Siena Cathedral is a medieval church in Siena, dedicated from its earliest days as a Roman Catholic Marian church, and now dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. Previously the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Siena, from the 15th century the Archdiocese of Siena, the cathedral itself was originally designed and completed between 1215 and 1263 on the site of an earlier structure. It has the form of a Latin cross with a slightly projecting transept, a dome, the dome rises from a hexagonal base with supporting columns. The lantern atop the dome was added by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the nave is separated from the two aisles by semicircular arches. The exterior and interior are constructed of white and greenish-black marble in alternating stripes and white are the symbolic colors of Siena, etiologically linked to black and white horses of the legendary citys founders and Aschius. The origins of the first structure are obscure and shrouded in legend, there was a 9th-century church with bishops palace at the present location.
In December 1058 a synod was held in this resulting in the election of pope Nicholas II. In 1196 the cathedral masons’ guild, the Opera di Santa Maria, was put in charge of the construction of a new cathedral. Works were started with the north - south transept and it was planned to add the main, larger body of the cathedral later, by 1215 there were already daily masses said in the new church. There are records from 1226 onwards of the transport of black and white marble, probably for the construction of the façade, the vaults and the transept were constructed in 1259-1260. In 1259 Manuello di Ranieri and his son Parri carved some wooden choir stalls, in 1264, Rosso Padellaio was paid for the copper sphere on top of the dome. A second massive addition of the body of the cathedral was planned in 1339. It would have more than doubled the size of the structure by means of a new nave. The construction was begun under the direction of Giovanni di Agostino, construction was halted by the Black Death in 1348.
Basic errors in the construction were already evident by then, the outer walls, remains of this extension, can now be seen to the south of the Duomo. The floor of the nave now serves as a parking lot and museum, though unfinished, the remains are testament to Sienese power, ambition. Underneath the choir of the Duomo, a narthex containing important late 13th-century frescoes was found, the frescoes depict scenes from the Old Testament and the life of Christ. This was part of the entrance of an earlier church, but when the baptistry was built, this under-church was filled with rubble
St. George (Raphael, Louvre)
St. George or St. George and the Dragon is a small painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It is housed in the Louvre in Paris, a version of the same subject is the St. George in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. This painting and the equally small Saint Michael, in the Louvre, are a pair, in the Mazarin Collection they were joined together, forming a diptych, and bound in leather. Louis XIV acquired them from Mazarins heirs in 1661, Saint George has sometimes been ascribed to the artists Roman period, because the horse resembles one of the horses of Monte Cavallo. However, Raphael could easily have known this particular horse from a drawing of it, to judge by the still somewhat naïve and Peruginesque style of the painting, it is really one of Raphaels early works, dating from about 1504. He did another painting of the subject a little later. Giovanni Lomazzo, in his Trattato della Pittura, mentions a Saint George by Raphael, commissioned by the Duke of Urbino, which was painted on a little chess-board.
According to the old catalogues the small Saint Michael, if not the saint George as well, had a draught-board on the back which is now covered over, examination by means of X-rays and infrared has not confirmed this statement. In the abovementioned book, Lomazzo seems to have confused various pictures of the same subject, if one can rely to some extent on his late and somewhat muddled testimony, it is possible that the two paintings in the Louvre were painted for the Duke of Urbino. The Uffizi Gallery has a cartoon for the Saint George. J. Pitman, Raphael Trail, The Secret History of One of the Worlds Most Precious Works of Art
The golden apple is an element that appears in various national and ethnic folk legends or fairy tales. Recurring themes depict a hero retrieving the golden apples hidden or stolen by a monstrous antagonist, they are depicted as divine food and the source of immortality in Norse mythology, and as part of the mysterious apple branch of Otherworld in Irish mythology. Three instances of golden apples were featured in Greek mythology, The first case concerns a huntress named Atalanta who raced against a suitor named Melanion, Melanion used golden apples to distract Atalanta so that he could win the race. Though abandoned by her father as an infant, Atalanta became a skilled hunter and her father claimed her as his daughter and wished to marry her off. However, Atalanta was reluctant to marry due to a prophecy that marriage would be her downfall, because of her beauty, she gained a number of suitors and finally agreed to marry, but under the condition that her suitor was obligated to beat her in a footrace.
Competitors who failed to beat her would be put to death, as Atalanta could run extremely fast, all her suitors died. Realizing that Atalanta could not be defeated in a fair race, the goddess gave him three golden apples and told him to drop them one at a time to distract Atalanta. Sure enough, she quit running long enough to retrieve each golden apple and it took all three apples and all of his speed, but Melanion finally succeeded, winning the race and Atalantas hand. Eventually they had a son Parthenopaios, who was one of the Seven against Thebes and their marriage ended in misfortune when they were transformed into lions for offending the gods. Zeus held a banquet in celebration of the marriage of Peleus, the goddess of discord, was not invited for her troublesome nature, and upon turning up uninvited, she threw a golden apple into the ceremony, with an inscription that read, ΤΗΙ ΚΑΛΛΙΣΤΗΙ. Three goddesses claimed the apple, Hera and Aphrodite and they brought the matter before Zeus. Not wanting to get involved, Zeus assigned the task to Paris of Troy, Paris had demonstrated his exemplary fairness previously when he awarded a prize unhesitatingly to Ares after the god, in bull form, had bested his own prize bull.
Zeus gave the apple to Hermes and told him to deliver it to Paris, as each goddess wanted to receive the apple, they each stripped off their own clothing and appeared naked before Paris. Paris foolishly chose Aphrodites bribe of committing adultery, a decision that caused the destruction of both adulterous Paris and his city, via the Trojan war and they are cultivated by—and most often associated with—the goddess Iðunn. In the book Skáldskaparmál, Iðunn is mentioned in its first chapter as one of eight ásynjur sitting in their thrones at a banquet in Asgard for Ægir, in chapter 56, Bragi tells Ægir about Iðunns abduction by the jötunn Þjazi. Loki shouted and begged the eagle for a truce, and the eagle responds that Loki would only be freed if he made a vow to have Iðunn come outside of Asgard with her apples. Loki accepts and returns to his friends Odin and Hœnir, Þjazi arrives in eagle shape, snatches Iðunn, flies away with her, and takes her to his home, Þrymheimr. The Æsir begin to grow grey and old at the disappearance of Iðunn, the Æsir hold an assembly thing, where they ask one another when Iðunn had been seen last
The Mond Crucifixion is a painting by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. An early work influenced by Perugino, it was originally an altarpiece in the church of San Domenico, Città di Castello, the painting shows Jesus on the cross, who is looking peaceful even though he is dying. There are two angels catching his blood in chalices, on Jesus left kneels Mary Magdalene, with John the Evangelist standing behind her. On his right Mary stands, and St. Jerome, to whom the altar was dedicated, is kneeling, at the foot of the cross is the inscription RAPHAEL/ VRBIN / AS /. P. in silver letters. The painting was bequeathed to the National Gallery by Ludwig Mond, the sun and moon at the top are present despite the Council of Constantinople prohibition of such symbology for its reference to other religions. The painting was analyzed in the National Gallery London and the pigments of the Renaissance period were identified. He painted the Crucifixion among other pigments with natural ultramarine, lead-tin-yellow, verdigris and ochres
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
St. Michael (Raphael)
St. Michael is an oil painting by Italian artist Raphael. Also called the Little St. Michael to distinguish it from a larger, treatment of the theme, St. Michael Vanquishing Satan. The work depicts the Archangel Michael in combat with the demons of Hell, along with St. George, it represents the first of Raphaels works on martial subjects. Whatever the impetus for its creation, by 1548 it hung in the collection at the Palace of Fontainebleau, the punishments depicted reflect Dantes treatment of hypocrites and thieves. A little more than a decade after completing the little St. Michael, Raphael was commissioned to revisit the theme, media related to Saint Michael with the Dragon by Raffaello Sanzio at Wikimedia Commons
Pietro Perugino, born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil, Pietro Perugino was born Pietro Vannucci in Città della Pieve, the son of Cristoforo Marie Vannucci. Pietros nickname characterizes him as from Perugia, the city of Umbria. Scholars continue to dispute the status of the Vannucci family. While certain academics maintain that Vannucci worked his way out of poverty and his exact date of birth is not known, based on his age at the death mentioned by Vasari and Giovanni Santi, he is suspected to be born between 1446 and 1452. Pietro most likely began studying painting in local workshops in Perugia such as those of Bartolomeo Caporali or Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, the date of this first Florentine sojourn is unknown, some make it as early as 1466/1470, others push the date to 1479. According to Vasari, he apprenticed in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio alongside Leonardo da Vinci, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Lorenzo di Credi, Filippino Lippi, piero della Francesca is thought to have taught him perspective form.
In 1472 he must have completed his apprenticeship, for he was enrolled as a master in the Confraternity of St Luke, although very talented was not extremely enthusiastic about his work. Perugino was one of the earliest Italian practitioners of oil painting, a good specimen of his early style in tempera is the tondo in the Musée du Louvre of the Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints. Perugino returned from Florence to Perugia, where his Florentine training showed in the Adoration of the Magi for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi of Perugia, in about 1480, he was called to Rome by Sixtus IV to paint fresco panels for the Sistine Chapel walls. The frescoes he executed there included Moses and Zipporah, the Baptism of Christ, pinturicchio accompanied Perugino to Rome, and was made his partner, receiving a third of the profits. He may have some of the Zipporah subject. The Sistine frescoes were the major high Renaissance commission in Rome, the altar wall was painted with the Assumption, the Nativity, and Moses in the Bulrushes.
He had a studio in Florence, and received a great number of commissions. His Pietà in the Uffizi is an uncharacteristically stark work that avoids Peruginos sometimes too easy sentimental piety, in 1499 the guild of the cambio of Perugia asked him to decorate their audience-hall, the Sala delle Udienze del Collegio del Cambio. The humanist Francesco Maturanzio acted as his consultant, on the mid-pilaster of the hall Perugino placed his own portrait in bust-form. It is probable that Raphael, who in boyhood, towards 1496, had been placed by his uncles under the tuition of Perugino, Perugino was made one of the priors of Perugia in 1501. On one occasion Michelangelo told Perugino to his face that he was a bungler in art, Vannucci brought an action for defamation of character, unsuccessfully
The Conestabile Madonna is a small painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was likely the last work painted by Raphael in Umbria before moving to Florence and its name comes from the Conestabile family of Perugia, from whom it was acquired by Alexander II of Russia in 1871. The Tsar presented it to his consort, Maria Alexandrovna, since then, the painting has been on exhibit in the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. The painting portrays the Madonna holding the Child while reading a book, in 1881, when the picture was moved to canvas, it was discovered that in the original version the Madonna contemplated a pomegranate instead of the book
Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga
The Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga is a painting from around 1504, attributed to the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael and housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. Contemporary sources speak of a portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga executed by Raphael, the painting was likely part of the Ducal collection of Urbino, brought to Florence in 1635 as Vittoria della Roveres dowry. In is mentioned with certainty for the first time in 1773, in a 1784 inventory it was attributed to Giovanni Bellinis school, while that of 1825 listed it as by Andrea Mantegna. It was attributed to Raphael for the first time in 1905, other artists to whom the portrait has been assigned include Francesco Francia, Giovan Francesco Caroto, Francesco Bonsignori and Albrecht Dürer. The woman portrayed is Elisabetta Gonzaga, wife of Duke Guidobaldo I of Urbino, details include the black dress with applied trim in a patchwork pattern, and the scorpion-like diadem on the womans forehead. Her hairdo includes the coazzone, a long plait which is present in a medal of her now at the British Museum, Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro De Vecchi, Pierluigi
Vision of a Knight (Raphael)
The Vision of a Knight, called The Dream of Scipio or Allegory, is a small egg tempera painting on poplar by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael, finished in 1504–1505. It is in the National Gallery in London and it probably formed a pair with the Three Graces panel, 17 cm square, now in the Château de Chantilly museum. There are a number of theories as to what the panel is intended to represent, some art historians think the sleeping knight represents the Roman general Scipio Africanus who dreamed that he had to choose between Virtue and Pleasure. However, the two figures are not presented as contestants. They may represent the attributes of the knight, the book and flower which they hold suggest the ideals of scholar. The most likely source for the allegory depicted is from a passage in the Punica, the panel was moved to England by William Young Ottley in 1800. Raphael used a palette of paints to depict this colourful scene, pigments such as lead-tin yellow, verdigris. Details of the piece, National Gallery
Chantilly is a commune in the Oise department in the valley of the Nonette in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. Surrounded by Chantilly Forest, the town of 11,000 inhabitants falls within the area of Paris. It lies 38.4 km north-northeast from the centre of Paris and it now houses the Musée Condé. Chantilly is known for its horse racing track, the Chantilly Racecourse, where races are held for the prix du Jockey Club. Chantilly and the communities are home to the largest racehorse-training community in France. Chantilly is home to the Living Museum of the Horse and it is considered one of the more important tourist destinations in the Paris area. Chantilly gave its name to Chantilly cream and to Chantilly lace, the city was the base for the England National Football Team during the Euro 2016 Championship. Chantilly lies in the Parisian basin, at the end of the region of Hauts-de-France. It belongs to the region of Valois. Chantilly lies 39 km southwest of Beauvais,79 km south of Amiens, Chantilly is the center of an urban area that includes the communes of Avilly-Saint-Léonard, Boran-sur-Oise, Coye-la-Forêt, Gouvieux and Vineuil-Saint-Firmin.
Its the third-largest urban area in the Oise and the seventh-largest in Hauts-de-France and it has no large businesses or heavy industry and 40% of the population works in Ile-de-France, in other words Paris or its closer suburbs, which are less than an hour away by train. Chantilly straddles the junction of the Paris Basin and the western Valois, the site of the town was originally a clearing or meadowland, sometimes called a lawn or pelouse, which is mostly occupied today by the racecourse. The remaining open space between the town and the racecourse is always referred to as the little lawn, the highest point in the area,112 meters, is at Bois Lorris, in Lamorlaye. The lowest elevation is 35m, at the Canardière on the banks of the Nonette in Gouvieux, the commune sits on a Lutetian sedimentary limestone plateau covered by Chantilly Forest. Sand created by wind and erosion covers this chalky plateau, although the sand is less than a meter thick it is very useful for training horses in the forest.
This stone has used for building in parts of the region. It was used for building in Chantilly itself during the 18th century, when a quarry on the current site of the racecourse produced stone for the officials housing. In the following century the quarry was used to grow mushrooms and it now belongs to the Chantilly Estate and is periodically open to the public
Labours of Hercules
The twelve labours of Heracles or Hercules are a series of episodes concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes, whose name was Romanised as Hercules. They were accomplished over 12 years at the service of King Eurystheus, the episodes were connected by a continuous narrative. The establishment of a cycle of twelve labours was attributed by the Greeks to an epic poem, now lost, written by Peisander. After Hercules killed his wife and children, he went to the oracle at Delphi and he prayed to the god Apollo for guidance. Hercules was told to serve the king of Mycenae, during these 12 years, Hercules is sent to perform twelve difficult feats, called labours. Driven mad by Hera, Hercules slew his son, after recovering his sanity, Hercules deeply regretted his actions, he was purified by King Thespius, traveled to Delphi to inquire how he could atone for his actions. Hercules despaired at this, loathing to serve a man whom he knew to be far inferior to himself, eventually, he placed himself at Eurystheuss disposal.
Eurystheus originally ordered Hercules to perform ten labours, Eurystheus set two more tasks, which Hercules performed, bringing the total number of tasks to twelve. As they survive, the labours of Hercules are not recounted in any single place and Staples assert that there is no one way to interpret the labours, but that six were located in the Peloponnese, culminating with the rededication of Olympia. Six others took the hero farther afield, to places that were, per Ruck, in each case, the pattern was the same, Hercules was sent to kill or subdue, or to fetch back for Eurystheus a magical animal or plant. A famous depiction of the labours in Greek sculpture is found on the metopes of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, in his labours, Hercules was sometimes accompanied by a male companion, according to Licymnius and others, such as Iolaus, his nephew. Several of the labours involved the offspring of Typhon and his mate Echidna, a traditional order of the labours found in the Bibliotheca is, Slay the Nemean Lion.
Clean the Augean stables in a single day, obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon, steal the apples of the Hesperides. The first labour was to slay the Nemean lion, according to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman, once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades. Hercules wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae, another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within thirty days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within thirty days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Hercules as a mourning offering, while searching for the lion, Hercules fletched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable