Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph
Helen Carruthers was an American actress of the silent film era. Carruthers is best known for her work in Keystone comedies. Helen's career began in 1914, she appeared in thirty-five Keystone comedies. Her film debut was in His Favourite Pastime, her last work for Keystone was as Chaplin's love interest and the King's wife in His Prehistoric Past. Her acting career ended in 1915. In May 1915, aged just twenty-three, attempted suicide, she swallowed thirty mercury bichloride tablets. Ten years in New York, she committed suicide by jumping out of a window. Helen Carruthers on IMDb
Laughing Gas (1914 film)
Laughing Gas is a 1914 film starring Charlie Chaplin. The film is known as Busy Little Dentist and Out, Laffing Gas, The Dentist, Tuning His Ivories. We are told, he arrives at work where the patients are waiting. He joins the tiny second dental assistant in the back room, they have a brief squabble Charlie goes to the waiting room to clean the floor with a carpet sweeper. He bumps into a further squabble starts. Back to the rear room for more squabbling; the dentist arrives, his first patient goes in in pain. The dentist prepares the nitrous oxide anaesthesic. With the man unconscious he pulls his tooth, but he can't get him to wake up, he calls for Charlie. Charlie tries to wake him and tries hitting his head with a mallet; the man starts laughing. Charlie knocks him out with the mallet; the dentist returns and Charlie is sent to the drug store to get a prescription. After more fighting with the patients he goes from Dr Pain's surgery to the Sunset Pharmacy, he strikes a man standing at a news-stand outside.
He looks at a woman and Charlie kicks him in the stomach before chasing the woman himself, an incident occurs where she loses her skirt and runs off in embarrassment. He continues fighting with the man, who receives a brick in the face, thus becoming another dental patient. A second brick hits a passer-by losing him a tooth. Meanwhile, the dentist gets a phone call from his maid to say his wife has had an "accident" and he goes home. Charlie returns to find the surgery empty, he picks the prettier of the two female patients in the waiting room. The other lady leaves. Charlie flirts with her and looks closely into her mouth, stealing kisses. Meanwhile, the two men struck by bricks arrive; the girl leaves. The tall passerby goes in next. Charlie uses a huge pair of pliers to remove another tooth. With all the noise the news-stand victim enters and a final fight ensues. A reviewer from Motion Picture News wrote, "Besides getting into a fight with two of his master's patients and getting in the way, doesn't do anything except create roars of laughter."
Charles Chaplin - Dentist's Assistant Fritz Schade - Dr. Pain, the Dentist Alice Howell - Dentist's Wife Joseph Sutherland - Short Assistant Slim Summerville - Patient Josef Swickard - Patient Mack Swain - Patient Gene Marsh - Patient List of American films of 1914 Laughing Gas on YouTube Laughing Gas on IMDb Laughing Gas is available for free download at the Internet Archive
The Fatal Mallet
The Fatal Mallet is a 1914 American-made motion picture starring Charles Chaplin and Mabel Normand. The film was written and directed by Mack Sennett, who portrays one of Chaplin's rivals for Normand's attention; the Fatal Mallet is one of more than a dozen early films that writer/director/comedian Mabel Normand made with Charles Chaplin. Three men will fight for the love of a charming girl. Charlie and one other suitor teams up against the third, play dirty, throwing bricks and using a mallet. However, Charlie double-crosses his partner, thus losing the girl in the end. A reviewer for Moving Picture World said of The Fatal Mallet, "This one-reeler proves that hitting people over the head with bricks and mallets can sometimes be made amusing." A reviewer for Bioscope positively wrote, "Though rivals in love for the beautiful Mabel Normand, Charles Chaplin and Mack Sennett combine to rid themselves of a third poacher on their preserves, the employment of a deadly mallet gives these indescribable comedians the opportunity for another genuinely funny farce."
Charles Chaplin - Suitor Mabel Normand - Mabel Mack Sennett - Rival suitor Mack Swain - Another rival List of American films of 1914 Charlie Chaplin filmography The Fatal Mallet on IMDb The Fatal Mallet is available for free download at the Internet Archive The Fatal Mallet on YouTube