The Elder Futhark, Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark is the oldest form of the runic alphabets. It was a writing system used by Germanic tribes for Northwest Germanic dialects in the Migration Period, the dates of which are debated among scholars. Runic inscriptions are found on artifacts, including jewelry, tools, and, runestones, from the 2nd to the 8th centuries. In Scandinavia, beginning from the late 8th century, the script was simplified to the Younger Futhark, the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians extended Elder Futhark, which became the Anglo-Saxon futhorc. Anglo-Saxon futhorc and the Younger Futharks remained in use during the Early and the High Middle Ages respectively. Knowledge of how to read the Elder Futhark was forgotten until 1865, when it was deciphered by Norwegian scholar Sophus Bugge; the Elder Futhark has 24 runes arranged in three groups of eight runes. In the following table, each rune is given with its common transliteration: þ corresponds to the Greek letter.
Ï is transliterated as æ and may have been either a diphthong or a vowel close to the or. Z was Proto-Germanic, evolved into Proto-Norse /r₂/ and is transliterated as ʀ; the remaining transliterations correspond to the IPA symbol of their approximate value. The earliest known sequential listing of the alphabet dates to 400 AD and is found on the Kylver Stone in Gotland: Two instances of another early inscription were found on the two Vadstena and Mariedamm bracteates, showing the division in three ætts, with the positions of ï, p and o, d inverted compared to the Kylver stone: f u þ a r k g w. H n i j ï p... T b e m l d The Elder Futhark runes are believed to originate in the Old Italic scripts: either a North Italic variant, or the Latin alphabet itself. Derivation from the Greek alphabet via Gothic contact to Byzantine Greek culture was a popular theory in the 19th century, but has been ruled out since the dating of the Vimose inscriptions to the 2nd century. Conversely, the Greek-derived 4th century Gothic alphabet does have two letters derived from runes, and.
The angular shapes of the runes an adaptation to the incision in wood or metal, are not a Germanic innovation, but a property, shared with other early alphabets, including the Old Italic ones. The 1st century BC Negau helmet inscription features a Germanic name, Harigastiz, in a North Etruscan alphabet, may be a testimony of the earliest contact of Germanic speakers with alphabetic writing; the Meldorf inscription of 50 may qualify as "proto-runic" use of the Latin alphabet by Germanic speakers. The Raetic "alphabet of Bolzano" in particular seems to fit the letter shapes well; the spearhead of Kovel, dated to 200 AD, sometimes advanced as evidence of a peculiar Gothic variant of the runic alphabet, bears an inscription tilarids that may in fact be in an Old Italic rather than a runic alphabet, running right to left with a T and a D closer to the Latin or Etruscan than to the Bolzano or runic alphabets. An "eclectic" approach can yield the best results for the explanation of the origin of the runes: most shapes of the letters can be accounted for when deriving them from several distinct North Italic writing systems: the p rune has a parallel in the Camunic alphabet, while it has been argued that d derives from the shape of the letter san in Lepontic where it seems to represent the sound /d/.
The g, a, f, i, t, m and l runes show no variation, are accepted as identical to the Old Italic or Latin letters X, A, F, I, T, M and L, respectively. There is wide agreement that the u, r, k, h, s, b and o runes correspond directly to V, R, C, H, S, B and O; the runes of uncertain derivation may either be original innovations, or adoptions of otherwise unneeded Latin letters. Odenstedt 1990, p. 163 suggests that all 22 Latin letters of the classical Latin alphabet were adopted, with two runes left over as original Germanic innovations, but there are conflicting scholarly opinions regarding the e, n, þ, w, ï and z, ŋ and d runes. Of the 24 runes in the classical futhark row attested from 400, ï, p and ŋ are unattested in the earliest inscriptions of ca. 175 to 400, while e in this early period takes a Π-shape, its M-shape gaining prevalence only from the 5th century. The s rune may have either three or four strokes, only from the 5th century does the variant with three strokes become prevalent.
Note that the "mature" runes of the 6th to 8th centuries tend to have only three directions of strokes, the vertical and two diagonal directions. Early inscriptions show horizontal strokes: these appear in the case of e, but in t, l, ŋ and h; the general agreement dates the creation of the first runic alphabet to the 1st century. Early estimates include the 1st century BC, late estimates push the date into the 2nd century; the question is one of estimating the "findless" period separating the script's creation from the Vimose finds of ca
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire. According to Tacitus and Strabo they were Suebian, it is believed their name derives from the Proto-Germanic forms of "march" and "men", *Markōmanniz, which would have been rendered in Latin form as Marcomanni. The Marcomanni first appear in historical records as confederates of the Suebi of Ariovistus fighting against Julius Caesar in Gaul, having crossed the Rhine from present-day southern Germany; the exact position of their lands at this time is not known. The fact that their name existed before the Romans had territory near the Danube or Rhine raises the question of which border they lived near in order to explain their name, their name may echo an earlier demarcation between the northern Germanic tribes of the Jastorf cultural circle, those of the Celtic maximum expansion during the earlier and Iron Age of La Tene dominance throughout Europe, that from findings in the archaeological record pressed North through with some influence as far as into Jutland, but remained separated South and settled on Oppidas over today Thuringia and Saxony along the Hercynian forest, intrinsically connected to the major trade roads that went into the more evolved centers of Bohemia and Silesia all still Celtic regions then.
It has been suggested that they may have lived near the conjunction of Rhine and Main river, at the areas inhabited but left deserted by the Helvetii and Taurisci. However the historian Florus reports that Drusus erected a mound of their spoils during his campaign of 12-9 BC, after defeating the Tencteri and Chatti, before next turning to Cherusci and Sicambri, suggesting that they were not close to any obvious border at the time. According to the accounts of Tacitus, Pliny the Elder, Strabo they moved into the large area occupied by the Boii in a region called Baiohaemum, where their allies and fellow Suevi the Quadi lived; this was described as being within the Hercynian forest and was in the region of modern Bohemia, although this is not certain. By 6 BC, their king, had established a powerful kingdom there that Augustus perceived as a threat to Rome. Before he could act, the revolt in Illyria intervened. Maroboduus was deposed and exiled by Catualda. Catualda was in turn deposed by Vibilius of the Hermunduri the same year, succeeded by the Quadian Vannius.
Around 50 AD, Vannius was himself deposed by Vibilius, in coordination with his nephews Vangio and Sido. Tacitus, in the late 1st century mentions the Marcomanni as being under kings appointed by Rome. In the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni entered into a confederation with other peoples including the Quadi and Sarmatians, against the Roman Empire; this was driven by movements of larger tribes, like the Goths. According to the historian Eutropius, the forces of the emperor, Marcus Aurelius, battled against the Marcomannic confederation for three years at the fortress of Carnuntum in Pannonia. Eutropius compared the war, Aurelius's success against the Marcomanni and their allies, to the Punic Wars; the comparison was apt in had significant Roman defeats. The war began in 166, when the Marcomanni overwhelmed the defences between Vindobona and Carnuntum, penetrated along the border between the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum, laid waste to Flavia Solva, could be stopped only shortly before reaching Aquileia on the Adriatic Sea.
The war lasted until Aurelius's death in 180. It would prove to be only a limited success for Rome; the Christianisation of the Marcomanni, at least into a Roman orthodox form of Christianity, seems to have occurred under their queen, Fritigil in the mid fourth century. She corresponded with Ambrose of Milan to bring about the conversion; this was the last clear evidence of the Marcomanni having a polity. It was on the Roman side of the Danube by this time. Soon after, the Pannonian and Danubian area went into a long period of turmoil. After crossing the Rhine in 406 and the Pyrenees in 409, a group of Suevi, who had migrated together with Vandals and Alans, established themselves in the Roman province of Gallaecia, where they were considered foederati and founded the Suebi Kingdom of Gallaecia; these Suevi were a mix of Suevian groups from the area north of Danube and Pannonian basin such as the Marcomanni and Buri. There, Hermeric swore fealty to the emperor in 410. Bracara Augusta, the modern city of Braga in Portugal the capital of Roman Gallaecia, now became the capital of the Suebic Kingdom.
The Danubian area meanwhile became the core of Attila the Hun's empire, within it there seem to have been many Suebians. One group of them managed to reform into an independent group after the Battle of Nedao in 454, like many other groups who emerged from Attila's confederation; these Suevi came into conflict with the Ostrogoths, on the losing side at Nadao. Jordanes, the historian of the Goths, reported that after the Battle of Bolia, the Ostrogoths attacked the Suevi by crossing the Danube when frozen, going into a high Alpine area held by the confederates of the Suevi at this time, the Alamanni. (He
Pan-Germanism occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists sought to unify all the German and also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland. Pan-Germanism was influential in German politics in the 19th century during the unification of Germany when the German Empire was proclaimed as a nation-state in 1871 but without Austria, the first half of the 20th century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire. From the late 19th century, many Pan-Germanist thinkers, since 1891 organized in the Pan-German League, had adopted ethnocentric and racist ideologies, gave rise to the foreign policy Heim ins Reich pursued by Nazi Germany under Austrian-born Adolf Hitler from 1938, one of the primary factors leading to the outbreak of World War II; as a result of the disaster of World War II, Pan-Germanism was seen as a taboo ideology in the postwar period in both West and East Germany. Today, Pan-Germanism is limited to some nationalist groups in Germany and Austria.
The word pan is a Greek word element meaning "all, whole, all-inclusive". The word "German" in this context derives from Latin "Germani" used by Julius Caesar referring to tribes or a single tribe in northeastern Gaul. In the Late Middle Ages, it acquired a loose meaning referring to the speakers of Germanic languages most of whom spoke dialects ancestral to modern German. In English, "Pan-German" was first attested in 1892. In German, there exists a synonym "Alldeutsche Bewegung", a calque using German instead of Latin and Greek roots. Pan-Germanism's origins began with the birth of Romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars, with Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Ernst Moritz Arndt being early proponents. Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation, when the Holy Roman Empire was shattered into a patchwork of states following the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia. Advocates of the Großdeutschland solution sought to unite all the German-speaking people in Europe, under the leadership of the German Austrians from the Austrian Empire.
Pan-Germanism was widespread among the revolutionaries of 1848, notably among Richard Wagner and the Brothers Grimm. Writers such as Friedrich List and Paul Anton Lagarde argued for German hegemony in Central and Eastern Europe, where German domination in some areas had begun as early as the 9th century AD with the Ostsiedlung, Germanic expansion into Slavic and Baltic lands. For the Pan-Germanists, this movement was seen as a Drang nach Osten, in which Germans would be inclined to seek Lebensraum by moving eastwards to reunite with the German minorities there; the Deutschlandlied, written in 1841 by Hoffmann von Fallersleben, in its first stanza defines Deutschland as reaching "From the Meuse to the Memel / From the Adige to the Belt", i.e. as including East Prussia and South Tyrol. Reflecting upon the First Schleswig War in 1848, Karl Marx noted in 1853 that "by quarrelling amongst themselves, instead of confederating and Scandinavians, both of them belonging to the same great race, only prepare the way for their hereditary enemy, the Slav."
There is, in no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, each separately ruled by an independent sovereign with all the machinery of State, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. By the 1860s the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire had become the two most powerful states dominated by German-speaking élites. Both sought to expand their territory; the Austrian Empire—like the Holy Roman Empire—was a multi-ethnic state, but the German-speaking people there did not have an absolute numerical majority. Under Prussian leadership, Otto von Bismarck would ride on the coat-tails of nationalism to unite all of the northern German lands. After Bismarck excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany in the German war of 1866 and, the unification of Germany, established the Prussian-dominated German Empire in 1871 with the proclamation of Wilhelm I as head of a union of German-speaking states, while disregarding millions of its non-German subjects who desired self-determination from German rule.
After World War I the Pan-Germanist philosophy changed drastically during the ascendancy of Adolf Hitler. Pan-Germanists sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of Europe in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland, where "German-speaking" was sometimes taken as synonymous with Germanic-speaking, to the inclusion of the Frisian- and Dutch-speaking populations of the Low Countries, Scandinavia. Although Bismarck had excluded Austria and the German Austrians from his creation of the Kleindeutschland state in 1871, integrating the German Austrians remained a strong desire for many people of both Austria and Germany; the most radical Austrian pan-German Georg Schönerer and Karl Hermann Wolf articulated Pan-Germanist sentiments in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. There was a rejection of Roman Catholicism with the Away from Rome! Movement calling for German-speakers to identify with Lutheran or Old Catholi
Stone circle (Iron Age)
The stone circles of the Iron Age were a characteristic burial custom of southern Scandinavia on Gotland and in Götaland during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age. In Sweden, they are called Domkretsar or Domarsäten, they should not be confused with the Stone circles of Britain. A tradition of making stone circles existed on the European continent in Wielbark culture near the mouth of the Vistula River in the first century; the practice suggests Norse influence but may have been established in the area before the arrival of the Goths. The stone circles were sometimes used as burial grounds; the circles are round, or elongated ellipses. The stones may be large and they are between 9 and 12. Sometimes there are as few as 6–8. One stone circle, the circle of Nässja, comprises as many as 24 stones. Excavations have shown burnt coal in the centre of the circles and they are nowadays considered to be incineration graves. There is general assemblies. Similar circles were used for popular assemblies in Denmark until the 16th century, in Vad parish in Västergötland, the village assemblies were held in a stone circle until the 19th century.
If knowledge that the stone circles were graves was lost, it was still fresh in the 13th century as testify these lines by Snorri Sturluson in the introduction of the Heimskringla: As to funeral rites, the earliest age is called the Age of Burning. Gettlinge burial field, Öland, Sweden Hulterstad burial field, Öland, Sweden Jelling stones, Denmark Käräjämäki, Finland Käräjämäki, Kokemäki, Finland Liikistö, Finland Stoplesteinan, Norway Odry, Poland Węsiory burial field, Poland Gårdlösa Nationalencyklopedin A Polish Archaeology Article by Tadeusz Makiewicz ADuong's a history of Poland This article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain
Anglia is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitutes the northern part of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, protruding into the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea. To the south, Anglia is separated from the neighbouring peninsula of Swania by the Sly Firth, to the north from the Danish peninsula of Sundeved and the Danish island of Als by the Flensburg Firth; the landscape is dotted with numerous lakes. Whether ancient Anglia conformed to the borders of the Anglian Peninsula is uncertain, it may have been somewhat larger. Anglia has a significance far beyond its current small area and country terrain, in that it is believed to have been the original home of the Angles, Germanic immigrants to East Anglia and Northern England, the Eastern Scottish Lowlands; this migration led to their new homeland being named after them, from which the name "England" derives. England, East and West Anglia as well as the English language, thus derive at least their names from Anglia.
The German word Angeln has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic Proto-Indo-European root *h₂enǵʰ-, meaning "narrow", meaning here "the Narrow ", i.e. the Sly Firth. The "-n"-ending is the most common ending for geographical regions in German, comparable to the English endings "-ia" and "-y": "Croatia" = Kroatien, "Italy" = Italien. In German, the word Angeln has yet three other meanings: as a verb, angeln means "to angle", it is written with a capitalized initial letter in its nominalized form: das Angeln = " angling". When used with the plural article, Angeln means "fishing rods": die Angel = "the fishing rod", die Angeln = "the fishing rods"; the term Angeln refers to the people of the Angles: die Angeln = "the Angles", while Eng. "the angel" = Ger. der Engel, "the angle" = der Winkel, "the angler" = der Angler, "the fisherman" = der Fischer. There is a theory that Angeln meant "hook", in reference to the shape of the peninsula. Linguist Julius Pokorny derived it from the Proto-Indo-European root *ang-, "bend".
It is possible that the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such. Together with Swania, Danish Wahld and Wagria, Anglia is one of four peninsulas along the Baltic Sea coast of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein; as part of the Schleswig-Holstein Morainic Uplands, that were formed during the Weichselian glaciation, these peninsulas are hilly and dotted with several glacial lakes. The Anglian glacial lakes form the North Anglian Lake Group; the River Treene with its main headstream Bondenau rises in Anglia. Although rising on the Anglian Peninsula in the Baltic Sea, the Treene flows towards the North Sea, being the main tributary of the River Eider, the river that constituted the Southern border of the Danish Realm for a long time; the northernmost part of Anglia is formed by the Holnis Peninsula that protrudes into the Flensburg Firth. Apart from Flensburg, an independent town, the Anglian Peninsula belongs to the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, Germany's northeasternmost district.
The district has 197,000 inhabitants. The main language of Anglia is German; the peninsula is, however part of the Low German language area, a language, more related to English than German since it was not affected by the High German consonant shift. Danish was the main language of Anglia from the 9th to the 19th century; the Danish variety indigenous to Anglia was Anglian Danish, a dialect of South Jutlandic, the southernmost variety of Danish spoken on the Jutland Peninsula, once spoken as far south as Eckernförde-Borby on the Eckernförde Bay. In the 19th century, however, a language shift towards Low German occurred. Danish is still spoken in Anglia by a minority, but in Southern Schleswig Danish dialects, which are not dialects of South Jutlandic, but Low German-influenced dialects of Standard Danish; the cities with the largest Danish-speaking minorities are Flensburg/Flensborg, Schleswig/Slesvig and Glücksburg/Lyksborg. Many Anglian placenames are like all placenames ending on - by and - rup.
There are many placenames of Danish origin in England as well, but in Danish and Swedish, -by is pronounced IPA:, not IPA:, as in England. North Frisian, one of the Frisian languages, that form the Anglo-Frisian languages together with English, is spoken in ma
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an