Anglican Church of Canada
The Anglican Church of Canada is the province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French-language name is l'Église anglicane du Canada. In 2007, the Anglican Church counted 545,957 members on parish rolls in 2792 congregations, organised into 1676 parishes; the 2011 Canadian Census counted 1,631,845 self-identified Anglicans, making the Anglican Church the third-largest Canadian church after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada. The Queen of Canada's Canadian Royal Style continues to include the title of Defender of the Faith, the Canadian Monarch continues her countenance of three Chapels Royal in the Realm; until 1955, the Anglican Church of Canada was known as the "Church of England in the Dominion of Canada" or the "Church of England in Canada". In 1977, the church's General Synod adopted l'Église Episcopale du Canada as its French-language name; this name was replaced with the current one, l'Église anglicane du Canada, in 1989. A matter of some confusion for Anglicans elsewhere in the world is that while the Anglican Church of Canada is a province of the Anglican Communion, the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada is one of four such ecclesiastical provinces of the Anglican Church of Canada.
This confusion is furthered by the fact that Canada has ten civil provinces, along with three territories. In recent years, there have been attempts by splinter groups to incorporate under similar names. Corporations Canada, the agency of the federal government which has jurisdiction over federally-incorporated companies, ruled on 12 September 2005 that a group of dissident Anglicans may not use the name "Anglican Communion in Canada", holding that in Canada, the term "Anglican Communion" is associated only with the Anglican Church of Canada, being the Canadian denomination which belongs to that international body; the Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates John Cabot's landing in Newfoundland on 24 June 1497. The first Church of England service was a celebration of Holy Communion at Frobisher Bay around 3 September 1578 by the chaplain on Martin Frobisher's voyage to the Arctic; the chaplain was "'Maister Wolfall and preacher', charged by Queen Elizabeth'to serve God twice a day'".
The propagation of the Church of England occurred in three ways. One way was by officers of ships and lay military and civil officials reading services from the Book of Common Prayer when no clergy were present. For example, in the charter issued by Charles I for Newfoundland in 1633 was this directive: "On Sundays Divine Service to be said by some of the Masters of ships, such prayers as are in the Book of Common Prayer". A second way was the direct appointing and employing of clergy by the English government on ships and in settlements. A third way was the employment of clergy by private "adventurous" companies; the first documented resident Church of England cleric on Canadian soil was Erasmus Stourton, who arrived at the "Sea Forest Plantation" at Ferryland, Newfoundland, in 1612 under the patronage of Lords Bacon and Baltimore. Stourton was of the Puritan party and remained in Ferryland until returning to England in 1628; the overseas development of the Church of England in British North America challenged the insular view of the Church at home.
The editors of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer found that they had to address the spiritual concerns of the contemporary adventurer. In the 1662 Preface, the editors note:... that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places. The Hudson's Bay Company sent out its first chaplain in 1683, where there was no chaplain the officers of the company were directed to read prayers from the BCP on Sundays. Members of the Church of England established the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge in 1698, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1701, the Church Missionary Society in 1799; these and other organizations directly financed and sent missionaries to establish the English Church in Canada and to convert Canada's First Nations people. Direct aid of this sort lasted up to the 1940s; the first Anglican church in Newfoundland and in Canada was the small garrison chapel at St John's Fort built sometime before 1698.
The first continuously resident cleric of the chapel was the Reverend John Jackson – a Royal Navy chaplain who had settled in St. John's and was supported by the SPCK in 1698. In 1701, the SPG took over the patronage of St John's. Jackson continued to receive little actual support and was replaced by the Reverend Jacob Rice in 1709. Rice wrote a letter to the Bishop of London detailing his efforts to repair the church, "most unchristianly defaced" and asking for help in acquiring communion vessels, a pulpit cloth and glass for the windows; the garrison chapel was replaced in 1720 and in 1759. The Cathedral of St John the Baptist in St John's, Newfoundland, is the oldest Anglican parish in Canada, founded in 1699 in response to a petition drafted by the Anglican townsfolk of St John's and sent to the Bishop of London, the Right Reverend Henry Compton; the first Anglican services in Nova Scotia are dated from 1710 when a New England army from Boston with assistance of the Royal Navy captured for the fourth t
Algoma University shortened to Algoma U or Algoma, is an undergraduate-only public university with its main campus in Sault Ste. Marie, Canada. Established in 1965, Algoma is the smallest undergraduate-only university in Ontario. With a particular focus on the needs of Northern Ontario, Algoma U is a teaching-focused and student-centred post-secondary institution, specializing in liberal arts and professional degree programs. Located on the former site of the Shingwauk Indian Residential School, Algoma U has a special mission to provide and cultivate cross-cultural learning between Aboriginal populations and other communities. Algoma U offers satellite programming in Brampton and Timmins, Ontario. From its founding in 1965 until June 18, 2008, Algoma U was an affiliated college of Laurentian University in Sudbury and was known as Algoma University College; the enabling legislation is the Algoma University Act, 2008. The original vision for Shingwauk Hall in the early 19th century came from Chief Shingwauk, the chief of the Garden River Ojibway people, as he felt "that the future Ojibway needed to learn the white man's academic method of education in order to survive in what was becoming a'predominately non-native world with non-native values'".
While Chief Shingwauk's vision of a teaching wigwam for his people would not come to fruition in his lifetime, a residential school would receive funding in 1872 from the combined efforts of Chiefs Augustin Shingwauk and Buhkwujjenene Shingwauk and the Anglican Missionary, Rev. Edward Francis Wilson; the initial building was housed 16 students. It tragically burnt down 6 days later. A new building was erected in Sault Ste. Marie in 1875; the residential school was designed to provide religious instruction and occupational training for First Nation, Inuit and Métis youth. Shingwauk Hall would become part of the broader residential school movement across Canada designed to assimilate Canada's Indigenous peoples, straying far from Chief Shingwauk's vision for a teaching wigwam. Students in the residential school system endured poor living conditions and emotional abuse and segregation from their own family members. Shingwauk Hall, presently the main building of Algoma University College, was erected in 1935 after it was deemed the Shingwauk Home original building had deteriorated beyond repair.
Shingwauk Hall ceased operation as a residential school in 1970. The desire to establish an undergraduate liberal arts college in Sault Ste. Marie originated as a broad citizens' movement in the 1950s. In October 1964, the Algoma College Association was incorporated by letters patent of the Province of Ontario. One year on 17 December 1965, Algoma University College was established as a non-sectarian institution affiliated with Laurentian University after the Affiliation Agreement was signed. In September 1967, Algoma University College began offering courses to its first 77 students at what is today Sault College, formally known as Cambrian College, under the leadership of Principal Reverend Charles A. Krug; the majority of students studying at Algoma University College were mature or "extension" students looking to enhance their post-secondary education by taking first-year Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science courses. Part-time enrolment expanded to over 1000 students by 1969-70; the year 1971 marked a significant turning point in Algoma University College's history in respect to both program and facilities.
In May, in recognition of the rapid maturation of the post-secondary institution, the Department of University Affairs approved Algoma University College's request to offer second- and third-year level courses, thereby giving the institution the ability to offer full-time, three-year programming in Bachelor of Arts degrees. In addition, in September 1971, the Algoma University College was relocated to a new site, acquiring by lease Shingwauk Hall and the former Shingwauk Indian Residential School site. In 1975, with the assistance of a grant from the Ministry of Colleges and Universities, the college purchased Shingwauk Hall and 37 acres of land surrounding the buildings. Algoma University College would purchase Shingwauk Hall. By purchasing Shingwauk Hall, tensions arose between university members, the community, the First Nations population. A curriculum was proposed to soothe and entrench understanding and demonstrate Algoma University College's commitment to cross-cultural learning and diversity.
The Shingwauk Project was founded in 1979, which laid the foundation for the reaffirmation of a positive and respectful relationship between the post-secondary institution and First Nations people. Algoma University College received its own emblem, the Thunderbird, as designed by Dora de Pedery-Hunt in 1972. Construction began to further enhance the new site of Algoma University College. In 1989, the Arthur A. Wishart Library opened, followed by the opening of the George Leach Centre in 1992. Student residence buildings were constructed in 1995 and 2001, in 2012. In 2005, a $6 million technology wing was opened, which included state-of-the-art technology and computer labs, the'Great West Life Amphitheatre', a new student centre, faculty offices, a bookstore and campus shop, a new pub. During this time, academic programming expanded tenfold, with many of Algoma University College's programs earning their four-year, becoming Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science honours programs. On 19 May 2006, Algoma University College entered into a new relationship, which further entrenched its pre-existing relationship with First Nations people.
Algoma University College and Shingwauk Education Trust
A dormitory is a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or university students. In some countries, it can refer to a room containing several beds accommodating people. Worldwide, dormitories are single sex, or sexes are accommodated on separate floors or in separate rooms in some cases, it is unusual for unrelated mixed sex occupancy of a bedroom except temporarily. Where this does occur, it is so remarkable; the terms "dorm" and "residence hall" are used interchangeably in the US. However, within the residence life community, the term "residence hall" is preferred. According to the University of Oregon, their facilities "provide not just a place to sleep, but opportunities for personal and educational growth. Trained Residence Life staff and Hall Government officers support this objective by creating engaging activities and programs in each hall or complex." In United Kingdom usage, the word dormitory means a room containing several beds accommodating unrelated people.
In the United Kingdom, this arrangement exists for pupils at a boarding school, travellers or military personnel, but is entirely unknown for university students. In United Kingdom usage, a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people is called a hall of residence, hostel or barracks. In the United Kingdom, halls of residence entirely have single occupancy rooms, are always mixed sex, with residents being allocated to adjacent rooms regardless of sex. Halls located away from university facilities sometimes have extra amenities such as a recreation room or bar; as with campus located residence halls, these off-campus halls also have Internet facilities, either through a network connection in each student room, a central computer cluster room, or Wi-Fi. Catered halls may charge for food through an termly subscription, they may contain basic kitchen facilities for student use outside catering hours. Most halls contain a laundry room; as of 2015 there was an expanding market for private luxury off-campus student residences which offered substantial amenities in both the United States and Britain in London.
Most colleges and universities provide single or multiple occupancy rooms for their students at a cost. These buildings consist of many such rooms, like an apartment building, the number of rooms varies quite from just a few to hundreds; the largest dormitory building is Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy. Many colleges and universities no longer use the word "dormitory" and staff are now using the term residence hall or "hall" instead. Outside academia however, the word "dorm" or "dormitory" is used without negative connotations. Indeed, the words are used in the marketplace as well as in advertising. College and university residential rooms vary in size, shape and number of occupants. A United States residence hall room holds two students with no toilet; this is referred to as a "double". Residence halls have communal bathroom facilities. In the United States, residence halls are sometimes segregated by sex, with men living in one group of rooms, women in another; some dormitory complexes are single-sex with varying limits on visits by persons of each sex.
For example, the University of Notre Dame in Indiana has a long history of Parietals, or mixed visiting hours. Most colleges and universities offer coeducational dorms, where either men or women reside on separate floors but in the same building or where both sexes share a floor but with individual rooms being single-sex. In the early 2000s, dorms that allowed people of opposite sexes to share a room became available in some public universities; some colleges and university coeducational dormitories feature coeducational bathrooms. Most residence halls are much closer to campus than comparable private housing such as apartment buildings; this convenience is a major factor in the choice of where to live since living physically closer to classrooms is preferred for first-year students who may not be permitted to park vehicles on campus. Universities may therefore provide priority to first-year students when allocating this accommodation. In UK universities these buildings are called halls of residence, except at Oxford, Durham, York and Kent where the residential accommodation is incorporated in each college's complex of buildings, known as rooms.
Members of the college who live in its own buildings are said to be living in or living in college. The majority of bedrooms in UK halls are now single occupancy – offering the first chance at privacy for some young people who shared bedrooms with siblings at home. Kitchen facilities are shared, as are bathrooms in some halls, though more expensive en-suite rooms are available in some universities. Over the years, UK universities have been hit by considerable funding cuts as part of government austerity measures. This, in part, has led to an increase in the rental of student accommodation during the winter and summer vacation periods to house conference delegates and tourists at rates similar to those charged by upmarket hotels. Unfortu
OCAD University the Ontario College of Art and Design University, is a public university located in Toronto, Canada. The school is within the Grange Park neighbourhood, adjacent to the Art Gallery of Ontario; the school is Canada's oldest educational institution for art and design. OCAD U offers courses through the Faculties of Art, Liberal Arts and Sciences, alternative programs; the enabling legislation is Ontario College of Art and Design University Act, 2002. The University's beginnings stretch back to the project of the Ontario Society of Artists whose objectives included the development of art education in Ontario; the Ontario Society of Artists passed the motion to "draw up a scheme" for a school of art on 4 April 1876, the first School of Art opened on 30 October 1876, funded by a government grant of $1,000. In 1971 -- 72, Roy Ascott radically challenged the curriculum structure of the College. In 2008, OCAD president Sara Diamond changed the pedagogy, she emphasised academics over studio time and required full-time instructors to hold an advanced degree.
There was some controversy as two faculty members resigned over the changes. In 2010, Tom Traves president of Dalhousie University in Halifax, conducted a confidential review of how OCAD was managed, he found. Diamond adopted most of his 30 recommendations, including increased Decanal autonomy. OCAD University has had a number of names over time. Ontario School of Art, 1876–86 founded by the Ontario Society of Artists to provide professional training in art. Toronto Art School, 1886–90 Central Ontario School of Art and Industrial Design, 1890–1912 Ontario College of Art, 1912–96 Ontario College of Art and Design, 1996–2010 Ontario College of Art and Design University, 2010–present From 1952 to 1957 OCA was located at the Wood Manor at Bayview Avenue and Lawrence Avenue East; the current OCAD campus consists of a south campus. The north campus includes the Main Building and Sharp Centre for Design, the adjacent Butterfield Park, the Annex Building, the Rosalie Sharp Pavilion, the Student Centre, the Inclusive Design Institute, the Continuing Education Centre.
The south campus consists of buildings that are physically situated on Richmond Street West, plus the proposed Mirvish-Gehry development further south on King Street. Buildings at OCAD are referred to by their street addresses; some buildings are assigned a building number, encoded as the first digit in 4-digit room numbers. The Main Building traces its roots to the first building that the school constructed, the first building in Canada specially built for art education. Now known as the George A. Reid Wing, the building was designed by the school’s principal George A. Reid in the Georgian style and opened on 30 September 1921. On 17 January 1957, the first extension, a modernist building known today as the A. J. Casson Wing, was completed and was opened. Two more extensions to the building were subsequently added in 1963 and 1967. In 2000, funding was secured from Ontario’s SuperBuild program to build a fifth extension to the Main Building. Through Rod Robbie of Robbie/Young + Wright Architects, Will Alsop of Alsop Architects was made aware of the project and was selected in 2002.
A joint venture was formed between the two firms and the new extension, now known as the Sharp Centre for Design, was completed in 2004. The design, which came out of a process of participatory design, consists of a box four storeys off the ground supported by a series of multi-coloured pillars at different angles and is described as a tabletop; the $42.5-million expansion and redevelopment has received numerous awards, including the first Royal Institute of British Architects Worldwide Award, the award of excellence in the "Building in Context" category at the Toronto Architecture and Urban Design Awards, was deemed the most outstanding technical project overall in the 2005 Canadian Consulting Engineering Awards. The main library on campus is the Dorothy H. Hoover Library, located in the Annex Building; the Learning Zone located in the Annex Building, houses the OCAD Zine Library, Art & Design Annuals and the Visionnaire periodical collection. A number of galleries or exhibition spaces exist both off-campus.
The existing major exhibition spaces are: Onsite OCAD U. Created in 2007 as the OCAD Professional Gallery before taking on its current name in 2010, Onsite OCAD U is features works by national and international professional artists and designers. Student Gallery; the Student Gallery curates and features works submitted by recent alumni. The Student Gallery used to be located at 76 McCaul Street, it was created in the early 1970s Graduate Gallery. The Graduate Gallery is a gallery for research faculty. Xpace; the OCAD Student Union runs. It aims to provide students and emerging artists a space to exhibit their work in a professional gallery setting, to better respond to "contemporary issues in theory and aesthetics" in the community through the use of shorter time frames in its programming. Open Gallery; the Open Gallery is an exhibition space inside the Inclusive Design Institute building at 49 McCaul Street. OCAD offers a Bachelor of Arts; the school combines a studio-based education with liberal studies, recognised with a Bachelor of Fine Arts, a Bachelor of Desi
University of Ottawa
The University of Ottawa is a bilingual public research university in Ottawa, Canada. The main campus is located on 42.5 hectares in the residential neighbourhood of Sandy Hill, adjacent to Ottawa's Rideau Canal. The university offers a wide variety of academic programs, administered by ten faculties, it is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. The University of Ottawa is the largest English-French bilingual university in the world; the University of Ottawa was first established as the College of Bytown in 1848 by the first bishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues. Placed under the direction of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, it was renamed the College of Ottawa in 1861 and received university status five years through a royal charter. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter by Pope Leo XIII, elevating the institution to a pontifical university; the University was reorganized on July 1, 1965, as a corporation, independent from any outside body or religious organization.
As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were kept by the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the university. The remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university; the school is co-educational and enrolls over 35,000 undergraduate and over 6,000 post-graduate students. The university has more than 195,000 alumni; the university's athletic teams are members of U Sports. The university was established on 26 September 1848 as the College of Bytown by the first Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues, he entrusted administration to the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The college was located in Lower Town, housed in a wooden building next to the Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica. However, space became an issue for administrators, triggering two moves in 1852 and a final move to Sandy Hill in 1856; the Sandy Hill property was donated by Louis-Theodore Besserer, where he offered a substantial parcel from his estate for the college. The college was renamed College of Ottawa in 1861, following the city's name change from Bytown to Ottawa.
In 1866, the college received its first charter, as well as university status, making it the final institution in Canada to receive a Royal Charter from London before the British North America Act, 1867 made education a provincial responsibility. By 1872 the university had begun to confer undergraduate degrees, with master's degrees coming in 1875 and doctoral degrees in 1888. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter from Pope Leo XIII, elevating the university to a pontifical university; the university faced a crisis when fire destroyed the main building on 2 December 1903. After the fire, the university hired New York architect A. O. Von Herbulis to design its replacement, Tabaret Hall, it was among the first Canadian structures to be fireproof, built of reinforced concrete. Women first enrolled in 1919. In the fall of 1939, a Canadian Officer Training Corp was established at the university, with training beginning in January 1940; the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, University of Ottawa Contingent, which comprised a company and three platoons in 1939, was authorized to become a battalion in 1940.
By 1941, the unit swelled to 550 men. An air force Officers' Training Corp was created in 1942 and a naval Officers' training corp in 1943. Participation in one of the three corps became mandatory for all students over 18, although they were not obliged to participate in the actual war at the end of their studies. During this time, the Royal Canadian Air Force used parts of the university's grounds for training and the university constructed barracks to house members of the Canadian Women's Army Corps. In total 1,158 students and alumni of the university enrolled the Canadian Forces during the Second World War, of which 50 died overseas; the unit was disbanded during the unification of the Armed Forces in 1968. The Ottawa architecture firm of Burgess, McLean & MacPhadyen designed the Eastern Ontario Institute of Technology, opened its new Rideau Campus on a 12-acre city owned Lees Avenue site in 1964. After being unused for a number of years, the midcentury academic complex was sold to the University of Ottawa in January 2007.
The university was reorganized on 1 July 1965 as a corporation independent from any outside body or religious organization, becoming publicly funded. As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were transferred to the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the corporation, while the remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university. In 1970, 100 Laurier East became property of the University of Ottawa, acquired at a cost of $1,120,900. Named Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur, the property became the university's oldest building after it was acquired. At a cost of $28,000, it was built by Joseph Bourque, a Hull contractor and church builder, completed in 1894; the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur provided classical education for young men who wished to pursue a religious life and join the Order of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The building was expanded in 1937, an expansion, indistinguishable from the original structure; the huge cross that used to dominate the top of the building was removed after its purchase, leaving only small references to the building's religious history as the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur.
The property now houses the university's department of Visual Arts. It is located at the corner near the Rideau Canal. In 1974, a new policy mandated by the Government of O
Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association
The Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association is the national governing body for organized sports at the collegiate level in Canada. Its name in French is l'Association canadienne du sport collégial. CCAA members compete for national championships in the following sports: Golf Men's Soccer Women's Soccer Cross-Country Running Badminton Men's Volleyball Women's Volleyball Men's Basketball Women's Basketball CurlingPast national championships include: Men's Hockey 2018 CCAA Golf National ChampionshipsOctober 15–19, 2018 Host: Medicine Hat College Location: Medicine Hat, AB2018 CCAA Men's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Holland College Location: Charlottetown, PE2018 CCAA Women's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Douglas College Location: Coquitlam, BC2018 CCAA Cross-Country Running National ChampionshipsNovember 9–10, 2018 Host: Seneca College Location: Toronto, ON2019 CCAA Badminton National ChampionshipsMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Dalhousie Agricultural Campus Location: Truro, NS2019 CCAA Men's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Red Deer College Location: Red Deer, AB2019 CCAA Women's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Niagara College Location: Welland, ON2019 CCAA Men's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Langara College Location: Langley, BC2019 CCAA Women's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Cégep de Sainte-Foy Location: Quebec City, QC2019 CCAA / Curling Canada ChampionshipsMarch 15–19, 2019 Location: Fredericton, NB The CCAA has five member conferences: Camosun College Chargers in Victoria, BC Capilano University Blues in North Vancouver, BC College of the Rockies Avalanche in Cranbrook, BC Columbia Bible College Bearcats in Abbotsford, BC Douglas College Royals in New Westminster, BC Langara College Falcons in Vancouver, BC Okanagan College Coyotes in Kelowna, BC UBC Okanagan Heat in Kelowna, BC University of the Fraser Valley Cascades in Abbotsford, BC Vancouver Island University Mariners in Nanaimo, BC Ambrose University College Lions in Calgary, AB University of Alberta Augustana Faculty Vikings in Camrose, AB Briercrest Bible College Clippers in Caronport, SK Concordia University of Edmonton Thunder in Edmonton, AB Grande Prairie Regional College Wolves in Grande Prairie, AB Keyano College Huskies in Fort McMurray, AB King's University College Eagles in Edmonton, AB Lakeland College Rustlers in Lloydminster, AB Lethbridge College Kodiaks in Lethbridge, AB MacEwan University Griffins in Edmonton, AB Medicine Hat College Rattlers in Medicine Hat, AB NAIT Ooks in Edmonton, AB Olds College Broncos in Olds, AB Portage College Voyageurs in Lac La Biche, AB Red Deer College Kings in Red Deer, AB St. Mary's University Lightning in Calgary, AB SAIT Trojans in Calgary, AB Algonquin College Thunder in Ottawa, ON Collège Boréal Vipères in Sudbury, ON Cambrian College Golden Shield in Sudbury, ON Canadore College Panthers in North Bay, ON Centennial College Colts in Scarborough, ON Conestoga College Condors in Kitchener, ON Confederation College Thunderhawks in Thunder Bay, ON Durham College Lords in Oshawa, ON Fanshawe College Falcons in London, ON Fleming College Knights in Peterborough, ON George Brown College Huskies in Toronto, ON Georgian College Grizzlies in Barrie, ON Humber College Hawks in Etobicoke, ON La Cité collégiale Coyotes in Ottawa, ON Lakehead University Timberwolves in Orillia, ON Lambton College Lions in Sarnia, ON Loyalist College Lancers in Belleville, ON Mohawk College Mountaineers in Hamilton, ON Niagara College Knights in Welland, ON Redeemer University College Royals in Ancaster, ON Sault College Cougars in Sault Ste.
Marie, ON Seneca College Sting in North York, ON Sheridan College Bruins in Brampton and Oakville, ON St. Clair College Saints in Windsor, ON St. Lawrence College Vikings in Kingston, ON University of Toronto Mississauga Eagles in Mississauga, ON Wilfred Laurier University Golden Hawks in Brantford, ON Collège Ahuntsic Indiens in Montreal, QC Collège André-Grasset Phénix in Montreal, QC Cégep André-Laurendeau Boomerang in LaSalle, QC Collège de Bois-de-Boulogne Cavaliers in Montreal, QC Champlain College Lennoxville Cougars in Lennoxville, QC Champlain College Saint-Lambert Cavaliers in St-Lambert, QC Champlain College St. Lawrence Lions in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Chicoutimi Cougars in Chicoutimi, QC Dawson College Blues in Montreal, QC Cégep Édouard-Montpetit Lynx in Longueuil, QC Cégep Garneau Élans in Quebec City, QC Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf Dynamiques in Montreal, QC John Abbott College Islanders in Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC Cégep de Jonquière Gaillards in Jonquière, QC Cégep régional de Lanaudière Cyclones in L'Assomption, QC Cégep de Lévis-Lauzon Faucons in Lévis, QC Cégep Limoilou Titans in Quebec, QC Collège Lionel-Groulx Nordiques in Ste-Thérèse, QC Collège Montmorency Nomades in Laval, QC Cégep de l'Outaouais Griffons in Gatineau, QC Cégep de Rimouski Pionniers in Rimouski, QC Cégep de Sainte-Foy Dynamiques in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Géants in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC Cégep de Saint-Jérôme Cheminots in Saint-Jerome, QC Cégep de Sherbrooke Volontaires in Sherbrooke, QC Cégep de Trois-Rivières Diablos in Trois-Rivières, QC Collège de Valleyfield Noir et Or in Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, QC Vanier College Cheetahs in Ville de St-Laurent, QC Cégep de Victoriaville Vulkins in Victoriaville, QC Cégep du Vieux Montréal Spartiates in Montreal, QC Crandall University Chargers in Moncton, NB Dalhousie University Faculty of Agriculture Rams in Truro, NS Holland College Hurricanes in Charlottetown, PE Mount Allison University Mounties in Sackville, NB Mount Saint Vincent University Mystics in Halifax, NS St. Thomas University Tommies in Fredericton, NB University of King's College Blue Devils in Halifax, NS University of New Brunswick in Fredericton, NB UNB Saint John Seawolves in Saint J
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching