Italian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of Italian descent. Italian Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group of European Americans behind German Americans, Irish Americans and English Americans. About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. In 1870, there were fewer than 25,000 Italian immigrants in America, many of them Northern Italian refugees from the wars that accompanied the Risorgimento—the struggle for Italian unification and independence from foreign rule which ended in 1871. Immigration began to increase during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades combined; the 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the majority being from Southern Italy and Sicily, with many having agrarian backgrounds. This period of large-scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, never resumed.
Further immigration was limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s. 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, still rural and agricultural, where much of the populace had been impoverished by centuries of foreign misrule, an oppressive taxation system imposed after Italian unification in 1861. After unification, the Italian government encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South. After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a half million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy and elsewhere to fill the labor shortage caused by the war. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in eastern cities, mining camps and farms; the descendants of the Italian immigrants rose from a lower economic class in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. The Italian community has been characterized by strong ties to family, the Roman Catholic Church, fraternal organizations, political parties.
Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans. Christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian. Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. England's claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot and his son Sebastian Cabot in the early 16th century. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of today's United States, to enter New York Bay. A number of Italian navigators and explorers in the employ of Spain and France were involved in exploring and mapping their territories, in establishing settlements. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory that became the states of Arizona and New Mexico; the first Italian to reside in America was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in what would become New York City.
A small wave of Protestants, known as Waldensians, who were of French and northern Italian heritage, occurred during the 17th century. The first Waldensians began arriving around 1640, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663, they spread out across what was called New Netherland, what would become New York, New Jersey and the Lower Delaware River regions. The total American Waldensian population that immigrated to New Netherland is unknown. Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, explored the Great Lakes region. De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years, his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native American population. Included among these missionaries were numerous Italians.
In 1519-25, Alessandro Geraldini was the first Catholic bishop in the Americas, at Santo Domingo. Father François-Joseph Bressani labored among the Algonquin and Huron Indians in the early 17th century. Between 1687 and 1711, the southwest and California were explored and mapped by Italian Jesuit priest Eusebio Kino; the Taliaferro family from Venice, was one of the first families to settle in Virginia. Francesco Maria de Reggio, an Italian nobleman who served under the French, came to Louisiana in 1751 where he held the title of Captain General of Louisiana until 1763. Another colonial, merchant Francis Ferrari of Genoa, was naturalized as a citizen of Rhode Island in 1752, he died in 1753 and in his will speaks of Genoa, his ownership of three ships, cargo of wine and his wife Mary, who went on to own one of the oldest coffee houses in America, the Merchant Coffee House of New York on Wall Street at Water St. Her Merchant Coffee House moved across Wall Street in 1772, retaining the same patronage.
Today, the descendants of the Alberti/Burtis, Fonda, Reggio an
Cranston, Rhode Island
Cranston, once known as Pawtuxet, is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. With a population of 80,529 at the 2010 census, it is the third largest city in the state; the center of population of Rhode Island is located in Cranston. Cranston is a part of the Providence metropolitan area. Cranston was named one of the "100 Best Places to Live" in the United States by Money magazine in 2006, it is according to CQ Press's research. According to the survey done by 24/7 Wall St website, Cranston ranked 36th on the list of “America’s 50 Best Cities to Live”The Town of Cranston was created in 1754 from a portion of Providence north of the Pawtuxet River. After losing much of its territory to neighboring towns and the city of Providence, Cranston itself became a city on 10 March 1910. Much of the land was purchased by Roger Williams from the Narragansett Indians in 1638 as part of the Pawtuxet Purchase, the first settler in the area was William Arnold, followed shortly by William Harris, William Carpenter and Zachariah Rhodes.
Stephen Arnold, a brother-in-law of Rhodes and William Arnold, built a gristmill on the Pawtuxet falls and laid out the "Arnold Road" connecting it to the Pequot Trail leading to Connecticut. Arnold's son, Benedict Arnold, became the first Governor of Rhode Island under the charter of 1663. After area residents were unable to agree upon a name for a new town for decades, the Town of Cranston was created by the General Assembly in 1754 from a portion of Providence north of the Pawtuxet River. Historians debate whether the town was named after Governor Samuel Cranston, the longest-serving Rhode Island governor or his grandson, Thomas Cranston, serving as Speaker of the Rhode Island House of Representatives at the time that the town was created. In the early 1770s town meetings were held at the taverns of Caleb Arnold and Nehemiah Knight where Cranstonians voted in favor of a resolution opposing the British Parliament's Coercive Acts, the town supported the Patriot cause during the Revolutionary War.
After losing much of its territory to neighboring towns and the city of Providence over the nineteenth century, Cranston itself became a city on 10 March 1910. Cranston is located at 41°46′N 71°27′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.9 square miles, of which, 28.6 square miles of it is land and 1.4 square miles of it is water. It is three percent of Rhode Island's total land mass; the following neighborhoods and villages are located in Cranston: The Cranston Public Schools School Committee consists of seven members. Committee members are elected to a two-year term, as of 2014, members are limited to five consecutive two-year terms; as of August 2018, the School Committee members are as follows: 1996 United States Champions 2015 New England Champions As of the 2010 US Census, there were 80,387 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the village was 81.93% White, 5.26% African American, 0.32% Native American, 5.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 4.6% from other races, 2.66% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.83% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 79,269 people, 30,954 households, 20,243 families residing in the city of Cranston; the population density was 2,774.6 persons per square mile. There were 32,068 housing units at an average density of 1,122.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.19% White, 3.69% African American, 0.30% Native American, 3.28% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.93% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.56% of the population. There were 30,954 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females of age 18 or over, there were 92.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,108, the median income for a family was $55,241. Males had a median income of $40,031 versus $28,279 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,978. About 5.6 of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those ages 65 or older. The Rhode Island Department of Corrections has its headquarters and its adult prison facilities in Cranston; the Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth & Families operates the Rhode Island Training School, a juvenile correctional facility, in Cranston. The Rhode Island Division of Motor Vehicles is headquartered in Cranston; the City of Cranston operates under a mayor-council form of government. General city elections are held on the first Tuesday in November of every even-numbered year. Terms for elected officials begin on the first Monday in January of the year following their election.
The City Council consists of nine members: six representing each of the City wards, three citywide representatives. Council members are elected to a two-year term, are limited to five consecutive two-year terms.. The current Cranston City Council Presi
Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia
Johnston, Rhode Island
Johnston is a town in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 28,769 at the 2010 census. Johnston is the site of the Clemence Irons House, a stone-ender museum, the only landfill in Rhode Island. Incorporated on March 6, 1759, Johnston was named for the colonial attorney general, Augustus Johnston. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 24.4 square miles. 23.7 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles is water. Neighborhoods in Johnston: Thornton, Hughesdale, Morgan Mills, Simmonsville, West End and Frog City; the area was first settled by English settlers in the seventeenth century as a farming community. In 1759 the town separated from Providence and was incorporated on March 6, 1759. Johnston was named for the current colonial attorney general, Augustus Johnston, burned in effigy during the Stamp Act protests in 1765 and fled Rhode Island as a Tory during the American Revolution in 1779; the first house of worship in Johnston opened when the Baptist Meeting House in Belknap was constructed in 1771.
During the American Revoluation Rhode Island's only gunpowder mill was constructed in Graniteville, the town hosted American General John Sullivan for a dinner in 1779 upon his departure from Rhode Island to fight in New York. In 1790 the Belknap School, the first public school in the town, was founded. In 1791 the Providence and Norwich Turnpike was chartered. At the 2000 census, there were 28,195 people, 11,197 households and 7,725 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,191.4 per square mile. There were 11,574 housing units at an average density of 489.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.66% White Italian Americans, 0.65% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.89% of the population. There were 11,197 households of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.02. Age distribution was 20.9% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males. The median household income was $43,514, the median family income was $54,837. Males had a median income of $40,210 versus $29,314 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,440. About 6.8% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, 46.7% of Johnston residents identified themselves as being of Italian heritage. This was the highest percentage of Italian Americans of any municipality in the country; the town is governed by a five-member town council.
The Johnston Public School System has four elementary schools, one middle school and one high school. Johnston Senior High School is a 2005 Rhode Island Department of Education Regents' Commended School. In 2008, the Johnston School Committee decided to close both Graniteville and Calef Elementary schools. Students affected by the closures were transferred to Brown Avenue Elementary School and Winsor Hill Elementary School; this decision was not without controversy, as school officials and teachers complained of inadequate staffing, increased neighborhood traffic and lack of attention for special-needs students. Johnston has the Johnston Sun Rise; the paper is complimentary, can be found in many Johnston businesses. WJAR NBC News Channel 10 broadcasts in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; the news station is set in Rhode Island. WLNE-TV ABC 6 Rhode Island News Channel broadcasts in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. WPRI-TV 12 Fox 64 Providence Eyewitness News Channel broadcasts in Rhode Massachusetts.
New England Cable News channel is a cable news station based in Boston which covers all of New England's news. Insurance company FM Global is based in Johnston. Noel Acciari, Hockey player with the Boston Bruins organization. Amanda Clayton, graduate of Johnston Senior High School Paul DelVecchio. Samuel Ward King, 15th Governor of Rhode Island. Now with the New York Islanders of the NHL.
Saint Roch or Rocco was a Catholic saint, a confessor whose death is commemorated on 16 August and 9 September in Italy. He may be called Rock in English, has the designation of St Rollox in Glasgow, said to be a corruption of St Roch's Loch, which referred to a small loch once near a chapel dedicated to St. Roch in 1506, he is a patron saint of dogs, falsely accused people and several other things. He is the patron saint of Parma. He's the patron of Casamassima, Cisterna di Latina and Palagiano, Italy. Saint Roch is known as "San Roque" in Spanish, including in many now-English-speaking areas, such as the Philippines. Saint Roch is given different names in various languages: (Arabic: روكز. According to his Acta and his vita in the Golden Legend, he was born at Montpellier, at that time "upon the border of France", as the Golden Legend has it, the son of the noble governor of that city, his birth was accounted a miracle, for his noble mother had been barren until she prayed to the Virgin Mary.
Miraculously marked from birth with a red cross on his breast that grew as he did, he early began to manifest strict asceticism and great devoutness. On the death of his parents in his twentieth year he distributed all his worldly goods among the poor like Francis of Assisi—though his father on his deathbed had ordained him governor of Montpellier—and set out as a mendicant pilgrim for Rome. Coming into Italy during an epidemic of plague, he was diligent in tending the sick in the public hospitals at Acquapendente, Rimini and Rome, is said to have effected many miraculous cures by prayer and the sign of the cross and the touch of his hand. At Rome, according to the Golden Legend he preserved the "cardinal of Angleria in Lombardy" by making the mark of the cross on his forehead, which miraculously remained. Ministering at Piacenza he himself fell ill, he was expelled from the town. Count Gothard, following his hunting dog that carried the bread, discovered Saint Roch and became his acolyte. On his return incognito to Montpellier he was arrested as a spy and thrown into prison, where he languished five years and died on 16 August 1327, without revealing his name, to avoid worldly glory.
After his death, according to the Golden Legend. And in that table was written that God had granted to him his prayer, to wit, that who that calleth meekly to S. Rocke he shall not be hurt with any hurt of pestilence The townspeople recognized him as well by his birthmark; the date asserted by Francesco Diedo for Saint Roch's death would precede the traumatic advent of the Black Death in Europe after long centuries of absence, for which a rich iconography of the plague, its victims and its protective saints was soon developed, in which the iconography of Roche finds its historical place: the topos did not exist. In contrast, however, St Roch of Montpellier cannot be dismissed based on dates of a specific plague event. In medieval times, the term "plague" was used to indicate a whole array of epidemics; the first literary account is an undated Acta, labeled, by comparison with the longer, elaborated accounts that were to follow, Acta Breviora, which relies entirely on standardized hagiographic topoi to celebrate and promote the cult of Roch.
The story that when the Council of Constance was threatened with plague in 1414, public processions and prayers for the intercession of Roch were ordered, the outbreak ceased, is provided by Francesco Diedo, the Venetian governor of Brescia, in his Vita Sancti Rochi, 1478. The cult of Roch gained momentum during the bubonic plague that passed through northern Italy in 1477–79. According to the doctoral thesis of history student Pierre Bolle in 2001, Saint Roch is a hagiographical doublet of a more ancient saint, Racho of Autun, Burgundy who died about 660. Racho was invoked for protection against storms and Bolle believes that his name was the basis of the name of this saint and of his patronage of plague-sufferers via a process of aphaeresis of the Old French word for a storm, tempeste, to -peste "plague"; this accords with the equilibrium of humours theory of medieval medicine of Western Europe that held that illness could be caused by corruption of the air. Gian Paolo Vico, of the Associazione San Rocco Italia, states that a prisoner of French origin, held there for five years died in Voghera, Italy during the night of 15–16 August between 1376 and 1379.
This prisoner had, according to some