Government of Kerala
The Government of Kerala headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram is a democratically elected body that governs the State of Kerala, India. The state government is headed by the Governor of Kerala as the head of state. The state government maintains its capital at Thiruvananthapuram and is seated at the Kerala Government Secretariat or the Hajur Kutcheri. The Government of Kerala was formed on November 1,1956 after merging of State of Travancore-Cochin with the Malabar district of the Madras state as part of States Reorganisation Act,1956, the Governor is appointed by the President for a term of five years. The executive and legislative powers lie with the Chief Minister and his council of ministers, the Governors of the states and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level. Only Indian citizens above 35 years of age are eligible for appointment, P Sathasivam is the present governor. The Governor enjoys many different types of powers, Executive powers related to administration, Legislative powers related to lawmaking and the state legislature.
Discretionary powers to be carried out according to the discretion of the Governor, the legislature comprises the governor and the legislative assembly, which is the highest political organ in state. The governor has the power to summon the assembly or to close the same, all members of the legislative assembly are directly elected, normally once in every five years by the eligible voters who are above 18 years of age. The current assembly consists of 140 elected members and one nominated by the governor from the Anglo-Indian Community. The elected members one of its own members as its chairman who is called the speaker. The speaker is assisted by the deputy speaker who is elected by the members. The conduct of meeting in the house is the responsibility of the Speaker, the main function of the assembly is to pass laws and rules. Every bill passed by the house has to be approved by the governor before it becomes applicable. The normal term of the assembly is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting.
But while a proclamation of state of emergency is in operation, the High Court of Kerala is the apex court for the state, it hears cases from the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. It is a court of record and has all the powers of such a court including the authority to punish an individual for contempt of court. Like all other High Courts of India, this court consists of a Chief Justice, at present, the sanctioned Judge strength of the High Court of Kerala is 27 Permanent Judges including the Chief Justice H. L. Dattu and two additional judges
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Chinnakada or Chinnakkada is considered as the heart of the city of Kollam, in the state of Kerala, India. Chinnakada is one of the junctions in the city where National Highways – NH66 meets NH744. The citys symbolic clock tower is located in Chinnakada, because of the presence of a huge traffic circle in the junction, it became as one of the busiest junctions in the city. To reduce the congestion in Chinnakada, Kollam Municipal Corporation now constructed a new underpass near to the clock tower. Marine Products Export Development Authoritys Kollam sub-regional office is situated at Chinnakada, the name Chinnakada may be derived from China-Kada, which means China bazaar. Another explanation is that due to the presence of a number of Tamil people in Kollam, they named the area Chinnakada. This derivation fits with the toponomy of Valiakada adjacent to Chinnakada, the presence of an existing Railway over bridge and three close intersections with heavy traffic limits the option for traffic management measures including junction improvement.
That caused the authorities to think about this underpass at Chinnakada, Chinnakada is a complex junction where roads from Thiruvananthapuram, Downtown, Ashramam, Kollam Beach and the City bus stand road meets. Preliminary design for underpass was prepared by NATPAC involving the acquisition of 0.08 hectares of government land on a temporary basis. Height of the passage above the underpass was increased to 5.5 metres from 5 metres to facilitate movement of modern container trucks through the underpass. Underpass has been open to the public by the end of May 2015. Kollam Kollam Junction railway station Kollam district Kollam Port Kollam Technopark Kollam Beach Kollam Pooram Andamukkam City Bus Stand Kadappakada Asramam Maidan
Kollam Port is one of Indias 20 major ports situated 4 kilometres from Downtown Kollam. It is the second largest port in Kerala by volume of cargo handled, located on the south west coast of India, under the name of Quilon Port it became one of the countrys most important trade hubs from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. It was founded by Mar Abo at Thangasseri in 825 as an alternative to reopening the inland sea port near Backare, known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and Greeks and Thondi to the Tamils. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822, the Chinese traders were one of the oldest foreign communities to settle in Kollam. That was the period when Kollam evolved as a trade center. In January 2014, the port trust discovered thousands of Chinese coins and stone age weapons at Kollam Port, revealing the historic background and this was the first discovery of such a quantity of artifacts at a port in India. Archaeologists believe that a city lies on the seabed of current Kollam Port.
Today, ships frequently anchor at the port for shipping operations as well for urgent repairs when required, chief Minister Oommen Chandy launched the Coastal Shipping Project at Kollam Port on 9 November 2013 while passenger ships began operations in 2014. The first container ship, MV Suryamukhi arrived at Kollam port as part of the coastal shipping project on 18 January 2014, major shipping companies are now showing interest in the port to commence shipping operations. The companies have plans to choose the port as an intermediate base, at present, about four companies have assured their frequent presence at the port. Sooryamukhi, the ship of Kerala State Maritime Development Corporation has sailed to Mudra Port in Gujarat to load tiles. The Great Sea Shipping Company will berth at the port soon, after modernization of the port, the first foreign ship anchored in the port on 4 April 2014. Now it is proven that huge ships can easily operate from Kollam Port. The tugs MT Chaliyar and MT Kerala along with a new German made Rs.12 crore crane are used for the operations in the port.
The wharf at Kollam Port is 177 metres in length and 12 metres wide with a draught of 6.5 metres. The wharf is protected from the waves by a 2,100 metres seaboard breakwater, the length of the wharf will be increased to 200 metres in due course. In 2007, Kollam Port handled about 500,000 tonnes of cargo, several major modernization projects have been proposed for Kollam with Maladives port in order to transform it into the port city of Kerala. Projects already planned are some of the largest ever mooted for the state, a face lift of the Maruthadi-Iravipuram area will be carried out by the government as part of the Kollam Port City project and will include facilities for sports, fishing and entertainment
A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities.
In his book and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses.
Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
Kollam or Quilon, formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of Kerala, India. The city is on the banks Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam has had a strong commercial reputation since the days of the Phoenicians and Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels, desinganadus rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, Marco Polo, the great Venetian traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two East Syrian bishops Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years the Malabar Era began and Quilon became the city of the Malabar region ahead of Travancore.
Kollam is a city on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake that took the title Gods Own Country without much demur. The braids of Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres north of the state capital, the city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent trading city for the state. The proportion of females to males in Kollam city is second highest among the 500 most populous cities in India, Kollam is the least polluted city in India. Four major trading centers/towns around Kollam are Kottarakara, Paravur, There was internal trade through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The rail links established to Tamil Nadu supported still stronger trade links, the factories processing marine exports and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts extended its trade across the globe. Kollam is the fourth most populous city in Kerala and the fifth largest in incorporated area and it is known for cashew processing and coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam.
The Kollam urban area includes towns such as Paravur in the south, Kundara in the east. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kannanallur, Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandevilles Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth. During the stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the point of trade. Kollam continues to be a business and commercial centre in the Southern Kerala. In 825 CE, the Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city, the present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the re-founding of the town, which was rebuilt after its destruction by a fire
Mar Sabor and Mar Proth
In 825 AD, the seaport of Quilon was part of the Venad Kingdom. The ruling monarch, Iyyanadikal Thiruvadikal, welcomed the monks on their arrival and showered them with special privileges, maruvan Sapir Iso built the Nilalkkal ashram near St. Thomas Church in Chayal, he died and buried in Chayal ashram. The start of the Malayalam era, referred to as Kollavarsham, is associated with Kollam, the era was started by these East Syrian Saints who settled in Korukeni Kollam, near to the present Kollam. The start of the ME has been dated to 825 AD and it signified the independence of Malabar from the Cheraman Perumals. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two Nestorian bishops Mar Sapor and Mar Peroz, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years the Malabar Era began and Quilon undoubtedly became the city of the Malabar region including Travancore. Tradition says that st. M. G. S and this was the period when the Cera-Pandya conflict was developing in the south. The foundation of Kollam in 825 A. D.
must have coincided with victory of Chera in the Vel province. This incident reveals the practical wisdom of the rulers and throws light on the motivations of men who promoted ideas of religion. The Syrian Christian Monks who took advantage of the situation were equally clever, in the absence of materials for a detailed history, it is difficult to ascertain whether Mar Abo was a or missionary. Perhaps he was both at the time and there was no inherent contradiction between the two roles. ”This means that they did not remain as a separate group but rather they intermarried with the Hindus of Kerala. “The deity of the Tarsa Church was referred to the tevar. ”When they arrived on the Malabar Coast, Angamaly and Cranganore had the largest population of Saint Thomas Christians in Kerala. Giovanni Empoli, who came to Quilon in 1503, estimated there were more than three thousand St. Thomas Christians in Quilon alone. Mar Sapor writes, the forgiving Miseha who saved me from persecution, though the Synod of Diamper in 1599 proclaimed Mar Sabor and Mar Proth heretics, the Christians of Malankara respected them.
According to decisions of Synod of Diamper these saints of Malankara Nazranis were considered as schismatics, Mar Sabor gained the necessary rights from the local ruler of Kadamattom to build a church there. He established the church in the forest regions of Kadamattom in the 40th year of Kollam Era and he stayed there at first in a small home with a mother and a son. Afterwards he left for Thevalakara to visit an influential and reputed Nambuthiri family who were traditional ophthalmologists to the families in the adjoining area. This family is known as Thevalakara Vaidyan family and most of their members retain the surname Vaidyan
Asramam Link Road
The Asramam Link Road is an important four-lane city road in Kollam in the Indian state of Kerala. This road was known as Aerodrome Road as it was the connection road to Kollam Airport. The road starts from Kappalandimukku near Polayathode in the east and currently ends at KSRTC, the second phase of construction, which would extend it from Kollam KSRTC Bus Station to Thoppilkadavu, has not yet begun. Kollam is an old sea port city in Kerala with traffic bottlenecks in three locations, Polayathode-Thattamala and Kottiyam, demand existed for a new road to bypass Downtown Kollam and avoid the complex Chinnakada Junction. The Kollam Bypass project is the least funded bypass project in the state and this link road now serves the city as a mini bypass by avoiding the heavy traffic at Chinnakada junction. The Kollam Development Authority had approved Rs.1.6 Crores for the projects Phase-I, the road is included in the JnNURM Mission for Kollam city. The first phase of Link road, Kappalandi Mukku-Asramam Muneeswaran Kovil four-lane road was inaugurated on 14 September 2010, as part of the Phase-II development, the present road would be extended to Thoppilkadavu at a cost of Rs.63 crore.
The project comprises construction of a new bridge across the confluence of the Kollam Canal with the Ashtamudi Lake, on completion, the Asramam Link Road will enable those passing through Kollam to avoid the busy Collectorate-High School Junction-Taluk Office junction-Chinnakada and railway station. Kappalandimukku → Chemmanmukku → Kadappakada → Asramam → KSRTC → Thevally → Thoppilkadavu Kollam Kollam Airport Asramam Maidan Polayathode Thoppilkadavu Kadappakada Kollam KSRTC Bus Station
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Art of Living Foundation
The Art of Living Foundation is a volunteer-based and educational non-governmental organizations. It was founded in 1981 by Ravi Shankar, the Art of Living Foundation is spread over 156 countries. The Foundation is working in special status with the United Nations Economic. The International Association for Human Values is a partner NGO that Shankar founded, Art of Living Foundation has its international headquarters in Bangalore, India at Ved Vignan Mahavidyapeeth or VVM campus and has regional centers in more than 150 countries. In Europe, the organization is known as the Association for Inner Growth, the Foundation was founded by Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, and offers a variety of personal-development and trauma-relief programs around the world. AOL has been an educational and humanitarian organization in the U. S. since 1989, the Art of Living is a DPI NGO, which means it plays an active role in communicating and contributing to various United Nations goals. The majority of the officers of the organization, along with most of its teachers, many humanitarian programs, disaster relief efforts, and training programs are conducted through, or in conjunction with partner organization, the International Association for Human Values.
The Foundation operates as an organization actively conducting Art of Living stress-relief courses, based on yoga, breathing. Art of living hopeline, a telephonic hotline available 24/7, is a program to reduce suicidal tendencies. A number of studies on the organizations core life-enhancing/trauma-relief techniques have been published in international peer-reviewed journals. The organization is involved in community service through its centres, and programs are taken by people of many traditions and its underlying principles are compatible with Vedic philosophy. In March 2014, the yoga center in Islamabad, Pakistan was burned down followed by reports of threats issued to the organization by Taliban. Net assets at the beginning of July 2007 amounted to $US7.7 million, EIN for the American chapter of AOL Foundation is 77-0240101. Art of Living is engaged in social services globally. In 2007, the initiated the Project Vidarbha - Swavalamban programme. The aim was to support and encourage farmers in severe drought hit regions to roll back their lives.
Over 1000 volunteers provided training in farming, zero-budget farming, rainwater harvesting, construction of toilets. The program received official backing as a result of its success and was initiated in areas as well
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions, the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by different ethnic groups throughout its history. Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, the new republic was declared to be a Union of States. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India, the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin.
The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners provinces and some states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, the only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states, as a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956, kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963, the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a territory and the shared capital of Punjab