John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception." He has been called "a giant of American letters," and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature. During his writing career, he authored 27 books, including 16 novels, six non-fiction books, two collections of short stories, he is known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat and Cannery Row, the multi-generation epic East of Eden, the novellas Of Mice and Men and The Red Pony. The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece and part of the American literary canon. In the first 75 years after it was published, it sold 14 million copies. Most of Steinbeck's work is set in central California in the Salinas Valley and the California Coast Ranges region, his works explored the themes of fate and injustice as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists.
Steinbeck was born on February 1902, in Salinas, California. He was of German and Irish descent. Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck, Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, shortened the family name to Steinbeck when he immigrated to the United States; the family farm in Heiligenhaus, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is still named "Großsteinbeck." His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, served as Monterey County treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton, a former school teacher, shared Steinbeck's passion for reading and writing; the Steinbecks were members of the Episcopal Church, although Steinbeck became agnostic. Steinbeck lived in a small rural town, no more than a frontier settlement, set in some of the world's most fertile land, he spent his summers working on nearby ranches and with migrant workers on Spreckels sugar beet farms. There he learned of the harsher aspects of the migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men, he explored his surroundings, walking across local forests and farms.
While working at Spreckels Sugar Company, he sometimes worked in their laboratory, which gave him time to write. He had considerable mechanical fondness for repairing things he owned. Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went on to study English Literature at Stanford University near Palo Alto, leaving without a degree in 1925, he traveled to New York City. When he failed to publish his work, he returned to California and worked in 1928 as a tour guide and caretaker at Lake Tahoe, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife, they married in January 1930 in Los Angeles, with friends, he attempted to make money by manufacturing plaster mannequins. When their money ran out six months due to a slow market and Carol moved back to Pacific Grove, California, to a cottage owned by his father, on the Monterey Peninsula a few blocks outside the Monterey city limits; the elder Steinbecks gave John free housing, paper for his manuscripts, from 1928, loans that allowed him to write without looking for work.
During the Great Depression, Steinbeck bought a small boat, claimed that he was able to live on the fish and crab that he gathered from the sea, fresh vegetables from his garden and local farms. When those sources failed and his wife accepted welfare, on rare occasions, stole bacon from the local produce market. Whatever food they had, they shared with their friends. Carol became the model for Mary Talbot in Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row. In 1930, Steinbeck met the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, who became a close friend and mentor to Steinbeck during the following decade, teaching him a great deal about philosophy and biology. Ricketts very quiet, yet likable, with an inner self-sufficiency and an encyclopedic knowledge of diverse subjects, became a focus of Steinbeck's attention. Ricketts had taken a college class from Warder Clyde Allee, a biologist and ecological theorist, who would go on to write a classic early textbook on ecology. Ricketts became a proponent of ecological thinking, in which man was only one part of a great chain of being, caught in a web of life too large for him to control or understand.
Meanwhile, Ricketts operated a biological lab on the coast of Monterey, selling biological samples of small animals, rays, starfish and other marine forms to schools and colleges. Between 1930 and 1936, Steinbeck and Ricketts became close friends. Steinbeck's wife began working at the lab as secretary-bookkeeper. Steinbeck helped on an informal basis, they formed a common bond based on their love of music and art, John learned biology and Ricketts' ecological philosophy. When Steinbeck became upset, Ricketts sometimes played music for him. Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is loosely based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan, it centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the'Cup of Gold', on the women, fairer than the sun, who were said to be found there. Between 1930 and 1933, Steinbeck produced three shorter works; the Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, consists of twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves.
In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood. To a God Unknown, named after a Vedic hymn, follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pa
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Friday Night Lights (film soundtrack)
Friday Night Lights is the soundtrack for the 2004 film Friday Night Lights written by post-rock band Explosions in the Sky in June and August 2004. It features music by Daniel Lanois, Bad Company, David Torn; the film's score was conducted by Cliff Eidelman. Explosions in the Sky joined the project after receiving an email from producer Brian Reitzell that said "he was working on a new movie and he was wondering if would be interested in doing music for it." The members were familiar with the book on which the movie was based, were raised in its setting of West Texas. Despite having access to "all sorts of rare equipment", the band stuck to its usual songwriting style; the prominent track "Your Hand in Mine" was adapted from the 2003 album The Earth Is Not a Cold Dead Place. Of the songs from the film, "Your Hand In Mine," "Inside It All Feels the Same," "The Sky Above, the Field Below," "To West Texas," "A Slow Dance," "From West Texas," "An Ugly Fact of Life," and "Home" have all featured on the subsequent television show.
A double vinyl version of the album was released through Hip-O Select records and was limited to only 2500 copies. "From West Texas" - 2:41 "Your Hand in Mine" - 4:08 "Our Last Days as Children" - 2:41 "An Ugly Fact of Life" - 2:55 "Home" - 2:38 "Sonho Dourado" - 3:26 "To West Texas" - 4:06 "Your Hand in Mine" - 2:05 "Inside It All Feels the Same" - 4:23 "Do You Ever Feel Cursed" - 3:23 "Lonely Train" - 6:51 "Seagull" - 4:03 "The Sky Above, the Field Below" - 5:40 "A Slow Dance" - 3:53 Explosions in the Sky albums
One Tree Hill (season 3)
The third season of One Tree Hill, an American teen drama television series, began airing on October 5, 2005. The season concluded on May 3, 2006, after 22 episodes, it is the final season. Season three dipped in ratings; this season focuses on the first half of senior year at Tree Hill High School. Starting three months after the second season finale, Haley returns to Tree Hill and tries to save her marriage with Nathan. Peyton gets to know her birth mother. Lucas and Brooke begin a relationship. Keith and Karen get engaged. Nathan patches things up with Lucas, while Mouth begins a complicated relationship with newcomer Rachel, who spreads a lot of drama through the core characters. After a shooting at the school things between Lucas and Peyton heat up despite Peyton's proposal to Jake; the DVD release of season three was released. It has been released in Regions 1, 2 and 4; as well as every episode from the season, the DVD release features bonus material such as audio commentaries on some episodes from the creator and cast, deleted scenes, gag reels and behind-the-scenes featurettes
Early Man (film)
Early Man is a 2018 British stop-motion animated comedy film directed by Nick Park, the creator of Wallace and Gromit, written by Mark Burton and James Higginson, starring the voices of Eddie Redmayne, Tom Hiddleston, Maisie Williams, Timothy Spall. The film follows a tribe of primitive Stone Age valley dwellers, who have to defend their land from bronze using invaders in a soccer match; the film was produced by Aardman Animations and UK Film Council, was released on 26 January 2018 in the United Kingdom, in the United States on 16 February 2018. The film received positive reviews from critics, but was a box office disappointment, grossing just $54 million against its $50 million budget. An asteroid collides with the prehistoric Earth, causing the extinction of planet's dinosaurs, but sparing a tribe of cavemen living near the impact site. Finding a spherical chunk of the asteroid, too hot to touch, the cavemen begin to kick it around and invent the game of football. Centuries during the Stone Age, the impact site has become a valley.
Living in the valley is a young caveman named Dug along with the chief Bobnar, many other cavemen such as Asbo, Treebor, Barry, Grubup and Eemak, his pet boar Hognob. One day, Dug suggests to Bobnar that they should try hunting woolly mammoths instead of rabbits as they always do, but Bobnar brushes him off, believing the tribe could not catch mammoths. A Bronze Age army of War Mammoths led by Lord Nooth drives the tribe out of the valley and into the surrounding volcanic badlands, proclaiming that the Stone Age has ended and the Bronze Age has begun. Dug tries to attack the army, but is unknowingly taken to Nooth's city. While trying to evade the guards and escape, he ends up mistaken for a football player and led onto the pitch before a full stadium crowd, he challenges Nooth's elite local team to a match with the valley at stake and promises that the tribe will work in Nooth's mines forever if they lose. Nooth dismisses the proposal at first, but changes his mind once he realizes that he can profit from the match.
Nooth receives a Message Bird from Queen Oofeefa, having got word that Nooth's football team will challenge the cavemen. Nooth believes his team will win but Oofeefa warns him to not underestimate Dug's team and if they win, Nooth will work in the mines. Dug discovers that although his ancestors played football, the other members of his tribe are too dim to understand it, they get. That night and Hognob sneak into the city to steal more balls but are found by a resident named Goona. Resentful over the team's exclusion of women, she helps them steal some balls and agrees to coach the cavemen. Goona points out that the players on Nooth's team are talented but too egotistical to work together effectively; the cavemen improve in teamwork under her coaching. Nooth learns from his men working in the mines that the cavemen's ancestors invented football from cave paintings, he receives the Message Bird from Oofeefa again and she has learned the cavemen's ancestors invented football as well as the fact that they have been training every day and improving.
Two of his men working in the mine come with copies of more cave paintings. To demoralise Dug, Nooth has him brought to the mines and shows him cave paintings made by his tribe's ancestors who, although they had invented the game and taught other tribes to play it, proved so inept at football than other tribes that they never won a single match and gave up the sport. Nooth offers Dug a deal which he agrees to. On the day of the match, with Oofeefa in attendance, Dug announces his forfeiture as part of the deal which spares the rest of the tribe and agrees to take their place in the mines alone. However, his reinvigorated teammates arrive on the now tamed giant duck and persuade him to break the deal and play the match, they are down 3 -- 1 at half-time. Nooth incapacitates the referee and takes his place, making biased calls in favor of the local team that leads to Bobnar, the cavemen's goalkeeper, being knocked out. Hognob takes his place and blocks a penalty kick, Dug scores using a bicycle kick to win the match for the cavemen, 4–3.
The cavemen win their valley back with the respect of Oofeefa, the local team, the crowd. Nooth tries to escape and steal the crowd's admission money, but Dug and Goona stops him with help from the giant duck. Nooth is arrested for his crimes and everyone gets their money back. Goona and Nooth's elite local team join Dug's tribe for a hunt, but they are frightened off by a rabbit pretending to be a woolly mammoth. Eddie Redmayne as Dug, a young Stone Age caveman. Tom Hiddleston as Lord Nooth, an evil governor of the Bronze Age City. Maisie Williams as Goona, a tomboyish vendor and football enthusiast in the Bronze City whom Dug befriends. Timothy Spall as Chief Bobnar, the chieftain of Dug's tribe. Miriam Margolyes as the Queen Oofeefa, the queen of the Bronze Age City. Kayvan Novak as Dino, Lord Nooth's second in referee. Novak voices Jurgend, the team captain of the Bronze City's football team. Rob Brydon as Brian and Bryan, football commentators in the Bronze Age City that work for Queen Oofeefa.
Brydon voices Message Bird, a pigeon who carries messages. Richard Ayoade as Treebor, a large and cowardly member of Dug's tribe, embarrassed by his mother. Selina Griffiths as Magma, a member of Dug's tribe, the
Post-rock is a form of experimental rock characterized by a focus on exploring textures and timbre over traditional rock song structures, chords or riffs. Post-rock artists are instrumental combining rock guitars and drums with electronic instruments; the genre emerged within the indie and underground music scene of early 1990s. However, due to its abandonment of rock conventions, it bears little resemblance musically to contemporary indie rock, borrowing instead from diverse sources including ambient music and minimalist classical; the individual styles of bands that have been described as post-rock differ making the term controversial among listeners and artists alike. The concept of "post-rock" was coined by critic Simon Reynolds in his review of Bark Psychosis' album Hex, published in the March 1994 issue of Mojo magazine. Reynolds expanded upon the idea in the May 1994 issue of The Wire. Writing about artists like Seefeel, Disco Inferno, Techno Animal, Robert Hampson, Insides, Reynolds used the term to describe music "using rock instrumentation for non-rock purposes, using guitars as facilitators of timbre and textures rather than riffs and power chords".
He further expounded on the term, Perhaps the provocative area for future development lies... in cyborg rock. Reynolds, in a July 2005 entry in his blog, claimed he had used the concept of "post-rock" before using it in Mojo referencing it in a feature on Insides for music newspaper Melody Maker, he said he found the term itself not to be of his own coinage, saying in his blog, "I discovered many years it had been floating around for over a decade." The term was used by American journalist James Wolcott in a 1975 article about musician Todd Rundgren, although with a different meaning. It was used in the Rolling Stone Album Guide to name a style corresponding to "avant-rock" or "out-rock"; the earliest use of the term dates back as far as September 1967. In a Time cover story feature on the Beatles, writer Christopher Porterfield hails the band and producer George Martin's creative use of the recording studio, declaring that this is "leading an evolution in which the best of current post-rock sounds are becoming something that pop music has never been before: an art form."
Another pre-1994 example of the term in use can be found in an April 1992 review of 1990s noise-pop band The Earthmen by Steven Walker in Melbourne music publication Juke, where he describes a "post-rock noisefest". The post-rock sound incorporates characteristics from a variety of musical genres, including krautrock, psychedelia, prog rock, space rock, math rock, tape music, minimalist classical, British IDM, dub reggae, as well as post-punk, free jazz, contemporary classical, avant-garde electronica, it bears similarities to drone music. Early post-rock groups often exhibited strong influence from the krautrock of the 1970s borrowing elements of "motorik", the characteristic krautrock rhythm. Post-rock compositions make use of repetition of musical motifs and subtle changes with an wide range of dynamics. In some respects, this is similar to the music of Steve Reich, Philip Glass and Brian Eno, pioneers of minimalism. Post-rock pieces are lengthy and instrumental, containing repetitive build-ups of timbre and texture.
Vocals are omitted from post-rock. When vocals are included, the use is non-traditional: some post-rock bands employ vocals as purely instrumental efforts and incidental to the sound, rather than a more traditional use where "clean" interpretable vocals are important for poetic and lyrical meaning; when present, post-rock vocals are soft or droning and are infrequent or present in irregular intervals. Sigur Rós, a band known for their distinctive vocals, fabricated a language they called "Hopelandic", which they described as "a form of gibberish vocals that fits to the music and acts as another instrument."In lieu of typical rock structures like the verse-chorus form, post-rock groups make greater use of soundscapes. Simon Reynolds states in his "Post-Rock" from Audio Culture that "A band's journey through rock to post-rock involves a trajectory from narrative lyrics to stream-of-consciousness to voice-as-texture to purely instrumental music". Reynolds' conclusion defines the sporadic progression from rock, with its field of sound and lyrics to post-rock, where samples are stretched and looped.
Wider experimentation and blending of other genres have taken hold in the post-rock scene. Cult of Luna, Russian Circles, Palms and Pelican have fused metal with post-rock styles; the resulting sound has been termed post-metal. More sludge metal has grown and evolved to include some elements of post-rock; this second wave of sludge metal has been pioneered by bands such as Giant Battle of Mice. This new sound is seen on the label of Neurot Recordings. Bands such as Altar of Plagues, Lantlôs and Agalloch blend between post-rock and black metal, incorporating elements of the former while using the latter. In some cases, this sort of experimentation and blending has gone beyond the fusion of post-rock with a single genre, as in the case of post-metal, in favor of an wider embrace of disparate musical influences as it can be heard in bands like Deafheaven. Post-rock appears to take a heavy influence from late 1960s
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....