The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, in most circumstances the weakest. It represents infantry, or more armed peasants or pikemen; each player begins a game with eight pawns, one on each square of the rank in front of the other pieces. Individual pawns are referred to by the file. For example, one speaks of "White's f-pawn" or "Black's b-pawn". Alternatively, they can be referred to by the piece which stood on that file at the beginning of the game, e.g. "White's king bishop's pawn" or "Black's queen knight's pawn". It is common to refer to a rook's pawn, meaning any pawn on the a- or h-files, a knight's pawn, a bishop's pawn, a queen's pawn, a king's pawn, a central pawn. Unlike the other pieces, pawns cannot move backwards. A pawn moves by advancing a single square, but the first time a pawn moves, it has the option of advancing two squares. Pawns may not use the initial two-square advance to capture. Any piece in front of a pawn, friend or foe, blocks its advance. In the diagram, the pawn on c4 can move to c5.
Unlike other pieces, the pawn does not capture in the same direction. A pawn captures diagonally forward one square to the right. Another unusual rule is the en passant capture, it can occur after a pawn advances two squares using its initial two-step move option, the square passed over is attacked by an enemy pawn. The enemy pawn is entitled to capture the moved pawn "in passing" – as if it had advanced only one square; the capturing pawn moves to the square over which the moved pawn passed, the moved pawn is removed from the board. The option to capture the moved pawn en passant must be exercised on the move following the double-step pawn advance, or it is lost for the remainder of the game. En passant was added in the 15th century to compensate for the newly added two-square initial move rule. Without en passant, a pawn on its initial square could safely bypass a square controlled by an advanced enemy pawn. A pawn that advances all the way to the opposite side of the board is promoted to another piece of that player's choice: a queen, bishop, or knight of the same color.
The pawn is replaced by the new piece. Since it is uncommon for a piece other than a queen to be chosen, promotion is called "queening"; when some other piece is chosen it is known as underpromotion. The piece most selected for underpromotion is a knight, used to execute a checkmate or a fork to gain a significant net increase in material. Underpromotion is used in situations where promoting to a queen would give immediate stalemate; the choice of promotion is not limited to pieces. While this extreme would never occur in practice, in game 11 of their 1927 world championship match, José Raúl Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine each had two queens in play from move 65 through move 66. While some finer sets do include an extra queen of each color, most standard chess sets do not come with additional pieces, so the physical piece used to replace a promoted pawn on the board is one, captured; when the correct piece is not available, some substitute is used: a second queen is indicated by inverting a captured rook, or a piece is borrowed from another set.
The pawn structure, the configuration of pawns on the chessboard determines the strategic flavor of a game. While other pieces can be moved to more favorable positions if they are temporarily badly placed, a poorly positioned pawn is limited in its movement and cannot be so relocated; because pawns capture diagonally and can be blocked from moving straight forward, opposing pawns can become locked in diagonal pawn chains of two or more pawns of each color, where each player controls squares of one color. In the diagram and White have locked their d- and e-pawns. Here, White has a long-term space advantage. White will have an easier time than Black in finding good squares for his pieces with an eye to the kingside. Black, in contrast, suffers from a bad bishop on c8, prevented by the black pawns from finding a good square or helping out on the kingside. On the other hand, White's central pawns are somewhat vulnerable to attack. Black can undermine the white pawn chain with an immediate...c5 and a later...f6.
Pawns on adjacent files can support each other in defense. A pawn which has no friendly pawns in adjacent files is an isolated pawn; the square in front of an isolated pawn may become an enduring weakness. Any piece placed directly in front not only blocks the advance of that pawn, but cannot be driven away by other pawns. In the diagram, Black has an isolated pawn on d5. If all the pieces except the kings and pawns were removed, the weakness of that pawn might prove fatal to Black in the endgame. In the middlegame, Black has more freedom of movement than White, may be able to trade off the isolated pawn before an endgame ensues. A pawn which cannot be blocked or captured by enemy pawns in its advance to promotion is a passed pawn. In the diagram, White has a protected passed pawn on c5 and Black has an outside passed pawn on h5. Because
Glossary of chess
This page explains used terms in chess in alphabetical order. Some of these have their own pages, like pin. For a list of unorthodox chess pieces, see Fairy chess piece. Absolute pin A pin against the king is called absolute since the pinned piece cannot move out of the line of attack. Cf. relative pin. Active Describes a piece that threatens a number of squares, or that has a number of squares available for its next move, it may describe an aggressive style of play. Antonym: passive. Adjournment Suspension of a chess game with the intention to finish it later, it was once common in high-level competition occurring soon after the first time control, but the practice has been abandoned due to the advent of computer analysis. See sealed move. Adjudication A way to decide the result of an unfinished game. A tournament director, or an impartial and strong player, will evaluate the final position and assign a win, draw, or loss assuming best play by both players. Adjust See Touch-move rule. To adjust the position of a piece on its square without being required to move it.
A player may only do this on their turn, they must first say "I adjust", or the French equivalent J'adoube. Advanced pawn A pawn, on the opponent's side of the board. An advanced pawn may be weak if it is overextended, lacking support and difficult to defend, or strong if it cramps the enemy by limiting mobility. An advanced passed pawn that threatens to promote can be strong. Advantage A better position with the chance of winning the game. Evaluation factors can include space, time and threats. Alekhine's gun A special form of battery in which a queen backs up two rooks on the same file. Algebraic notation The standard way to record the moves of a chess game, using alphanumeric coordinates for the squares. Amateur Any player whose main occupation is not chess; the distinction between professional and amateur is not important in chess as amateurs may win prizes, accept appearance fees, earn any title, including World Champion. In the 19th century, "Amateur" was sometimes used in published game scores to conceal the name of the losing player in a Master vs. Amateur contest.
It was thought to be impolite to use a player's name without permission, the professional did not want to risk losing a customer. See NN. analysis The study of a game or a position, in order to evaluate the quality of the moves and various other aspects of the game or position. At the end of a game, the players will do an analysis of the game. Cf. post-mortem. Annotation Written commentary on a game or a position using words, chess symbols or notation. announced mate A practice, common in the 19th century, whereby a player would announce a sequence of moves, believed by him to constitute best play by both sides, that led to a forced checkmate for the announcing player in a specified number of moves. Antipositional A move or a plan, not in accordance with the principles of positional play. Antipositional is used to describe moves that are part of an incorrect plan rather than a mistake made when trying to follow a correct plan. Antipositional moves are pawn moves. Anti-Sicilian An opening variation that White uses against the Sicilian Defense other than the most common plan of 2.
Nf3 followed by 3.d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4; some Anti-Sicilians include the Alapin Variation, Moscow Variation, Rossolimo Variation, Grand Prix Attack, Closed Sicilian, Smith–Morra Gambit, Wing Gambit. Arabian mate A checkmate that occurs when rook trap the opposing king in a corner. Arbiter See International Arbiter. Armageddon game A game, guaranteed to produce a decisive result, because if there is a draw it is ruled a victory for Black. In compensation for this White is given more time on the clock. White is given six minutes, Black five; this format is used in playoff tiebreakers when shorter blitz games have not resolved the tie. Artificial castling Refers to a maneuver of several separate moves by the king and by a rook where they end up as if they had castled. Known as castling by hand. Attack An aggressive action on a part of the chessboard, or to threaten the capture of a piece or pawn. See counterattack, discovered attack, double attack, mating attack, minority attack. Antonym: defense. Attraction A type of decoy involving a sacrifice of a minor or major piece on a square next to the enemy king, forcing the king to abandon the defense of another square.
For example, the black queen has interposed to block a check from the white queen, White can check the king from the opposite direction to win the queen. Automaton An automaton is a self-operating machine. In chess, it refers to chess-playing machines that were in fact hoaxes and under the control of hidden human players. Automatons stirred up great interest in the 18th and 19th centuries and inspired early thoughts of the possibility artificial intelligence. By far, the most famous chess-playing "automaton" was The Turk, whose secret of human control was kept for a long time; when the Turk was recreated in the 1980s, the addition of a chess-playing computer made it a true automaton. B Symbol used for the bishop. Back rank A player's
A princess is a fairy chess piece that can move like a bishop or a knight. It may do so when moving as a knight; the piece has acquired many names and is called archbishop or cardinal. Chess moves in this article use NB as notation for the princess; the princess can move as a knight. The princess is one of the most described fairy chess pieces and as such has a long history and has gone by many names. A generic name would be the bishop+knight compound; the name archbishop was introduced by José Raúl Capablanca in his large variant Capablanca Chess. He called it the chancellor, but changed the names and the rook+knight compound became known as the chancellor. Both of these names refer to higher ranks than the bishop in the Roman Catholic Church, but archbishop does so more to most people, thus became more popular. In fact, the name archbishop has been used for other augmented bishops as well, such as the "reflecting bishop" and the bishop+king compound. A similar approach was taken by Christian Freeling, the inventor of Grand Chess, who named it the cardinal.
Both archbishop and cardinal are popular names for the bishop+knight compound. The name princess is more used among problemists. By analogy with the queen, a rook+bishop compound, it was decided that the three basic combinations of the three simple chess pieces should all be named after female royalty. Since the bishop+knight compound seemed to be weaker than the rook+knight compound, the name princess was used for the bishop+knight compound and the rook+knight compound was called the empress. However, the bishop+knight compound can checkmate a lone king all by itself if the opposing player blunders by putting his king on a corner square where the princess can checkmate it two squares away diagonally, while the rook+knight compound cannot checkmate a lone king by itself; the princess was first used in Turkish Great Chess, a large medieval variant of chess, where it was called the vizir. It was introduced in the West with Carrera's chess, a chess variant from 1617, where it was called a centaur, has been used in many chess variants since then.
Ralph Betza rated the princess as about seven points, intermediate between a rook and a queen, noting that it was "a weak Queen" and that its value was increased by its 12 different directions of movement versus 8 directions for queen. However, all three of his alternate armies for that game are stronger than the standard FIDE army which they were supposed to equal, reflecting the general tendency for players to undervalue pieces which they are unfamiliar with. Computer self-play studies show that a single pawn is enough to compensate the difference between queen and princess on an 8×8 board, that on 10×8 boards princess plus pawn have a light advantage over queen; this implies that the princess is worth eight pawns. This appears somewhat surprising, as the value difference of the non-bishop-components is closer to two pawns, implying an unusually large synergy between the bishop and knight move. Although princess versus rook is a draw, so is queen versus princess. King and princess versus king is a forced win for the side with the princess.
In comparison, the queen requires 10 moves and the rook requires 16. Despite this, a princess can checkmate a lone king while the king is the corner and the princess is two spaces diagonally away from it but it can not be forced. Both white and black symbols for the princess were added to version 12 of the Unicode standard in March 2019, in the Chess Symbols block: U+1FA50 WHITE CHESS KNIGHT-BISHOP U+1FA53 BLACK CHESS KNIGHT-BISHOP Amazon—the rook+bishop+knight compound Empress—the rook+knight compound Queen—the rook+bishop compound Bibliography Piececlopedia: Bishop–Knight Compound by Fergus Duniho and David Howe, The Chess Variant Pages Endgame statistics with fantasy pieces by Dave McCooey, The Chess Variant Pages The NB by Ralph Betza, The Chess Variant Pages BuyPoint Chess by Ralph Betza.
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
Glossary of board games
This page explains used terms in board games in alphabetical order. For a list of board games, see List of board games. For terms specific to chess, see Glossary of chess. For terms related to chess problems, see Glossary of chess problems. Active See in play. Bit See piece. Black Used to refer to one of the players in two-player games. Black's pieces are a dark color but not black. See White and White and Black in chess. board See gameboard. Capture A method that removes another player's piece from the board. For example: in checkers, if a player jumps an opponent's piece, that piece is captured. Captured pieces are removed from the game. In some games, captured pieces can be reentered into active play. See Game mechanics#Capture/eliminate. Card A piece of cardboard bearing instructions, chosen randomly from a deck by shuffling. Cell See space. Checker See piece. Checkerboard A square gameboard with alternating dark and light-colored squares. Component A physical item included in the game. E.g. the box itself, the board, the cards, the tokens, zipper-lock bags, rule books, etc.
See equipment. Counter See piece. Currency A scoring mechanic used by some games to determine e.g. money or counters. Custodian capture A capture method whereby an enemy piece is captured by being blocked on adjacent sides by opponent pieces. Called escort capture or interception capture. Custodian method See custodian capture. Deck A stack of cards. Die sing. of dice. Dice Modern cubic dice are used to generate random numbers in many games – e.g. a single die in Trivial Pursuit, or two dice per player in backgammon. Role-playing games use one or more polyhedral dice. Games such as Pachisi and chaupur traditionally use cowrie shells; the games Zohn Hyena chase use dice sticks. The game yut uses. Direction of play The order of turns in a multiplayer game, e.g. clockwise around the board means the player to the left has the next turn. Disc See piece. Displacement capture A capture method whereby a capturing piece replaces the captured piece on its square, cell, or point on the gameboard. Empty board Many games start with all pieces out of play.
Some gameboards feature staging areas for the pieces. Enemy An enemy piece refers to a piece in the same set of pieces controlled by the opponent. Equipment Refers to physical components required to play a game, e.g. pieces, dice. Escort capture See custodian capture. Exchange For games featuring captures, the capture of a piece followed by the opponent's recapture. Friendly A friendly piece refers to a piece in the same army or set of pieces controlled by a player. Game component See component. Game equipment See equipment. Game piece See piece. Gameboard The marked surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards would seem to be a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre, though card games that do not use a standard deck of cards are colloquially included. Most games use a standardized and unchanging board, but some games use a modular board whose component tiles or cards can assume varying layouts from one session to another, or during gameplay. Gameplay The execution of a game.
Gamer A person who plays board game. See player. Gamespace A gameboard for a three-dimensional game. Handicap An advantage given to a weaker side at the start of a game to level the winning chances against a stronger opponent. Go has formal handicap systems. Hex In hexagon-based board games, this is the common term for a standard space on the board; this is most used in wargaming, though many abstract strategy games such as Abalone, hexagonal chess, GIPF Project games, connection games use hexagonal layouts. in hand A piece in hand is one not in play on the gameboard, but may be entered into play on a turn. Examples are captured pieces in shogi or Bughouse chess. Antonym: out of play. Interception capture See custodian capture. Intervention capture A capture method the reverse of the custodian method: a player captures two opponent pieces by moving to occupy the empty space between them. Jump To bypass one or more pieces or spaces on the gameboard. Depending on the context, jumping may involve capturing or conquering an opponent's piece.
See Game mechanic#Capture/eliminate. Leap See jump. Man In a piece or a pawn. In draughts, an uncrowned piece. Meeple A game piece which represents a person in concept, shaped as an approximation o
A bishop is a piece in the board game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king's knight and the king, the other between the queen's knight and the queen; the starting squares are c1 and f1 for White's bishops, c8 and f8 for Black's bishops. The bishop is limited to diagonal movement. Bishops, like all other pieces except the knight, cannot jump over other pieces. A bishop captures by occupying the square; the bishops may be differentiated according to which wing they begin on, i.e. the king's bishop and queen's bishop. As a consequence of its diagonal movement, each bishop always remains on either the white or black squares, so it is common to refer to them as light-squared or dark-squared bishops. A rook is worth about two pawns more than a bishop; the bishop has access to only half of the squares on the board, whereas all squares of the board are accessible to the rook. On an empty board, a rook always attacks fourteen squares, whereas a bishop attacks no more than thirteen and sometimes as few as seven, depending on how near it is to the center.
A king and rook can force checkmate against a lone king, while a king and bishop cannot. In general bishops are equal in strength to knights, but depending on the game situation either may have a distinct advantage. Less experienced players tend to underrate the bishop compared to the knight because the knight can reach all squares and is more adept at forking. More experienced players understand the power of the bishop. Bishops gain in relative strength towards the endgame as more pieces are captured and more open lines become available on which they can operate. A bishop can influence both wings whereas a knight is less capable of doing so. In an open endgame, a pair of bishops is decidedly superior to either a bishop and a knight, or two knights. A player possessing a pair of bishops has a strategic weapon in the form of a long-term threat to trade down to an advantageous endgame. Two bishops and king can force checkmate against a lone king. A bishop and knight can with far greater difficulty than two bishops.
In certain positions a bishop can by itself lose a move. The bishop is capable of pinning a piece, while the knight can do neither. A bishop can in some situations hinder a knight from moving. In these situations, the bishop is said to be "dominating" the knight. On the other hand, in the opening and middlegame a bishop may be hemmed in by pawns of both players, thus be inferior to a knight which can jump over them. A knight check cannot be blocked but a bishop check can. Furthermore, on a crowded board a knight has many tactical opportunities to fork two enemy pieces. A bishop can fork. One such example occurs in the position illustrated, which arises from the Ruy Lopez: 1.e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6. Bb3 Be7?! 7.d4 d6 8.c3 Bg4 9.h3!? Bxf3 10. Qxf3 exd4 11. Qg3 g6 12. Bh6! In the middlegame, a player with only one bishop should place friendly pawns on squares of the color that the bishop cannot move to; this allows the player to control squares of both colors, allows the bishop to move among the pawns, helps fix enemy pawns on squares on which they can be attacked by the bishop.
Such a bishop is referred to as a "good" bishop. Conversely, a bishop, impeded by friendly pawns is referred to as a "bad bishop"; the black light-squared bishop in the French Defense is a notorious example of this concept. However, a "bad" bishop need not always be a weakness if it is outside its own pawn chains. In addition, having a "bad" bishop may be advantageous in an opposite-colored bishops endgame. If the bad bishop is passively placed, it may serve a useful defensive function. Although the black pawns obstruct the white bishop on e2, it has many more attacking possibilities, thus is a good bishop vis-à-vis Black's bad bishop. Black resigned after another ten moves. A bishop may be fianchettoed, for example after moving the g2 pawn to g3 and the bishop on f1 to g2; this can form a strong defense for the castled king on g1 and the bishop can exert strong pressure on the long diagonal. A fianchettoed bishop should not be given up since the resulting holes in the pawn formation may prove to be serious weaknesses if the king has castled on that side of the board.
There are nonetheless some modern opening lines where a fianchettoed bishop is given up for a knight in order to double the opponent's pawns, for example 1.d4 g6 2.c4 Bg7 3. Nc3 c5 4.d5 Bxc3+!? 5.bxc3 f5, a sharp line originated by Roman Dzindzichashvili. Giving up a fianchettoed queen bishop for a knight is less problematic. For example, in Karpov–Browne, San Antonio 1972, after 1.c4 c5 2.b3 Nf6 3. Bb2 g6?!, Karpov gave up his fianchettoed bishop with 4. Bxf6! exf6 5. Nc3, doubling Black's pawns and giving him a hole on d5. An endgame in which each player has only one bishop, one controlling the dark squares and the other the light, will result in a draw if one player has a pawn or sometimes two more than the other; the players tend to gain control of squares of opposite colors, a deadlock results. In endgames with same-colored bish
Game of the Three Friends
Game of the Three Friends is a three-player variant of the game xiangqi. It was invented by Zheng Jinde during the Qing Dynasty; the game symbolizes the Three Kingdoms period war between the rival states Wei, Wu, each vying for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The Three Friends are represented by colors blue and green, respectively; each player controls all the standard xiangqi pieces, with each general represented by the letter of its respective kingdom. In addition, each player controls two kinds pieces: "flag" and "fire". A fire moves like a forward-moving ferz: one step diagonally forward, with no retreating. Checkmate and other conventions are the same as in xiangqi, except that after a checkmate occurs, the mated general is removed from the game, the player who delivered the checkmate appropriates the mated player's remaining pieces for his own use; the last surviving kingdom is the winner. The board includes spaces. Chariot and horse pieces are not allowed to pass through the ocean space.
Cannons are not allowed to pass through city spaces. It may be necessary or desirable to add further play conventions for completeness: Red moves first. Move turns alternate counterclockwise around the board. After a checkmate, removal of the mated general and army appropriation are done in a separate move turn; the piece delivering mate replaces the enemy general on its square. Game of the Three Kingdoms Three-player chess