The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
Caritas Internationalis is a confederation of 165 Catholic relief and social service organisations operating in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. Collectively and individually their claimed mission is to work to build a better world for the poor and oppressed; the first Caritas organisation was established by Lorenz Werthmann on 9 November 1897 in Germany. Other national Caritas organisations were soon formed in the United States. In July 1924, during the international Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, 60 delegates from 22 countries formed a conference, with headquarters at Caritas Switzerland in Lucerne. In 1928, the conference became known as Caritas Catholica; the delegates met every two years until the outbreak of the Second World War when all activities came to a standstill. Work resumed in 1947, with the approval of the Secretariat of State, two conferences convened in Lucerne to help coordinate efforts and collaboration. Caritas was given a further endorsement when the Secretariat of State entrusted it with the official representation of all welfare organisations at the international level at the United Nations.
The Holy Year in 1950 saw the beginning of a union of Caritas organisations. Following a suggestion by Msgr Montini Substitute Secretary of State, Pope Paul VI, a study week, with participants from 22 countries, was held in Rome to examine the problems of Christian Caritas work; as a result, the decision was made to set up an international conference of Roman Catholic charities. In December 1951, upon approval of the statutes by the Holy See, the first constitutive General Assembly of Caritas Internationalis took place. Founding members came from Caritas organisations in 13 countries: Austria, Canada, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Spain and the United States; the Church describes Caritas as its official voice “in relation to its teachings in the area of charity work”. In 1954, the Confederation changed its name to Caritas Internationalis to reflect the international presence of Caritas members on every continent; as of 2015, the Confederation has 164 members working in over territories. Its General Secretariat is located in Vatican City.
The current president is Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle and the Secretary General is Michel Roy. The full membership list of Caritas organisations includes: 45 national agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa Chad – SECADEV has partnered with the Canadian bishops' Development and Peace program to provide essential aid for Sudanese refugees in Chad, including access to water, financing for small businesses and agricultural projects. Egypt Kenya – Caritas Nairobi- operated by the Archdiocese of Nairobi Nigeria – Caritas Nigeria claims to work with local diocesan Caritas to bring relief to displaced families in the North East region displaced because of attacks by Boko Haram. Uganda – Caritas Uganda 24 national agencies including: Nepal – Caritas Nepal Bangladesh – Caritas Bangladesh Cambodia – Caritas Cambodia Hong Kong – Caritas Hong Kong operated by the Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong Indonesia – Caritas Indonesia – KARINA Caritas Bandung – operated by the Diocese of Bandung Cordia Caritas Medan – operated by Archdiocese of Medan Caritas Keuskupan Sibolga – operated by Roman Catholic Diocese of Sibolga Caritas Keuskupan Agung Semarang – Karina KAS – operated by Archdiocese of Semarang Caritas Tanjungkarang – operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tanjungkarang India – Caritas India claimed in its Decennial Report that the organization invested US$75 million on 14 major emergencies across the country during 2014-2015 period.
Japan – Caritas Japan Korea – Caritas Korea Macau – Caritas de Macau – established the Family Casework & Assistance Service, Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Home for the Elderly, St. Luis Gonzaga Center for the Disabled and Institute of Social Work, the first Institute in Macau offering training for social workers. Mongolia - Caritas Mongolia - https://caritasmongolia.org/ Philippines – Caritas Manila claims a focus on Education and Disaster Risk Reduction and Management as flagship programs. Singapore – Caritas Singapore Vietnam – Caritas Việt Nam MENA regional agency Caritas MONA] with 17 national agencies including: Cyprus Jordan – Caritas Jordan has taken part in efforts to support displaced Syrians since December 2011 and is still active in addressing the needs of refugees. Lebanon – Caritas Lebanon works through different centers throughout the country, delivering food parcels, hygiene kits and blankets to refugee families from war-torn Syria. There is medical assistance through mobile clinics and health centers.
Syria Caritas Europa with 48 national agencies including: Armenia – Armenian Caritas Austria – Caritas Österreich Belgium – Caritas Catholica Belgica Bosnia and Herzegovina – Caritas Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria – Caritas Bulgaria Croatia – Caritas Republic of Croatia Czech Republic – Charita Česká republika Denmark – Caritas Danmark England and Wales – where there are two Caritas agencies: CAFOD and Caritas – Social Action Estonia - Caritas Estonia Finland – Suomen Caritas ry France – where the Caritas agency is Secours catholique Georgia – Caritas Georgia Germany – Caritas Deutschland Greece – Κάριτας Ελλάς Hungary – Katolikus Karitász Iceland - Caritas Iceland Ireland – where the Caritas agency is Trócaire Italy – Caritas Italiana Latvia - Caritas Latvija Lithuania – Caritas Lithuania Luxembourg – Caritas Luxembourg Malta – Caritas Malta Moldova – Caritas Moldova Netherlands – where the Caritas agency is CORDAID Norway – Caritas Norge Poland – Caritas Polska Portugal – Caritas Por
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28
Maximilian Maria Kolbe, a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar, volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station, founding or running several other organizations and publications. On 10 October 1982 Pope John Paul II declared him a martyr of charity; the Catholic Church venerates him as the patron saint of amateur-radio operators, of drug addicts, of political prisoners, of families, of journalists, of prisoners, of the pro-life movement. John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century", his feast day is the day of his death. Due to Kolbe's efforts to promote consecration and entrustment to Mary, he is known as the Apostle of Consecration to Mary. Maximilian Kolbe was born on 8 January 1894 in Zduńska Wola, in the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire.
He was the second son of midwife Maria Dąbrowska. His father was an ethnic German and his mother was Polish, he had four brothers. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to Pabianice. Kolbe's life was influenced in 1906, when he was 12, by a vision of the Virgin Mary, he described this incident: That night I asked the Mother of God what was to become of me. She came to me holding two crowns, one white, the other red, she asked me. The white one meant that I should persevere in purity, the red that I should become a martyr. I said. In 1907, Kolbe and his elder brother Francis joined the Conventual Franciscans, they enrolled at the Conventual Franciscan minor seminary in Lwow that year. In 1910, Kolbe was allowed to enter the novitiate, he professed his first vows in 1911, final vows in 1914, adopting the additional name of Maria. Kolbe was sent to Rome in 1912, he earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1915 there. From 1915 he continued his studies at the Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1919 or 1922.
He was active in the entrustment to Mary. During his time as a student, he witnessed vehement demonstrations against Popes St. Pius X and Benedict XV in Rome during an anniversary celebration by the Freemasons. According to Kolbe, They placed the black standard of the "Giordano Brunisti" under the windows of the Vatican. On this standard the archangel, St. Michael, was depicted lying under the feet of the triumphant Lucifer. At the same time, countless pamphlets were distributed to the people in which the Holy Father was attacked shamefully. Soon afterward, on October 16, 1917, Kolbe organized the Militia Immaculatae, to work for conversion of sinners and enemies of the Catholic Church the Freemasons, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary. So serious was Kolbe about this goal that he added to the Miraculous Medal prayer: O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee, and for all those who do not have recourse to thee. In 1918, Kolbe was ordained a priest. In July 1919 he returned to the Poland, newly independent.
He was active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. He was opposed to leftist – in particular, communist – movements. From 1919 to 1922 he taught at the Kraków seminary. Around that time, as well as earlier in Rome, he suffered from tuberculosis, which forced him to take a lengthy leave of absence from his teaching duties. TB was considered fatal, with rest and good nutrition the best treatment, as antibiotics had not been developed to treat it. In January 1922 Kolbe founded the monthly periodical Rycerz Niepokalanej, a devotional publication based on French Le Messager du Coeur de Jesus. From 1922 to 1926 he operated a religious publishing press in Grodno; as his activities grew in scope, in 1927 he founded a new Conventual Franciscan monastery at Niepokalanów near Warsaw. A junior seminary was opened there two years later. Between 1930 and 1936, Kolbe undertook a series of missions to East Asia. At first, he arrived in Shanghai, but failed to gather a following there. Next, he moved to Japan.
He started publishing a Japanese edition of the Knight of the Immaculata. The monastery he founded remains prominent in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe built the monastery on a mountainside. According to Shinto beliefs, this was not the side best suited to be in harmony with nature, but when the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Kolbe's monastery survived because the other side of the mountain took the main force of the blast. In mid-1932 Kolbe left Japan for Malabar, where he founded another monastery. Meanwhile, the monastery at Niepokalanów began in his absence to publish the daily newspaper, Mały Dziennik, in alliance with the political group, the National Radical Camp; this publication reached a circulation of 137,000, nearly double that, 225,000 on weekends. Poor health forced Kolbe to return to Poland in 1936. Two yea
Bergamo is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy 40 km northeast of Milan, about 30 km from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps begin north of the city. With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo; the metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people; the city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta, nestled within a system of hills, the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017. Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Turin, Verona and Trieste.
The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia and Cividale del Friuli: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165.
The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. 1250, but he returned to Bergamo in the 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would lead to the Imperial Thurn und Taxis dynasty credited with organizing the first modern postal service. After a short period under the House of Malatesta starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the Duchy of Milan to the Republic of Venice in the context of the Wars in Lombardy and the aftermath of the 1427 Battle of Maclodio. Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the Italian Wars, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire; the wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains.
As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire. The Treaty of Campo Formio formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the Cisalpine Republic, a "sister republic" of the French First Republic, superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Bergamo was assigned to the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire; the visit of Ferdinand I in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station, inaugurated in 1857. The Austrian rule was at first welcomed, but challenged by Italian independentist insurrections in 1848. Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Bergamo in 1859, during the Second Italian War of Independence; as a result, the city was incorporated into the newly founded Kingdom of Italy.
For its contribution to the Italian unification movement, Bergamo is known as Città dei Mille, because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his expedition against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came from Bergamo and its environs. During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas. In 1907, Marcello Piacentini devised a new urban master plan, implemented between 1912 and 1927, in a style reminiscent of Novecento Italiano and Modernist Rationalism; the 2017 43rd G7 summit on agriculture was held in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in Taormina. The "Charter of Bergamo" is an international commitment, signed during the summit, to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, ensure price transparency; the town has two centres: Città alta, a hilltop medieval town, surrounded by 16th-century defensive walls, the Città bassa. The two parts of the town are connected by funicular and footpaths.
The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, forms the historic centre of Bergamo. Walking along the narrow medieval streets, you can visi