The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Stara Zagora is the sixth-largest city in Bulgaria, the administrative capital of the homonymous Stara Zagora Province. It has a proud history illustrated by the many impressive ancient Roman buildings preserved in its centre; the name comes from the Slavic root star and the name of the medieval region of Zagore The original name was Beroe, changed to Ulpia Augusta Traiana by the Romans. From the 6th century the city was called Vereja and, from 784, Irenopolis in honour of the Byzantine empress Irene of Athens. In the Middle Ages it was called Boruj by the Bulgarians and Železnik; the Turks called it Eski Hisar and Eski Zagra, from which its current name derives, assigned in 1871. The original Thracian settlement dates from the 5-4th century BC when it was called Beroia; the city was founded by Phillip II of Macedon in 342 BC. Under the Roman Empire, the town was renamed Ulpia Augusta Traiana in honour of emperor Trajan; the city grew to its largest extent under Marcus Aurelius and became the second most important city in the Roman province of Thrace after Philippopolis.
Its status and importance is evidenced by the visits of several emperors including Septimius Severus and Diocletian. The Battle of Beroe was fought near the city in 250 resulting in a Gothic Victory, it was after this event that the city walls were doubled like other cities in the region. In the 2nd-3rd century the city had its own coin mint showing its importance. In 377, in the Gothic War, the Goths marched on Beroe to attack the Roman general Frigiderus but his scouts detected the invaders and he promptly withdrew to Illyria; the city was rebuilt by Justinian. John's Byzantine army, many of the captives, were settled as foederati within the Byzantine frontier. In 1208 the Bulgarians defeated the Latin Empire in the battle of Boruy fought nearby; the Ottomans conquered Stara Zagora in 1371. A grade school was built in 1840 and the town's name was changed to Zheleznik in 1854 instead of the Turkish Eskizağra, but was renamed once again to Stara Zagora in 1870, it was an administrative centre in Edirne Province before 1878 as "Zağra-i Atik".
After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878, it became part of autonomous Eastern Rumelia as a department centre before the two Bulgarian states merged in 1886 as a result of the Unification of Bulgaria. Many of the monuments from the Roman city have been excavated and are visible in situ today and include: City walls The "Antique" Forum Roman city streets and buildings The Roman Baths 4th-6th c. public building with mosaics 4th c. private house with mosaics of Silenus with Bacchantes and of Dionysus’s Procession South city gate Thracian TombOverlooking the "antique" forum is an unusual building in the form of a monumental auditorium in the shape of a theatre. Stara Zagora is the administrative centre of the Stara Zagora Province, it is about 231 kilometres near the Bedechka river in the historic region of Thrace. The city is in an area of a transitional continental climate with a considerable subtropical influence; the average yearly temperature is about 13 °C. Stara Zagora was the biggest town in today's Bulgarian territory before liberation from Ottoman rule.
But the town was burned and destroyed by Turkish army during the Liberation war in 1877-1878. During the first decade after the liberation of Bulgaria, in the 1880s the population of Stara Zagora decreased and numbered about 16,000. Since it started growing decade by decade because of the migrants from the rural areas and the surrounding smaller towns, reaching its peak in the period 1989-1991 exceeding 160,000. After this time, the population has started decreasing because of the low birth rate. Stara Zagora is one of the richest cities in Bulgaria with much better economic situation than average for the Bulgarian provinces. According to the latest 2011 census data, individuals who declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: Bulgarians: 117,963 Gypsies: 5,430 Turks: 1,965 Others: 579 Indefinable: 617 Undeclared: 11,718 Total: 138,272 PFC Beroe Stara Zagora is a football club in Stara Zagora, it plays at Beroe stadium. The team is a member of the "A grupa" league. Beroe has won the Bulgarian Cup two times.
Historical sites Regional Historical Museum The Antique Forum Thracian Tomb The Roman Baths Roman mosaics of “Silenus with Bacchantes" and of Dionysus’s Procession The Samarsko Zname Monument Ayazmoto Park Defenders of Stara Zagora Memorial Complex Memorial House of Geo Milev The South Gate of Augusta Trajana The Opera House, built in 1925 Stara Zagora Transmitter with one of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe Neolithic Dwellings Museum Bedechka - Gradinski Central City Part Makedonski know as Chumleka Dabrava Eastern Industrial Zone Geo Milev Golesh Industrial Zone Kazanski Kolyo Ganchev Lozenets Mitropolit Metodiy Kusev (Митрополит Методий Кусев - named after a
Lebane is a town and municipality located in Jablanica District of southern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 10,062 inhabitants, while the municipality has 20,000 inhabitants; the town is located at the confluence of the rivers Jablanica and Šumanska Reka, in the alluvial plain created by the former. Just northeast of the town a larger plain called Leskovačko polje extends toward the town of Leskovac, the district seat; the elevation of the town of Lebane is between 275.2 and 420 MASL. Prehistory and Medieval timesThe favorable location and the richness of nature made Jablanica valley important place since the earliest times. Traffic affordable and fertile, Leskovac valley has provided favorable conditions for the settlement of population. Archaeological findings, of which the most important are Hissar and Caričin grad show that life in this area, continuously evolved from prehistoric man to date. First mention of Lebane as Hlebane dates back to 1512. After the liberation from the OttomansLebane is formed as a village of the same name after the liberation in 1878.
Visiting Serbia in 1880s, M. Rakic writes about it as a "big village populated by Serbs, in a valley, on the river Jablanica, on its left bank." Only when Lebane got the role of Jablanica district headquarters, it began to develop in a direction of a small town. The core of this small town was a series of houses along the Jablanica, 45m wide here; the main feature of this town were two huge cottonwood trees with a volume of not less than 10 m and three huge walnut tree on the right bank of the river, near the pedestrian bridge. One of these cottonwods survived as one of the most reckognizable Lebane's landmarks, in front of the Justiniana - Caričin Grad hotel, until 2008, when it was hit by a lightning and had to be removed. Lebane has always been a Christian village with about forty houses scattered on the hill near the river. In 1900 it had 67 houses with 460 inhabitants. World War 1 and interwar periodDuring WWI Lebane population suffered from Bulgarian occupiers; because of forcible mobilization of youth to the Bulgarian Army, people from Jablanica and Toplica rose to arms in Toplica Uprising and managed to liberate large part of Southern Serbia.
From 1929 to 1941, Lebane was part of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The emergence and development of the regional market in the period between the two world wars did not encourage Lebane's development, so in the inter-war period it was still a rural town with about 1500 inhabitants, but its local importance was reckognized by making it a center of Jablanica srez. Modern timesHowever, after WWII and during the "Golden 70's", thanks to the numerous industrial plants built within the town, Lebane grew and its population increased more than fivefold; the fastest pace of growth was in the period from 1977 to 1985, thanks to an unfortunate event – in 1976 Lebane was hit by a catastrophic flood. Unregulated river Jablanica, swollen after a long rainy period, broke on June 6, spilled out of its banks and caused enormous material damage Lebane. Flood toll was paid and human victims. After this tragic event, with financial help, Lebane begins to industrialize faster, the process of industrialization has caused more versatile and faster development of the city.
According to the 2011 census, the municipality has 22,000 inhabitants. The ethnic composition of the municipality: The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: The most significant historical monument in the vicinity of the town and within the boundaries of the municipality is the 6th century AD late Roman or early Byzantine town Justiniana Prima, locally better known as Caričin Grad, located c. 7 km from Lebane. The town is built by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I to reputedly mark the location of his birth; the archaeological excavations on this site have been on-going since 1917 and large parts of the ancient settlement have since been uncovered including the impressive fortifications. In the municipality of Lebane there is ongoing discussion for the new Lebane coat of arms. List of populated places in Serbia Official website
Justinian I, traditionally known as Justinian the Great and Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, his reign is marked by the ambitious but only realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire"; because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been known as the "last Roman" in mid 20th century historiography. This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct Western Roman Empire, his general, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom, restoring Dalmatia, Sicily and Rome to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths; the prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania.
These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi. During his reign, Justinian subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before, he engaged the Sasanian Empire in the east during Kavad I's reign, again during Khosrow I's. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, still the basis of civil law in many modern states, his reign marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia. Justinian was born in Tauresium, around 482. A native speaker of Latin, he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins; the cognomen Iustinianus, which he took is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin. During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima not far from his birthplace, which today is in South East Serbia.
His mother was the sister of Justin. Justin, in the imperial guard before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople, ensured the boy's education; as a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence and Roman history. Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown. Chronicler John Malalas, who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced and handsome. Another contemporary chronicler, compares Justinian's appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian, although this is slander; when Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian. During Justin's reign, Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed much ambition, it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on 1 April 527, although there is no conclusive evidence of this.
As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler. Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and commander of the army of the east. Upon Justin's death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign; as a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the emperor" on account of his work habits, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach. Around 525, he married Theodora, in Constantinople, she was by some twenty years his junior. In earlier times, Justinian could not have married her owing to her class, but his uncle, Emperor Justin I, had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes. Theodora would become influential in the politics of the Empire, emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocratic class; the marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be a shrewd judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included his legal adviser. Justinian's rule was not universally popular.
Justinian recovered. Theodora died in 548 at a young age of cancer. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and participated in debates on Christian doctrine, became more devoted to religion during the years of his life; when he died on 14 November 565, he left no children, though his wife Theodora had given birth to a stillborn son several years into his reign. He was succeeded by Justin II, the son of his sister Vigilantia and married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the
Galerius was Roman emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign, he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299, he campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300. Although he was a staunch opponent of Christianity, Galerius ended the Diocletianic Persecution when he issued an Edict of Toleration in Serdica in 311. Galerius was born near Serdica, in Dacia Ripensis named Dacia Mediterranea, though some modern scholars consider the strategic site where he built his palace named after his mother – Felix Romuliana – his birth and funeral place, his father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians' attacks. He followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius, he served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian and Probus, in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces.
After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths on the Danube, he received command of the legions on the eastern imperial limits. Soon after his appointment, Galerius was dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos. In 294, Narseh, a son of Shapur I, passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh moved to eliminate Bahram III, a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293. In early 294, Narseh sent Diocletian the customary package of gifts, but within Persia, he was destroying every trace of his immediate predecessors, erasing their names from public monuments, he sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir and Shapur, who had sacked Roman Antioch and captured Emperor Valerian. In 295 or 296, Narseh declared war on Rome, he appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He occupied the lands there until the following year.
The historian Ammianus Marcellinus, circa 320-395, is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia. Southern dates the invasion to 295. Narseh moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a severe defeat on Galerius commander of the eastern forces, in the region between Carrhae and Callinicum. Diocletian may or may not have been present at the battle, but presented himself soon afterwards at Antioch, where the official version of events was made clear: Galerius was to take all the blame for the affair. In Antioch, Diocletian forced Galerius to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the purple robes of an emperor; the message conveyed. Galerius' position at the head of the caravan was the conventional organization of an imperial progression, designed to show a Caesar's deference to his Augustus. Galerius's army was reinforced in the spring of 298 by new contingents collected from the empire's Danubian holdings. Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia leaving Galerius to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia.
Diocletian may not have been present to assist the campaign. Narseh retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius' force, to Narseh's disadvantage. Local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius secured victories over Narseh. During the second encounter, the Battle of Satala in 298, Roman forces seized Narseh's camp, his treasury, his harem, his wife. Narseh's wife would live out the remainder of the war in Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, serving as a constant reminder to the Persians of the Roman victory. Galerius advanced into Media and Adiabene, winning continuous victories, most prominently near Theodosiopolis, securing Nisibis before 1 October 298, he moved down the Tigris, taking Ctesiphon, gazing onwards to the ruins of Babylon before returning to Roman territory via the Euphrates. No source specifically claims that Ctesiphon was sacked, but it is assumed to have been due to the seizure of Narseh's wife and harem. Narseh had sent an ambassador to Galerius to plead for the return of his wife and children, but Galerius had dismissed this ambassador, reminding him of how Shapur had treated Valerian.
The Romans, in any case, treated Narseh's captured family well seeking to evoke comparisons to Alexander and his beneficent conduct towards the family of Darius III. Peace negotiations began with both Diocletian and Galerius presiding, their magister memoriae. The conditions of the Peace of Nisibis were heavy: Persia would give up territory to Rome, making the Tigris the boundary between the two empires. Further terms specified that Armenia was returned to Roman domination with the f
Villa rustica was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside as the hub of a large agricultural estate. The adjective rusticum was used to distinguish it from an urban or resort villa; the villa rustica would thus serve both as a residence of the landowner and his family and as a farm management centre. It would comprise separate buildings to accommodate farm labourers and sheds and barns for animals and crops. In modern British archaeology, a villa rustica is referred to as a "Roman villa"; the villa rustica's design differed depending on the architect, but it consisted of three parts. Mogorjelo Villa Armira in Ivaylovgrad Villa Boscoreale Boca do Rio Castelo da Lousa Villa of Fonte do Milho Roman Villa of Rabaçal Roman ruins of Quinta da Abicada Centum Cellas Villa of Torre de Palma Villa of Cerro da Vila Roman ruins of Pisões Roman ruins of São Cucufate Roman Ruins of Milreu Roman Villa of Sendim Gökkale Üçayaklı ruins Bignor Roman Villa Borough Hill Roman villa Brading Roman Villa Chedworth Roman Villa Crofton Roman Villa Fishbourne Roman Palace Gadebridge Park Roman Villa Littlecote Roman Villa Llantwit Major Roman Villa Low Ham Roman Villa Lullingstone Roman Villa Newport Roman Villa Piddington Roman Villa Woodchester Roman Villa Villa Rustica, Coustaty Villa Rustica, Lussas-et-Nontronneau Villa Rustica, Montcaret Villa Rustica, Montmaurin Villa Rustica, Petit-Bersac Villa Rustica, Pièce de Rance Baden-Württemberg Villa Rustica, Baden-Baden-Haueneberstein, Roman settlement at Wohlfahrtsberg Villa Rustica at Bondorf, Böblingen Villa rustica at Büßlingen, Konstanz Villa Rustica, Lörrach Villa Rustica at Eigeltingen Villa Rustica at Gaggenau-Bad Rotenfels / Oberweier Villa urbana at Grenzach-Wyhlen Villa rustica at Hechingen-Stein, Zollernalbkreis Villa urbana at Heitersheim Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica at Hirschberg Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica at Karlsruhe-Durlach Villa Rustica at Langenau Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica, Heilbronn Villa Rustica at Mühlacker Villa Rustica at Nagold Villa Rustica Villa Rustica at Oberndorf-Bochingen Villa Rustica, Rems-Murr-Kreis Römerbad, Heilbronn Villa Rustica, Rhein-Neckar-Kreis Römisches Bad, Tuttlingen Villa Rustica, Heilbronn Villa Rustica Bietigheim-Weilerlen at Bietigheim-Bissingen, LudwigsburgBavaria Villa Rustica Villa rustica, Stadt München Villa Rustica Villa Rustica at Großberghofen, Dachau Villa Rustica, Donau-Ries Villa Rustica at Hüssingen Villa Rustica Kohlhunden, Ostallgäu Villa Rustica, Stadt Starnberg Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, Eichstätt Villa Rustica, Freising Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, Ingolstadt Villa Rustica, Weilheim-Schongau Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, OberallgäuHesse Groß-Umstadt-Heubach, Wamboltsches Schlösschen Haselburg Roman villa, Odenwald Rodau, Zwingenberg, "Kleine Weide"Northrhine-Westphalia Villa rustica Villae Rusticae at Eschweiler, Aachen Propsteier Villa, Aachen Villae Rusticae near Hambach surface mine, Düren Villa rustica at Sollig, Nettersheim-Roderath, EuskirchenRheinland-Palatine Villa rustica Weilberg, Bad Dürkheim-Ungstein]] Römerhalle, Bad Kreuznach Roman Villa of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler Villa rustica, Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Villa Otrang, Fließem, Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Villa Rustica at Sarresdorf Villa Rustica, Mainz-Bingen Villa Rustica at Herschweiler-Pettersheim, Kusel Roman estate at Lösnich Villa Urbana in Longuich Villa Rustica, Trier-Saarburg Villa rustica Villa Rustica, Mainz-Bingen Villa rustica, Trier-SaarburgSaarland Roman Villa Borg Reinheim Roman villa at Nennig Village Gornja Bukovica.
Valjevo,villa rustica IV century A. D. Aargau Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa rustica Basel-Landschaft Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Genf Villa Rustica Jura Villa Rustica Solothurn Villa rustica Villa rustica Waadt Villa romaine du PrieuréZürich Irgenhausen Castrum Villa in Wetzikon - Kempten Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica - open-air museum at Hechingen
Rhoemetalces III was a King of the Thracians. He was the son of the Monarch Rhescuporis II, he in association with his cousin-wife Pythodoris II were client rulers of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from AD 38 to 46, in succession to Pythodoris’ mother Tryphaena and her brother Rhoemetalces II. Rhoemetalces III was murdered by insurgents or on the orders of his wife; the subsequent fate of Pythodoris II is unknown. Thrace became incorporated into the Roman Empire as a province. Remetalk Point on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after him. List of Thracian tribes Odrysian kingdom