Joseph Jones (trade unionist)
Joseph Jones was a British trade unionist. Born in St Helens, Jones studied at a technical college before becoming a coal miner, he moved to work at Thurcroft, was elected branch secretary of the Yorkshire Miners' Association in 1914. He was an active methodist, promoted the cause of temperance becoming Chairman of the Workers' Temperance League, he was elected as a Labour Party member of West Riding County Council in 1919, serving until 1933. In 1923, Jones was elected as Treasurer of the YMA and, the following year, he became its General Secretary, he was elected to Barnsley Town Council in 1926, serving as Mayor of Barnsley in 1931. In 1924, Jones contested the General Secretaryship of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain as the candidate of the union's right-wing, but he was narrowly defeated by the communist A. J. Cook. From 1926 until 1931, Jones was on the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party, from 1930 to 1938 he was the government's Coal Mine Reorganisation Commissioner.
Jones was elected as Vice President of the MFGB in 1932 in 1934 became the union's President. He was one of two assessors during the 1937 enquiry into the Gresford disaster. During the enquiry both assessors disagreed with the commissioner's report and published their own reports as addenda, he resigned as MFGB president in 1938 to join the Coal Commission, in 1947 was appointed as advisor on social insurance to the National Coal Board. Jones was a Justice of the peace and in the 1932 New Year Honours was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Arthur Scargill is a British Marxist and trade unionist. He was President of the National Union of Mineworkers from 1982 to 2002. Joining the NUM at the age of nineteen in 1957, he became one of its leading activists in the late 1960s, he led an unofficial strike in 1969, played a key organising role during the strikes of 1972 and 1974, the latter of which helped in the downfall of Edward Heath's Conservative government. A decade he led the union through the 1984–85 miners' strike, a major event in the history of the British labour movement, it turned into a confrontation with the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher in which the miners' union was defeated. A former Labour Party member, he is now the party leader of the Socialist Labour Party, which he founded in 1996. Scargill was born in Worsbrough Dale near West Riding of Yorkshire, his father, was a miner and a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain. His mother, was a professional cook, he went to Worsbrough Dale School. He left school in 1953 at fifteen years old to work as a coal miner at Woolley Colliery where he worked for nineteen years.
Scargill joined the Young Communist League in 1955, becoming its Yorkshire District Chair in 1956 and shortly after a member of its National Executive Committee. In 1957 he was elected NUM Yorkshire Area Youth Delegate, attended the 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow as a representative of the Yorkshire miners. In 1958, he attended the World Federation of Trade Unions youth congress in Prague. In a 1975 interview with New Left Review Scargill said: I was in the Young Communist League for about six or seven years and I became a member of its National Executive Committee responsible for industrial work; the secretary at this time was a good friend of mine called Jimmy Reid, we're still close friends. A lot of other people on the National Executive at that time went on and became respectable Labour MPs in Parliament. Many of us started in the 1950s in the Young Communist League. So, my initial introduction into socialism and into political militancy. My father was a Communist. My mother was non-political.
But my father never forced me to be involved in politics at all. In 1961, he was elected a member of the Woolley NUM Branch Committee. Scargill joined the Labour Party in 1962, he attended Workers' Educational Association classes and Co-operative Party educational programmes, in 1962, undertook a three-year, part-time course at the University of Leeds, where he studied economics, industrial relations and social history. In 1965 he was elected Branch Delegate from Woolley to the Yorkshire NUM Area Council, in 1969 was elected a member of the Yorkshire NUM Area Executive Committee. Although he never worked at Barrow Colliery in his home village, he was involved in the politics of the branch, where the membership was much more left-wing than in the conservative Woolley Colliery. In 1970, he was elected a member of the regional committee of the Co-operative Retail Services in Barnsley and a delegate to its national conference, he represented the Barnsley Co-op at Cooperative congresses. Scargill opposed civilian nuclear power and, during the first Wilson ministry, became critical of the government's energy policy.
After a Labour Party conference speech on energy policy by Richard Marsh in July 1967, Scargill said: I can say that I never heard flannel like we got from the Minister... he said that we have nuclear power stations with us, whether we like it or not. I suggest to this Conference that we have coal mines with us... but they did something about this problem: they closed them down. This was a complete reversal of the policy..., promised by the Labour Government before it was put into office... this represents a betrayal of the mining industry. Scargill became involved in the Yorkshire Left, a group of left-wing activists involved in the Yorkshire region of the NUM, its largest region, he played an important role in the miners' strike of 1972 and was involved in the mass picket at Saltley Gate in Birmingham. Scargill was a leader of the unofficial strike in 1969, which began in Yorkshire and spread across the country, he had challenged Sam Bullough, the President of the Yorkshire area NUM, to act on the working hours of surface workers, given that the union's conference had passed a resolution that their hours be shortened the previous year.
When Bullough attempted to rule Scargill as "out of order", he was voted out by the area's delegates and a strike was declared across Yorkshire on the issue. Scargill saw this strike as a turning point in the union's attitude to militancy, his major innovation was organizing "flying pickets" involving hundreds or thousands of committed strikers who could be bussed to critical strike points to shut down a target. He gained fame for using the tactic to win the Battle of Saltley Gate in 1972, made it his main tactical device in the 1984 strike. By 1984 however the police neutralized the tactic with superior force. In 1973, Scargill was elected to the full-time post of compensation agent in the Yorkshire NUM. Scargill won widespread applause for his response to the disaster at Lofthouse Colliery in Outwood, West Yorkshire, at which he accompanied the rescue teams underground and was on site for six days with the relatives of the ten deceased. At the subsequent enquiry, he used notebooks of underground working from the 19th century, retrieved from the Institute of Geological Sciences in Leeds, to argue that the National Coal Board could have prevented t
Sam Woods was a British trade unionist and politician who served as a Member of Parliament in the 1890s. Born at Peasley Cross in St Helens, Woods began working in coal mining at the age of seven, he was elected as a pit checkweighman in 1875 and became involved in trade unionism, joining the Lancashire and Cheshire Miners' Federation in 1881. When this merged into the Miners' Federation of Great Britain in 1889, Woods became the organisation's first vice president. In the 1892 general election, Woods was elected as a Lib–Lab MP for Ince. In Parliament, he agitated for the Eight Hours Bill, in 1894 he was elected as the Secretary of the Parliamentary Committee of the Trades Union Congress, he lost his seat at the 1895 general election, but was re-elected for Walthamstow at a by-election in 1897. However, he lost the seat in 1900 following confusion over his stance on the Second Boer War. While broadly supportive of the Labour Representation Committee, Woods remained a Liberal and joined the National Democratic League.
His health failing, he resigned his TUC post in 1904, but retained his vice presidency of the MFGB to prevent Robert Smillie gaining election. An elderly persons home is named after him in Ashton in Makerfield. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sam Woods 1903 photo
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
Labour Isn't Working
"Labour Isn't Working" was an advertising campaign in the United Kingdom. It was run by the Conservative Party in 1978 in anticipation that Labour Party Prime Minister James Callaghan would call a general election, it was revived for the general election campaign the next year, after the government lost a vote of no confidence in the wake of the Winter of Discontent. It was designed by advertising agency Saatchi. In 1978, unemployment was high by post-war UK standards: between 5 and 6%; the poster's design was a picture of a snaking dole queue outside of an unemployment office. Above it was the slogan "Labour isn't working" with the phrase "Britain's better off with the Conservatives" in a smaller text below; the picture in the poster planned for 100 extras to be used for the picture. However, only 20 volunteers from the Hendon Young Conservatives turned up to be photographed; the desired effect was achieved by photographing the same people and striping them together. The picture was used in the 1979 election campaign with the slogan "Labour still isn't working."
The way the photo was taken was leaked and Labour's Denis Healey criticised it in the House of Commons, saying the people in it were not genuinely unemployed and said that the Conservatives were "selling politics like soap-powder". The campaign was a success. In May 1979, the Conservatives won the election with a 43-seat majority with the party leader, Margaret Thatcher becoming Prime Minister. Conservative Party treasurer, Lord Thorneycroft claimed that the poster won the election for the Conservatives. In 1999, Campaign voted the poster as the "Best Poster of the Century"; the poster was considered popular. In October 2012, the Conservatives used "Labour isn't learning" in a poster in preparation for the next general election and in March 2012 UK Uncut used "austerity isn't working" and recreated the picture outside Downing Street on Budget Day. In 2012 during the United States Presidential Election, the Republican Party used a copy of the poster, using the slogan "Obama isn't working" instead of "Labour isn't working".
In December 2013, Church Action on Poverty launched a campaign "Britain isn't eating", using a modified version with the queue leading to a Food Bank. In the 2015 UK General Election campaign, the Labour Party unveiled a similar poster, this time highlighting A&E waiting times, with the headline "The Doctor Can't See You Now." and subtitle "The Tories Have Made It Harder To See A GP". The idea was used by UKIP in its campaign in the London mayoral election, 2016, where the intended message was against mass immigration, with a poster titled "OPEN DOOR IMMIGRATION ISN'T WORKING", subtitled "LONDON'S POPULATION IS GROWING BY ONE MILLION EVERY DECADE". UKIP used the idea again in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, when a poster titled "BREAKING POINT" with the subtitle "The EU has failed us all" showed a long, snaking line of refugees waiting to come into the country. It's The Sun Wot Won It
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903. It is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was The Mirror, it had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping markedly to 587,803 the following year. Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror. Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail, the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition. Pitched to the middle-class reader, it was converted into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a larger audience; the Mirror has had a number of owners. It was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the media interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. During the mid 1960s, daily sales exceeded 5 million copies, a feat never repeated by it or any other daily British newspaper since.
The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991. The paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror. During the 1930s the paper was editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists; the paper has supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election. The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth as a newspaper for women, run by women. Hence the name: he said, "I intend it to be a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides... to be entertaining without being frivolous, serious without being dull". It cost one penny, it was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed all of the paper's female journalists were fired; the masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904, when it reverted to The Daily Mirror.
The first issue of the relaunched paper did not have advertisements on the front page as but instead news text and engraved pictures, with the promise of photographs inside. Two days the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added: "A paper for men and women"; this combination was more successful: by issue 92, the guaranteed circulation was 120,000 copies and by issue 269, it had grown to 200,000: by the name had reverted and the front page was photographs. Circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper. Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1917, the price was increased to one penny. Circulation continued to grow: in 1919, some issues sold more than a million copies a day, making it the largest daily picture paper. In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London. Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, directed the Mirror's editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s.
On Monday, 22 January, 1934 the Daily Mirror ran the headline "Give the Blackshirts a helping hand" urging readers to join Sir Mosley's British Union of Fascists, giving the address to which to send membership applications. By the mid-1930s, the Mirror was struggling – it and the Mail were the main casualties of the early 1930s circulation war that saw the Daily Herald and the Daily Express establish circulations of more than two million, Rothermere decided to sell his shares in it. In 1935 Rothermere sold the paper to H. G. Hugh Cudlipp. With Cecil King in charge of the paper's finances and Guy Bartholomew as editor, during the late 1930s the Mirror was transformed from a conservative, middle class newspaper into a left-wing paper for the working class. On the advice of the American advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, the Mirror became the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids; the headlines became bigger, the stories shorter and the illustrations more abundant.
By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day. In 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror. After taking over as cartoon chief at the Mirror in 1945, he dropped Beelzebub Jones and moved on to a variety of new strips. During the Second World War the Mirror positioned itself as the paper of the ordinary soldier and civilian, was critical of the political leadership and the established parties. At one stage, the paper was threatened with closure following the publication of a Philip Zec cartoon, misinterpreted by Winston Churchill and Herbert Morrison. In the 1945 general election the paper supported the Labour Party in its eventual landslide victory. In doing so, the paper supported Herbert Morrison, who co-ordinated Labour's campaign, recruited his former antagonist Philip Zec to reproduce, on the front page, a popular VE Day cartoon on the morning of the election, suggesting that Labour were the only party who could maintain peace in post-war Britain.
By the late 1940s, it was selling 4.5 million copies a day. The Mirror was an influential model f