet operated on behalf of TUI and has flown independently since. On 31 October 2015, a Metrojet Airbus A321-200 operating as charter Flight 9268 crashed on the Sinai Peninsula, killing all 224 people on board. On 5 December 2015, Metrojet suspended all remaining operations after a severe decrease of passengers due to the aforementioned incident and the security situation at its primary leisure destinations in Egypt.
It announced a review of all operations and might resume services in summer 2016. It filed for bankruptcy in March 2016. Metrojet operated the following routes by the time it ceased operations: from Moscow-Domodedovo Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Egypt Spain France Greece Italy Montenegro Turkey from Vladivostok Japan South Korea Vietnam The Kogalymavia fleet included the following aircraft, as of August 2016: Metrojet and its predecessor Kolavia operated the following aircraft in the past: 2 Airbus A320-200 Antonov An-24 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154B Tupolev Tu-154M 5 Airbus A321-200 1 January 2011: Flight 348. A fire broke out on one of the engines of tail number RA-85588, before taxiing; the aircraft had 116 passengers and 8 crew on board, was due to operate a flight, a Surgut–Moscow service. It was evacuated seconds. Three people were killed and 43 passengers injured. 31 October 2015: Flight 9268, an Airbus A321-200 charter flight with 224 people on board, en route from Sharm el-Sheikh to Saint Petersburg, crashed on the Sinai Peninsula.
All 217 passengers and seven crew members perished. The Russian Federal Security Service announced on 17 November that it was a terrorist attack, caused by an improvised bomb containing the equivalent of up to 1 kilogram of TNT that detonated during the flight; the Russians said. This air crash was named as the biggest and the most fatal in the history of the airline and Soviet aviation. 5 November 2015: Flight 9267 operated for S7 Airlines suffered a collapse of its nose gear following an incident during pushback at Saint Petersburg Airport in Russia. The flight was operated by EI-ETL, an Airbus A321-200. Media related to Kolavia at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Britannia Airways was a charter airline based in the United Kingdom. It became the world's largest holiday airline. Britannia's main bases were at London Gatwick, London Stansted, London Luton, Bristol, East Midlands, Manchester, Leeds Bradford and Glasgow and had its headquarters at Britannia House in Luton, Bedfordshire. Britannia was a charter operator for Universal Sky Tours and for Thomson holidays where it became the in-house airline with a fleet of Boeing jet aircraft. In 2000, Thomson Travel Group, thereby Britannia Airways, were acquired by Preussag AG of Germany; as part of a wider reorganisation of TUI's UK operations in September 2004, Britannia was rebranded as Thomsonfly. On 1 November 2005, the legal name of the company was changed from Britannia Airways Limited to Thomsonfly Limited; the airline was established as Euravia by British businessman T. E. D. Langton and aviation consultant J. E. D. Walker on 1 December 1961, it was founded at a time of considerable turmoil for the independent sector of the British air operators industry, during the early 1960s, several firms suffered from severe financial hardship and were driven into bankruptcy.
Upon deciding to launch operations, the company obtained the necessary licences from the Air Transport Licensing Board, Certificates of Airworthiness for their aircraft from the Air Registration Board, an Air Operator's Certificate from the Director of Aviation Safety, Ministry of Aviation. These applications were not without some difficulty as Euravia had the distinction of being refused more licences than any other two airlines put together. On 1 April 1962, Euravia established its initial operating base at Luton Airport. Early on, Euravia benefitted from its close association with inclusive tour holiday company Universal Sky Tours. On 5 May 1962, Euravia commenced flight operations, using an initial batch of three Constellations to perform flights on behalf of Universal Sky Tours. Within ten days, the operation was breaking-even. On 5 October of that same year, a rival charter airline Skyways, one of Britain's foremost independent airlines during the 1950s and early 1960s, was taken over by Euravia and integrated into its operations.
The Skyways takeover did not include Skyways Coach-Air, a Skyways associate, established in the early 1950s by Eric Rylands to operate low-fare coach-air services between London and several European capital cities. Following Euravia's acquisition of Skyways, Skyways Coach-Air remained independent until its successor Skyways International was taken over by Dan-Air in 1972. By 15 June 1963, Euravia was operating a mixed fleet of four Avro Yorks. Euravia took on Skyways PanAm engine contract at London Heathrow using ex-Skyways Yorks; these rescue flights were flown as far afield as Hong Kong. The other Yorks were used for adhoc freighting until 1965 when the last aircraft G-AGNV was flown from Luton to Staverton Gloucester to be an exhibit at the now defunct Skyfame museum. Upon retirement, this aircraft was placed on display at the RAF museum, RAF Cosford. On 16 August 1964, the airline was rebranded; the type would not be used for long however. During the late 1960s, Britannia became the first charter airline to offer assigned seating, as well as hot in-flight meals.
During the mid-1960s, Britannia had attracted the interest of the newspaper business magnate Lord Thomson, who sought a good prospect with which to diversify his business stakes. As a result of this interest, during 1965, Britannia became part of Thomson, itself part of the Canadian-owned International Thomson Organisation; this acquisition was beneficial to the company's prospects, including financing the acquisition of a new generation of jet-powered airliners to enable Britannia's rapid transition into the jet age. During 1968, Britannia commenced a re-equipment effort involving the then-new Boeing 737-200 jetliner; the purchase of the brand new and unproved 737 was seen as a major breach of traditional practice. In addition, the large'flag carriers' were comparatively wary of the value of jet-powered aircraft opting for comfort and high-quality passenger conditions over speeds; this unconventional purchase was politically controversial. These pressure tactics proved to be unsuccessful.
TUI fly Belgium
TUI fly Belgium incorporated as TUI Airlines Belgium S. A./N. V. and branded Jetairfly, is a Belgian airline with its registered office at Brussels Airport. The airline is part of the TUI Airlines. TUI Airlines incorporates the sister companies TUI fly Netherlands, Corsair International, TUI fly Deutschland, TUI Airways and TUI fly Nordic; the airline was created in November 2003 as home carrier for tour operator Jetair, part of tourism group TUI AG. The original plans were to operate two aircraft, but after charter company Sobelair ceased its operations, Jetairfly started its operations with 5 aircraft. On 23 November 2005, The airline was rebranded Jetairfly as part of the rebranding around Belgium's number 1 tourism brand Jetair. In January 2012, Jetairfly announced that Jet4you, a low-cost Moroccan carrier and a subsidiary of the TUI AG Group, would be integrated in Jetairfly; the merger was complete in April 2012. In March 2012, Jetairfly became a full scheduled airline, while a part of their flights were conducted as charter flights.
As a result, all flights can be booked in both directions by non-EU citizens. In the beginning of 2013, Jetairfly was the first leisure airline worldwide to introduce the Embraer E-Jet 190 in its fleet. In the autumn of 2013, the new office building and maintenance hangar "Jetairport" was inaugurated at Brussels Airport. In December 2013, Jetairfly was the first and only Belgian airline to introduce the brand new Boeing 787-8 "Dreamliner". On 14 November 2014, Jetairfly sealed a wet-lease deal to provide up to four aircraft with crew to operate on behalf of ECAir, the flag carrier of the Republic of the Congo, from mid 2015 on. In 2015, it was the first and only Belgian airline with an ISO 14001 certification for their focus on sustainability and the smallest ecological footprint. On 13 May 2015, it was announced by the TUI Group that all five of TUI's airline subsidiaries will be named TUI fly, whilst keeping their separate Air Operator's Certificate, taking over three years to complete. On 19 October 2016, Jetairfly received the new brand name TUI fly Belgium with the legal name still being TUI Airlines Belgium NV as the second airline within the TUI group which underwent the name change.
TUI fly Belgium has a network of 180 routes to more than 100 airports in the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and the United States. The airline's home base is Brussels Airport, but flights are operated from 8 other bases: Brussels South Charleroi Airport, Liege Airport, Ostend-Bruges International Airport, Antwerp Airport, Lille Airport in France, Mohammed V International Airport Casablanca and Marrakesh Menara Airport in Morocco; the TUI fly Belgium fleet includes the following aircraft, as of April 2018: TUI Group has 72 737 MAXs on order for the group. The order consists of 20 MAX 10 aircraft, with the remaining variants unspecified as of June 2017. In 2018 TUI fly. Over the next 4 years they will receive a total of 15 Boeing 737 MAX 8 and 4 Boeing 737 MAX 10 aircraft. Deliveries of the new aircraft to the TUI Group commenced in January 2018 with the first aircraft, a Boeing 737 MAX 8 being delivered to TUI fly Belgium. On short-and medium haul flights, there are three types of service offered on all-Economy Class aircraft: Economy Class with buy on board service offering snacks and drinks for purchase.
Economy Class with standard service, including catering. Economy Class with Service Plus/VIP Selection, offering premium meals, free alcohol, newspapers. Access to the VIP lounge at Brussels-Zaventem Airport, with separate check-in and security fast lane. Boeing 767Economy Class with standard service including catering. Comfort Class with lounge access and security fast lane at Brussels-Zaventem Airport, premium meals including free alcohol, extra legroom and amenity kits. Boeing 787Economy Class with standard service including catering. Economy+ Class with extra legroom and enhanced standard services. Premium Club with lounge access and security fast lane at Brussels-Zaventem Airport, premium meals including free alcohol, extra-legroom seats and amenity kits. On all long-haul flights there is AVOD for every passenger. Media related to TUI fly Belgium at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official TUI website
TUI Cruises is a cruise line based in Germany. It was formed in 2007 as a joint venture between the German tourism company TUI AG and the American cruise line operator Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. both of whom hold a 50% stake in the company. The company started operations in 2009 and competes with AIDA Cruises and Hapag-Lloyd Kreuzfahrten for the German market, it targets German-speaking customers. The onboard product, including food and amenities, is custom-tailored for German tastes and German is the main language used onboard its ships. Due to lack of new-building capacity, TUI Cruises started by acquiring the cruise ship Celebrity Galaxy, built by Meyer Werft and was owned by another RCCL subsidiary, Celebrity Cruises, she left the Celebrity fleet on 16 March 2009. After acquiring Celebrity Galaxy, the ship headed to Lloyd Werft shipyards in Germany, she arrived on 27 March 2009, received a €50 Million, 38-day conversion to upgrade her facilities to suit a German-speaking market. After the conversion, she was re-christened on 15 May 2009 in Hamburg, Germany bearing her new name, Mein Schiff.
TUI planned to build two 2,500-passenger, 100,000-GT cruise ships in 2011 and 2012. On May 27, 2010, it was announced that another Century-class ship, Celebrity Mercury, would become the latest addition to TUI's fleet, renamed Mein Schiff 2. Due to this Mein Schiff was renamed into Mein Schiff 1. Mein Schiff 2 entered service with TUI in February 2011 after its extensive refurbishment, with the addition of more verandas, an expanded fitness area and design elements which are found on Mein Schiff 1. TUI and STX Finland announced a contract on 27 September 2011 to build a 97,000-GT vessel named Mein Schiff 3, delivered in 2014; the vessel is 295 metres long and 36 metres wide. The ship has 1,250 staterooms, most of which have balconies, with a capacity of 2,500 passengers and a crew of 1,000; the ship includes several restaurants, a theatre and nightclub. The contract included an option to build a second ship, dependent on the approval of TUI Cruises shareholders, it was announced on November 5, 2012 that TUI had taken up the second option for the sister ship to the Mein Schiff 3, to be named Mein Schiff 4.
On April 22, 2014, Mein Schiff 3 entered service. In March 2015, Royal Caribbean International announced that they had agreed to sell Splendour of the Seas to TUI Cruises in the second quarter of 2016, that TUI would lease the ship to Thomson Cruises to replace the Island Escape. In May 2015, TUI Group announced that as part of their modernization strategy, Mein Schiff 1 and Mein Schiff 2 would be transferred to Thomson Cruises over the next few years, as a result, 2 replacement ships neue Mein Schiff 1 and neue Mein Schiff 2 were ordered. On January 15, Mein Schiff 5 was launched. On April 28, Mein Schiff 6's was laid down. TUI Cruises official site
Tourism in London
London is one of the world's leading tourism destinations, the city is home to an array of famous tourist attractions. The city attracted 20.42 million international visitors in 2018, making it one of the world's most visited in terms of international visits. It welcomed an additional 27.8 million overnighting domestic tourists in 2017, had 280 million daytrippers in 2015. Overall London sees in nearly 50 million overnighters each year, over 300 million visitors if including daytrippers; the Travel & Tourism sector in the United Kingdom contributed GBP66.3 billion to the GDP, 3.4% of total GDP in 2016 and will rise by 2.2% pa, from 2017-2027, to GBP84.6 billion, 3.6% of total GDP in 2027. In 2011 visitors to London spent £9.4 billion, a little more than half of the total amount international visitors spent in the whole of the United Kingdom the same year. The tourism sector employed 700,000 people in 2013 according to Deloitte – Oxford Economics, accounting for 11.6 percent of the capital's GDP.
The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel located on the edge of the River Thames. It has a diameter of 120 metres. A short walk away, the area boasts the London Aquarium, Big Ben, the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey and Nelson's Column. In 2013, the tallest building in London, the Shard, opened a viewing platform to the public. Other major tourist attractions in London include the Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, Tower Bridge Experience, Madame Tussauds, ZSL London Zoo, London Dungeon and St Paul's Cathedral; the Association of Leading Visitor Attractions indicated that the following were the Top 10 visitor attractions in 2017: British Museum – 5.9 million visits Tate Modern – 5.7 million National Gallery – 5.2 million Natural History Museum, London – 4.4 million Victoria and Albert Museum – 3.7 million Science Museum, London – 3.3 million Southbank Centre – 3.2 million Somerset House – 3.2 million Tower of London – 2.8 million Royal Museums Greenwich – 2.6 million There are many museums and art galleries in the London area, the majority of which are free to enter.
Many of them are popular places for tourism. In addition to Tate Modern and the National Gallery, notable galleries include Tate Britain and the National Portrait Gallery. London has several parks for tourists to stroll and relax in, they include Hyde Park, Regent's Park, Green Park, St. James's Park, Hampstead Heath and Greenwich Park. London attracted 16.8 million foreign visitors in 2013, they accounted for 51.4% of all visitors. Below is the visitors information: France 1,904,000 United States 1,878,000 Germany 1,295,000 Italy 1,072,000 Spain 866,000 The Netherlands 687,000 Australia 687,000 Republic of Ireland 611,000 Belgium 531,000 Sweden 516,000 Public transportation is essential in transporting tourists to and from attractions, deciding the means of and cost of their travel. Public transportation can be an attraction in itself. London offers many forms of public transportation: the Underground, double-decker red buses, taxis. Tourists can purchase Travelcards to take the Tube, bus, or overground trains through designated zones.
The Transport for London website provides maps, information on line closures, a "Plan a journey" feature in which one can enter a location and a destination to determine which buses, Tube stations, walking directions are necessary for a trip. London travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism in London