Thought encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood; because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, biology and cognitive science. Thinking allows humans to make sense of, represent or model the world they experience, to make predictions about that world, it is therefore helpful to an organism with needs and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals. The word thought comes from Old English þoht, or geþoht, from stem of þencan "to conceive of in the mind, consider"; the word "thought" may mean: a single product of thinking or a single idea the product of mental activity the act or system of thinking the capacity to think, imagine, so on the consideration of or reflection on an idea recollection or contemplation half-formed or imperfect intention anticipation or expectation consideration, care, or regard judgment, opinion, or belief the ideas characteristic of a particular place, class, or time the state of being conscious of something tending to believe in something with less than full confidence Definitions may or may not require that thought take place within a human brain, take place as part of a living biological system, take place only at a conscious level of awareness, require language, is principally or only conceptual, involve other concepts such as drawing analogies, evaluating, imagining and remembering.
Definitions of thought may be derived directly or indirectly from theories of thought. "Outline of a theory of thought-processes and thinking machines" – thought processes and mental phenomena modeled by sets of mathematical equations Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking – a theory built on analogies The Neural Theory of Language and Thought – neural modeling of language and spatial relations ThoughtForms – The Structure and Limitations of Thought – a theory built on mental models Unconscious Thought Theory – thought, not conscious Linguistics theories – The Stuff of Thought – The linguistic and cognitive theory that thought is based on syntactic and linguistic recursion processes Language of thought hypothesis – A syntactic composition of representations of mental states – Literally, the'Language of Thought'. What is most thought-provoking in these thought-provoking times; the phenomenology movement in philosophy saw a radical change in the way in which we understand thought.
Martin Heidegger's phenomenological analyses of the existential structure of man in Being and Time cast new light on the issue of thinking, unsettling traditional cognitive or rational interpretations of man which affect the way we understand thought. The notion of the fundamental role of non-cognitive understanding in rendering possible thematic consciousness informed the discussion surrounding artificial intelligence during the 1970s and 1980s. Phenomenology, however, is not the only approach to thinking in modern Western philosophy. Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties and their relationship to the physical body the brain; the mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes.
The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Human perceptual experiences depend on stimuli which arrive at one's various sensory organs from the external world and these stimuli cause changes in one's mental state causing one to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is to explain how someone's propositional attitudes can cause that individual's neurons to fire and his muscles to contract in the correct manner; these comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of
Outline of thought
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought: Thought – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or an emotional feeling that arises from the brain. Thought can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals, it is the physical structure associated with the mind. Mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, thinking and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of living creatures. Activities taking place in a mind are called cognitive functions. Computer – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
Since a sequence of operations can be changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. An activity of intelligence – intelligence is the intellectual prowess of, marked by cognition and self-awareness. Through intelligence, living creatures possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, apply logic, reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, problem solve, make decisions and use language to communicate. Intelligence enables living creatures to think. A type of mental process – something that individuals can do with their minds. Mental processes include perception, thinking and emotion. Sometimes the term cognitive function is used instead. Thought as a biological adaptation mechanism Listed below are types of thought known as thinking processes. Human thought Bloom's taxonomy Dual process theory Fluid and crystallized intelligence Higher-order thinking Theory of multiple intelligences Three-stratum theory Williams' taxonomy Emotional intelligence Problem solving Reasoning Organizational thought Management information system Organizational communication Organizational planning Strategic planning Strategic thinking Systems thinking Aspects of the thinker which may affect his or her thinking: Cognitive model Design tool Diagram Argument map Concept map Mind map DSRP Intelligence amplification Language Meditation Six Thinking Hats Synectics History of reasoning History of artificial intelligence History of cognitive science History of creativity History of ideas History of logic History of psychometrics Nootropic Substances that improve mental performance: Nobel Prize Pulitzer Prize MacArthur Fellowship Associations pertaining to thought Association for Automated Reasoning Association for Informal Logic and Critical Thinking International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning High IQ societies Mega Society Mensa Mind Sports Organisations World Mind Sports Games Think tanks Handbook of Automated Reasoning Journal of Automated Reasoning Journal of Formalized Reasoning Positive Thinking Magazine Thinkabout Geniuses List of MacArthur Fellows List of Nobel laureates Polymaths List of cognitive scientists Aaron T. Beck Edward de Bono David D. Burns – author of Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy and The Feeling Good Handbook.
Burns popularized Aaron T. Beck's cognitive behavioral therapy when his book became a best seller during the 1980s. Tony Buzan Noam Chomsky Albert Ellis Howard Gardner Eliyahu M. Goldratt Douglas Hofstadter Ray Kurzweil Marvin Minsky Steven Pinker Baruch Spinoza Robert Sternberg Cognition Knowledge Multiple intelligences Strategy Structure System Artificial intelligence Outline of artificial intelligence Human intelligence Outline of human intelligence Neuroscience Outline of neuroscience Psychology Gestalt psychology Outline of psychologyMiscellaneous Thinking Lists The Psychology of Emotions and Thoughts, Free Online Book
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular subjectively valued purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, but not eliminating, the other phenomenal and cognitive characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type is more abstract than its tokens. Abstraction in its secondary use is a material process, discussed in the themes below.
Thinking in abstractions is considered by anthropologists and sociologists to be one of the key traits in modern human behaviour, believed to have developed between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. Its development is to have been connected with the development of human language, which appears to both involve and facilitate abstract thinking. Abstraction involves induction of ideas or the synthesis of particular facts into one general theory about something, it is the opposite of specification, the analysis or breaking-down of a general idea or abstraction into concrete facts. Abstraction can be illustrated with Francis Bacon's Novum Organum, a book of modern scientific philosophy written in the late Elizabethan era of England to encourage modern thinkers to collect specific facts before making any generalizations. Bacon used and promoted induction as an abstraction tool, it countered the ancient deductive-thinking approach that had dominated the intellectual world since the times of Greek philosophers like Thales and Aristotle.
Thales believed that everything in the universe comes from water. He deduced or specified from a general idea, "everything is water", to the specific forms of water such as ice, snow and rivers. Modern scientists can use the opposite approach of abstraction, or going from particular facts collected into one general idea, such as the motion of the planets; when determining that the sun is the center of our solar system, scientists had to utilize thousands of measurements to conclude that Mars moves in an elliptical orbit about the sun, or to assemble multiple specific facts into the law of falling bodies. An abstraction can be seen as a compression process, mapping multiple different pieces of constituent data to a single piece of abstract data; this conceptual scheme emphasizes the inherent equality of both constituent and abstract data, thus avoiding problems arising from the distinction between "abstract" and "concrete". In this sense the process of abstraction entails the identification of similarities between objects, the process of associating these objects with an abstraction.
For example, picture 1 below illustrates the concrete relationship "Cat sits on Mat". Chains of abstractions can be construed, moving from neural impulses arising from sensory perception to basic abstractions such as color or shape, to experiential abstractions such as a specific cat, to semantic abstractions such as the "idea" of a CAT, to classes of objects such as "mammals" and categories such as "object" as opposed to "action". For example, graph 1 below expresses the abstraction "agent sits on location"; this conceptual scheme entails no specific hierarchical taxonomy, only a progressive exclusion of detail. Non-existent things in any particular place and time are seen as abstract. By contrast, instances, or members, of such an abstract thing might exist in many different places and times; those abstract things are said to be multiply instantiated, in the sense of picture 1, picture 2, etc. shown below. It is not sufficient, however, to define abstract ideas as those that can be instantiated and to define abstraction as the movement in the opposite direction to instantiation.
Doing so would make the concepts "cat" and "telephone" abstract ideas since despite their varying appearances, a particular cat or a particular telephone is an instance of the concept "cat" or the concept "telephone". Although the concepts "cat" and "telephone" are abstractions, they are not abstract in the sense of the objects in graph 1 below. We might look at other graphs, in a progression from cat to mammal to animal, see that animal is more abstract than mammal. Confusingly, some philosophies refer to tropes as abstract particulars—e.g. The particular redness of a particular apple is an abstract particular; this is similar to qualia and sumbebekos. Still retaining the primary meaning of'abstrere' or'to draw away from', the abstraction of money, for example, works by drawing away from the particular value of things allowing incommensurate objects to be compared. Karl Marx's writing on the commodity abstraction recognizes a parallel process; the state
An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months; the resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. When current IQ tests were developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically. By this definition two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, 2.5 percent below 70. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence.
Unlike, for example and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence". IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, evaluating job applicants; when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory and speed. In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job performance, income, they are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence. Before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life; those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure; the English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was a product of heredity, he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, head size.
He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, he abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities, it was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0.. Binet came under the control of practical judgment.
In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures. American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content; some test items are visual. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge; the British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.
He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large num
Race and intelligence
The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century. There remains some debate as to whether and to what extent differences in intelligence test scores reflect environmental factors as opposed to genetic ones, as well as to the definitions of what "race" and "intelligence" are, whether they can be objectively defined. There is no non-circumstantial evidence that these differences in test scores have a genetic component, although some researchers believe that the existing circumstantial evidence makes it at least plausible that hard evidence for a genetic component will be found; the first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation.
Soon, other studies appeared, contesting these conclusions and arguing instead that the Army tests had not adequately controlled for the environmental factors such as socio-economic and educational inequality between blacks and whites. The debate reemerged again in 1969, when Arthur Jensen championed the view that for genetic reasons Africans were less intelligent than whites and that compensatory education for African-American children was therefore doomed to be ineffective. In 1994, the book The Bell Curve argued that social inequality in the United States could be explained as a result of IQ differences between races and individuals, rekindled the public and scholarly debate with renewed force. During the debates following the book's publication, the American Anthropological Association and the American Psychological Association published official statements regarding the issue, both skeptical of some of the book's claims, although the APA report called for more empirical research on the issue.
Claims of races having different intelligence were used to justify colonialism, racism, social Darwinism, racial eugenics. Racial thinkers such as Arthur de Gobineau relied crucially on the assumption that black people were innately inferior to whites in developing their ideologies of white supremacy. Enlightenment thinkers such as Thomas Jefferson, a slave owner, believed blacks to be innately inferior to whites in physique and intellect; the first practical intelligence test was developed between 1905 and 1908 by Alfred Binet in France for school placement of children. Binet warned that results from his test should not be assumed to measure innate intelligence or used to label individuals permanently. Binet's test was translated into English and revised in 1916 by Lewis Terman and published under the name the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales; as Terman's test was published, there was great concern in the United States about the abilities and skills of recent immigrants. Different immigrant nationalities were sometimes thought to belong to different races, such as Slavs.
A different set of tests developed by Robert Yerkes were used to evaluate draftees for World War I, researchers found that people from southern and eastern Europe scored lower than native-born Americans, that Americans from northern states had higher scores than Americans from southern states, that black Americans scored lower than white Americans. The results were publicized by a lobby of anti-immigration activists, including the New York patrician and conservationist Madison Grant, who considered the Nordic race to be superior, but under threat of immigration by inferior breeds. In his influential work A Study of American Intelligence psychologist Carl Brigham used the results of the Army tests to argue for a stricter immigration policy, limiting immigration to countries considered to belong to the "nordic race". In the 1920s, states like Virginia enacted eugenic laws, such as its 1924 Racial Integrity Act, which established the one-drop rule as law. On the other hand, many scientists reacted to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry.
They pointed to the contribution of environment to test results. By the mid-1930s, many United States psychologists adopted the view that environmental and cultural factors played a dominant role in IQ test results, among them Carl Brigham who repudiated his own previous arguments, on the grounds that he realized that the tests were not a measure of innate intelligence. Discussion of the issue in the United States influenced German Nazi claims of the "nordics" being a "master race", influenced by Grant's writings; as the American public sentiment shifted against the Germans, claims of racial differences in intelligence came to be regarded as problematic. Anthropologists such as Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, did much to demonstrate the unscientific status of many of the claims about racial hierarchies of intelligence. Nonetheless a powerful eugenics and segregation lobby funded by textile-magnate Wickliffe Draper, continued to publicize studies using intelligence studies as an argument for eugenics and anti-immigration legislation.
As the de-segregation of the American South was begun in the 1950s the debate about black intelligence resurfaced. Audrey Shuey, funded by Draper's Pioneer Fund, published a new analysis of Yerkes' tests, concluding that blacks were of inferior intellect to whites; this study was used by segregationists as an argument that it was to the advantage of bl
G factor (psychometrics)
The g factor is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance on one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance on other kinds of cognitive tasks; the g factor accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given cognitive test, composite scores based on many tests are regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or intelligence are used interchangeably to refer to this common core shared by cognitive tests; the g factor targets a particular measure of general intelligence. The existence of the g factor was proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century, he observed that children's performance ratings, across unrelated school subjects, were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.
Spearman suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor, which he labeled g, a large number of narrow task-specific ability factors. Soon after Spearman proposed the existence of g, it was challenged by Godfrey Thomson, who presented evidence that such intercorrelations among test results could arise if no g-factor existed. Today's factor models of intelligence represent cognitive abilities as a three-level hierarchy, where there are a large number of narrow factors at the bottom of the hierarchy, a handful of broad, more general factors at the intermediate level, at the apex a single factor, referred to as the g factor, which represents the variance common to all cognitive tasks. Traditionally, research on g has concentrated on psychometric investigations of test data, with a special emphasis on factor analytic approaches. However, empirical research on the nature of g has drawn upon experimental cognitive psychology and mental chronometry, brain anatomy and physiology and molecular genetics, primate evolution.
The existence of g as a statistical regularity is well-established and uncontroversial, a general cognitive factor appears in data collected from people in nearly every human culture. Yet, there is no consensus as to. Research in the field of behavioral genetics has established that the construct of g is heritable, it has a number including brain size. It is a significant predictor of individual differences in many social outcomes in education and employment; the most accepted contemporary theories of intelligence incorporate the g factor. However, critics of g have contended that an emphasis on g is misplaced and entails a devaluation of other important abilities, as well as supporting an unrealistic reified view of human intelligence. One critic has argued that g "...is to the psychometricians what Huygens' ether was to early physicists: a nonentity taken as an article of faith instead of one in need of verification by real data." Cognitive ability tests are designed to measure different aspects of cognition.
Specific domains assessed by tests include mathematical skill, verbal fluency, spatial visualization, memory, among others. However, individuals who excel at one type of test tend to excel at other kinds of tests, while those who do poorly on one test tend to do so on all tests, regardless of the tests' contents; the English psychologist Charles Spearman was the first to describe this phenomenon. In a famous research paper published in 1904, he observed that children's performance measures across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated; this finding has since been replicated numerous times. The consistent finding of universally positive correlation matrices of mental test results, despite large differences in tests' contents, has been described as "arguably the most replicated result in all psychology". Zero or negative correlations between tests suggest the presence of sampling error or restriction of the range of ability in the sample studied. Using factor analysis or related statistical methods, it is possible to compute a single common factor that can be regarded as a summary variable characterizing the correlations between all the different tests in a test battery.
Spearman referred to this common factor as the general factor, or g. Mathematically, the g factor is a source of variance among individuals, which entails that one cannot meaningfully speak of any one individual's mental abilities consisting of g or other factors to any specified degrees. One can only speak of an individual's standing on g compared to other individuals in a relevant population. Different tests in a test battery may correlate with the g factor of the battery to different degrees; these correlations are known as g loadings. An individual test taker's g factor score, representing his or her relative standing on the g factor in the total group of individuals, can be estimated using the g loadings. Full-scale IQ scores from a test battery will be correlated with g factor scores, they are regarded as estimates of g. For example, the correlations between g factor scores and full-scale IQ scores from