Brookfield is a village in Cook County, United States, located 13 miles west of downtown Chicago. Its population was 18,978 at the 2010 census; the city is home to the Brookfield Zoo. Brookfield is located at 41°49′22″N 87°50′51″W. According to the 2010 census, Brookfield has a total area of 3.067 square miles, of which 3.06 square miles is land and 0.007 square miles is water. Most of Brookfield rises. Along Salt Creek is a steep ravine, home to many oak savannas; these oak savannas are the primary ecosystem of Brookfield, sprawl out from large, forested areas into small pockets in the village. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,085 people, 7,536 households, 5,034 families residing in the village; the population density was 6,252.4 people per square mile. There were 7,753 housing units at an average density of 2,539.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93.53% White, 0.89% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.88% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.05% of the population. The top five ancestries reported in Brookfield as of the 2000 census were German, Polish and Czech. There were 7,536 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.10. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $71,000, the median income for a family was $64,075. Males had a median income of $45,293 versus $33,136 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $24,307. About 2.3% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Nearly all of Brookfield is in Illinois' 3rd congressional district. Before 1803, the area now called Brookfield was covered by prairie grasses and farms. Large portions of the area were inhabited by the Native Americans who long ago developed agriculture and corn cultivation, built villages and burial mounds, invented the bow and arrow, made beautiful pottery. Settlement of the village dates to 1889 when Samuel Eberly Gross, a Chicago lawyer turned real estate investor, began selling building lots plotted from farms and woodlands he had acquired along both sides of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad line, which provided passenger and freight service between Chicago and Aurora, Illinois. "Grossdale", as his development was called, offered suburban living at prices affordable to working-class families.
The first two buildings Gross erected were a train station south of the tracks at what is now Prairie Avenue, a pavilion across the tracks. The original train station was moved across the tracks and a few hundred feet east in 1981, is now the home of the village's historical society and museum, as well as listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the pavilion housed the first post office, general store, Gross' real estate office, meeting rooms, a dance hall. Gross offered free train outings from Chicago to Grossdale where the prospects were met at the station by a band and treated to a picnic lunch complete with a sales pitch from Gross. In addition to parcels of land, he had a number of house designs to offer at "cheap" prices. Gross added the subdivisions of Hollywood and West Grossdale, each with its own train station. Residents voted to incorporate as the village of Grossdale in 1893; the name was changed in 1905 after residents became displeased with Gross, whose personal life and fortune had floundered.
A contest to choose a new name yielded "Brookfield" in respect for Salt Creek, which runs through the area. Gross has a school named after him called S. E. Gross. In 1920, the old Plank Toll Road, now called Ogden Avenue, was paved, providing easy automobile access to and from Chicago; the Chicago Zoological Park called the Brookfield Zoo, opened in 1934. The zoo is located on land given to the Forest Preserve District by Edith Rockefeller McCormick in 1919. Throughout the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, newspapers published in Brookfield included The Suburban Magnet and Brookfield Star; the largest and most successful newspaper printed in Brookfield was the Brookfield Enterprise, started in 1932 by Porter Reubendall and owned and expanded in the 1950s by Elmer C. Johnson ceasing publication in 1985. Brookfield-LaGrange Elementary School District 95 is the primary elementary school district for Brookfield residents, is made up of one elementary and one junior high school. Other Brookfield students may attend schools in Riverside School District 96, LaGrange Elementary School District 102, or Lyons School District 103.
District 95, 96 teens attend Riverside Brookfield High School in District 208, while students from SD 102 & *SD 103 attend Lyons Township High School, District 204, which h
Area code 708
Telephone area code 708 covers western and southern Cook County and eastern and southern Will County in the state of Illinois, USA. Area code 708 was split off from area code 312 on November 11, 1989, once covered all of the suburbs of Chicago. In 1996, it was reduced to its current size in a three-way split; the northern suburbs became area code 847, while the western suburbs became area code 630. Area code 464 is being reserved as an overlay area code for 708 to provide additional numbering options for this area. Area code 708 was Illinois' first new area code since 309 was created in 1957 and the second new code for the state since the NANP went online in 1947. List of NANP area codes List of Illinois area codes Map of Illinois area codes at North American Numbering Plan Administration's website List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 708 Area Code
Calumet City, Illinois
Calumet City is a city in Cook County, United States. The population was 37,042 at the 2010 census, a decline of 5.2% from 2000. The ZIP code is 60409. Calumet City was founded in 1893 when the villages of Schrumville and Sobieski Park merged under the name of West Hammond, since it lies on the west side of the Illinois-Indiana line from Hammond, Indiana. In 1924, West Hammond became Calumet City after its citizens voted to change the name in 1923. In addition to being bordered to the east by Hammond, it is bordered by Burnham and Chicago to the north, Lansing to the south, South Holland and Dolton to the west, it has a flag but no digital image of it. A landmark and point of pride among Cal City residents is the pair of large water towers painted like the popular "Have a Nice Day" smiley faces. Located on Ring Road near River Oaks Mall, the other State Street near I 94 Calumet City is located at 41°36′51″N 87°32′47″W. According to the 2010 census, Calumet City has a total area of 7.314 square miles, of which 7.19 square miles is land and 0.124 square miles is water.
As of the 2010 census, there were 37,042 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 20.4% White, 71.9% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 8.1% from other races, with 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.0% of the population, including 13.4% of Mexican descent. There were 13,978 households, out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were husband-wife families, 27.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.2% were non-families. 38.8% Of all households had individuals under 18 years and 25.9% housed someone 65 years of age or older. 12.6% were people over 65 years of age living alone. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city, the age distribution of the population was 28.2% under the age of 18, 60.1% from 18-65 and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.1 years.
For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. According to the 2015 American Community Survey The median income for a household in the city was $38,557, the median income for a family was $49,086. Full-time, year-round male workers had a median income of $43,494 versus $39,573 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,483. About 19.2% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line in the past 12 months, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 13.9% of those age 65 or over. 51.9% were employed, 12.9% were unemployed. Calumet City has a Mayor-Council type government; the City has 7 Wards. Calumet City is in Illinois' 2nd congressional district. Landon Cox, drafted to Cincinnati Bengals, July 28, 2011 Arline M. Fantin, Illinois state representative Frank Giglio, Illinois state representative John Jurkovic, defensive lineman for several NFL teams, his family moved from Chicago to Calumet City and he attended Thornton Fractional Township North High School. Calumet City is mentioned in a number of major movies.
John Belushi's "Joliet Jake" and Dan Aykroyd's "Elwood" characters from The Blues Brothers were born in Calumet City, so is the orphanage they grew up in which they save "on a mission from God" by paying $5,000 in property taxes from a $10,000 record deal at their concert, as well as "Ray's Music Exchange" that holds the famed Ray Charles "Shake Your Tail-Feather" scene of the movie. In the book and film The Silence of the Lambs, Buffalo Bill is thought to be hiding in Calumet City, when he is in Belvedere, Ohio; the Calumet City scenes in the film were filmed in Pittsburgh, however. Lily Tomlin's prim but assertive housewife/spokesperson "Mrs. Judith Beasley" is said to be a resident of Calumet City, she said, "Hi. I am not an actress, but a real person like yourself." Calumet City is referenced by a number of popular music acts. The Black Crowes included a video of the Smiley Towers in their 1990 video for "Hard to Handle". A photograph of the "Dolton" smiley water tower is featured on the back of the Dead Kennedys album Plastic Surgery Disasters.
Rapper Twista has referenced Calumet City. Kanye West's reference to Calumet in his 2005 song "Drive Slow" does not refer to Calumet City, but rather to Calumet High School, located in the South Side of Chicago and not in Calumet City; the Smiley Tower is featured in the movie Natural Born Killers. In the Nine Inch Nails music video on the director's cut of the same film, the Smiley Tower and Dolton Avenue/State Street is featured; the founders of the Calumet Baking Powder Company adopted its brand name from the original Native American word for the land that became Calumet City. They named one of thoroughbred horse racing's most famed and successful enterprises, Calumet Farm, after the company. In 2004, Alan Keyes purchased a raised ranch house in Calumet City to establish residency in Illinois so he could run for the U. S. Senate in place of Jack Ryan against Barack Obama
Berwyn is a suburban city in Cook County, coterminous with Berwyn Township, formed in 1908 after breaking off from Cicero Township. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 56,657. Before being settled, the land, now Berwyn was traversed by Native American trails; the most important trails converged near the Chicago portage, two significant routes crossed what is today Berwyn. A branch of the Trail to Green Bay crossed Berwyn at what is now Riverside Drive, the Ottawa Trail spanned the southern end of the city. In 1846, the first land in "Berwyn" was deeded to Theodore Doty who built the 8-foot-wide Plank Road from Chicago to Ottawa along the Ottawa Trail; the trail had been used as a French and Indian trade route and more as a stage coach route to Lisle. This thoroughfare became. In 1856, Thomas F. Baldwin purchased 347 acres of land, bordered by what is now Ogden Avenue, Ridgeland Avenue, 31st Street, Harlem Avenue, in hopes of developing a rich and aristocratic community called "LaVergne".
However, few people were interested in grassy marshland. Mud Lake extended nearly to the southern border of today's Berwyn, the land flooded during heavy rains; the only mode of transportation to LaVergne was buggy on the Plank Road. To encourage people to move to LaVergne, Baldwin sold an 80-foot-wide strip of property to the Burlington and Quincy Railroad in 1862; the rail line opened in 1864, but the train did not stop in the area. The railroad refused to build a station, so the residents of the area constructed LaVergne Station on Ridgeland Avenue in 1874. However, the financial panic of 1873 and Baldwin's death in 1876 stunted the growth of LaVergne. Baldwin's daughter, inherited her father's estate, in 1879 she sold most of the land to a group of realtors controlled by Marshall Field; the new development stipulated the minimum building cost of each home. By the end of 1880, 12 new homes were built. By 1888, the settlement had grown so much that the Baldwin family donated the triangular piece of land bounded by Ogden Avenue, 34th Street, Gunderson Avenue so that a school could be built.
LaVergne School became the first public building in Berwyn. In 1890, Charles E. Piper and Wilbur J. Andrews, two Chicago attorneys, purchased a 106-acre plot of land from the Field syndicate to develop; the land was bounded by Wesley, Kenilworth, 31st Street, Ogden Avenues. By the following year, the two received approval from Cicero Township to double their land holdings. Piper and Andrews wanted the railroad to build a station in their development, but the railroad had stations at La Vergne and at Harlem Avenue. Piper and Andrews decided to build a station with the understanding that trains would stop regularly, they did not know what to name their station so they consulted a Pennsylvania train timetable to find a name. The name they chose was a beautiful subdivision outside of Philadelphia. After 1901, all settlements in the area were known as Berwyn. While Piper and Andrews were developing the southern portion of present-day Berwyn, John Kelly was helping to develop the north part from 12th Street to 16th Street.
This area was a part of an Oak Park subdivision, it appeared on some maps as "South Oak Park". In fact, children who lived in this area went to school in Oak Park. John Kelly was known as "Mr. Everything" because he was a realtor, insurance seller, community servant. In between the two settlements, there was little except for a few farms; the area between 16th and 31st streets was not settled. There were only two paths by which to travel between the two settlements, today these paths are known as Oak Park Avenue and Ridgeland Avenue. Although Berwyn was chartered as a city in 1908, it was not until the 1920s that this middle portion of land was developed. During this time, Berwyn was the area's fastest growing suburb; the city's stringent building codes resulted in block upon block of well-built brick two-story bungalows. Many contained elaborate design elements not seen, such as stained glass windows, clay tile roofs, terra cotta, intricate brick patterns. Today, Berwyn is noted as having the most significant collection of Chicago-style bungalows in the nation.
As of the census of 2010, there were 56,657 people and 18,910 households in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 60.48% White, 6.40% African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 26.61% some other race, 3.37% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 59.44% of the population. The population density was 14,527.4 inhabitants per square mile. Berwyn has the highest population density of any township in Illinois, it and Cicero are the only townships in Illinois that have a higher population density than the city of Chicago. The top five non-Hispanic ancestries reported in Berwyn as of the 2009-2011 American Community Survey were Italian, German and Polish. In the 2010 census, there were 18,910 households, out of which 41.9% had children under the age of 18. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.2% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99, the average family size was 3.62. The age distribution was 27.8% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and ov
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi