Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador, involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River. De Soto's North American expedition was a vast undertaking, it ranged throughout the southeastern United States, both searching for gold, reported by various Indian tribes and earlier coastal explorers, for a passage to China or the Pacific coast. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto was born in Extremadura, Spain, to parents who were both hidalgos, nobility of modest means; the region was poor and many people struggled to survive. He was born in the current province of Badajoz. Three towns—Badajoz and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace, he spent time as a child at each place.
He stipulated in his will that his body be interred at Jerez de los Caballeros, where other members of his family were buried. As he grew to adulthood, the Spanish took back control of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the defeat of the Moors. With discovery of new lands across the ocean to the west, young men were attracted to rumors of adventure and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with Pedrarias Dávila, appointed as the first Governor of Panama. In 1520 he participated in Gaspar de Espinosa's expedition to Veragua, in 1524, he participated in the conquest of Nicaragua under Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. There he acquired a public office in León, Nicaragua. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, ruthless schemes for the extortion of native villages for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmarks during the conquest of Central America, he gained fame as an excellent horseman and tactician.
During that time, de Soto was influenced by the achievements of Spanish explorers: Juan Ponce de León, the first European to reach Florida. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of Nicaragua, he led an expedition up the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula searching for a passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean to enable trade with the Orient, the richest market in the world. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Bringing his own men on ships which he hired, de Soto joined Francisco Pizarro at his first base of Tumbes shortly before departure for the interior of present-day Peru. Pizarro made de Soto one of his captains; when Pizarro and his men first encountered the army of Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Pizarro sent de Soto with fifteen men to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. When Pizarro's men attacked Atahualpa and his guard the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers; the Spanish captured Atahualpa.
De Soto was sent to the camp of the Inca army, where his men plundered Atahualpa's tents. During 1533, the Spanish held Atahualpa captive in Cajamarca for months while his subjects paid for his ransom by filling a room with gold and silver objects. During this captivity, de Soto taught him to play chess. By the time the ransom had been completed, the Spanish became alarmed by rumors of an Inca army advancing on Cajamarca. Pizarro sent de Soto with 200 soldiers to scout for the rumored army. While de Soto was gone, the Spanish in Cajamarca decided to kill Atahualpa to prevent his rescue. De Soto returned to report. After executing Atahualpa and his men headed to Cuzco, the capital of the Incan Empire; as the Spanish force approached Cuzco, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando and de Soto ahead with 40 men. The advance guard fought a pitched battle with Inca troops in front of the city, but the battle had ended before Pizarro arrived with the rest of the Spanish party; the Inca army withdrew during the night.
The Spanish plundered Cuzco, where they found much silver. As a mounted soldier, de Soto received a share of the plunder, which made him wealthy, it represented riches from Atahualpa's camp, his ransom, the plunder from Cuzco. On the road to Cuzco, Manco Inca Yupanqui, a brother of Atahualpa, had joined Pizarro. Manco had been hiding from Atahualpa in fear of his life, was happy to gain Pizarro's protection. Pizarro arranged for Manco to be installed as the Inca leader. De Soto joined Manco in a campaign to eliminate the Inca armies under Quizquiz, loyal to Atahualpa. By 1534, de Soto was serving as lieutenant governor of Cuzco while Pizarro was building his new capital on the coast. In 1535 King Charles awarded Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro's partner, the governorship of the southern portion of the Inca Empire; when de Almagro made plans to explore and conquer the southern part of the Inca empire, de Soto applied to be his second-in-command, but de Almagro tur
The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture, they lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, cliff-sited dwellings for defense. The Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers, they held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences. The kiva, a congregational space, used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient people's community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes; the Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.
Reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean "ancient enemies". Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term to be used. Archaeologists continue to debate; the current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era. Beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the people's particular style of dwelling; the Navajo people, who now reside in parts of former Pueblo territory, referred to the ancient people as Anaasází, an exonym meaning "ancestors of our enemies", referring to their competition with the Pueblo peoples.
The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to "ancient people" or "ancient ones". Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans; the Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest. This area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America; the others are the Mogollon and Patayan. In relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area; the Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Areas of southern Nevada and Colorado form a loose northern boundary, while the southern edge is defined by the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Arizona and the Rio Puerco and Rio Grande in New Mexico. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and in the Galisteo Basin.
Terrain and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, sculpted windows and bridges out of the sandstone landscape. In areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed; the Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites. All areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, wind and water erosion. Summer rains could be unreliable and arrived as destructive thunderstorms. While the amount of winter snowfall varied the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water. Snow melt allowed the germination of seeds, both cultivated, in the spring.
Where sandstone layers overlay shale, snow melt could accumulate and create seeps and springs, which the Ancestral Puebloans used as water sources. Snow fed the smaller, more predictable tributaries, such as the Chinle, Animas and Taos Rivers; the larger rivers were less directly important to the ancient culture, as smaller streams were more diverted or controlled for irrigation. The Ancestral Puebloan culture is best known for the stone and earth dwellings its people built along cliff walls during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras, from about 900 to 1350 AD in total; the best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States' national parks, such as Navajo National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Canyon de Chelly National Monument. These villages, called pueblos by Spanish colonists, were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing.
These astonishing building achievements had modest beginnings. The first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods. Ancestral Puebloans are known for their pottery. In general, pottery used for cooking or storage in the region was unpainted gray, either smooth or textured. Pottery used for more formal purposes was more richly adorned. In the n
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri; this historic park lies in southern Illinois between Collinsville. The park covers 2,200 acres, or about 3.5 square miles, contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia covered about 6 square miles and included about 120 manmade earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes and functions. Cahokia was the largest and most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture, which developed advanced societies across much of what is now the central and southeastern United States, beginning more than 1,000 years before European contact. Today, Cahokia Mounds is considered the largest and most complex archaeological site north of the great pre-Columbian cities in Mexico. Cahokia Mounds is a designated site for state protection, it is one of only 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States.
The largest prehistoric earthen construction in the Americas north of Mexico, the site is open to the public and administered by the Illinois Historic Preservation Division and supported by the Cahokia Mounds Museum Society. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, the Cahokia Mounds were selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component and was recognized by USA Today Travel magazine, as one of AIA Illinois's selections for Illinois 25 Must See Places. Although some evidence exists of occupation during the Late Archaic period in and around the site, Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around 600 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building at this location began with the emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE; the inhabitants left no written records beyond symbols on pottery, copper and stone, but the elaborately planned community, woodhenge and burials reveal a complex and sophisticated society.
The city's original name is unknown. The mounds were named after the Cahokia tribe, a historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century; as this was centuries after Cahokia was abandoned by its original inhabitants, the Cahokia tribe was not descended from the earlier Mississippian-era people. Most multiple indigenous ethnic groups settled in the Cahokia Mounds area during the time of the city's apex. Historian Daniel Richter notes that the apex of the city occurred during the Medieval Warming Period; this period appears to have fostered an agricultural revolution in upper North America, as the three-fold crops of maize and gourds were developed and adapted or bred to the temperate climates of the north from their origins in Mesoamerica. Richter notes that Cahokia's advanced development coincided with the development in the Southwest of the Chaco Canyon society, which produced large-scale works in an apparent stratified society; the decline of the city coincides with the Little Ice Age, although by the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America.
Cahokia became the most important center for the people known today as Mississippians. Their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a strategic position near the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, it maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such exotic items as copper, Mill Creek chert, whelk shells. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, a high demand tool for farmers around Cahokia and other Mississippian centers. Cahokia's control of the manufacture and distribution of these hand tools was an important economic activity that allowed the city to thrive. Mississippian culture pottery and stone tools in the Cahokian style were found at the Silvernale site near Red Wing and materials and trade goods from Pennsylvania, the Gulf Coast and Lake Superior have been excavated at Cahokia. Bartering, not money, was used in trade.
At the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico and Central America. Although it was home to only about 1,000 people before circa 1050, its population grew after that date. According to a 2007 study in Quaternary Science Reviews, "Between AD 1050 and 1100, Cahokia's population increased from between 1,400 and 2,800 people to between 10,200 and 15,300 people". An estimate that applies only to a 1.8-square-kilometre high density central occupation area. Archaeologists estimate the city's population at between 6,000 and 40,000 at its peak, with more people living in outlying farming villages that supplied the main urban center. In the early 21st century, new residential areas were found to the west of Cahokia as a result of archeological excavations, increasing estimates of area population. If the highest population estimates are correct, Cahokia was larger than any subsequent city in the United States until the 1780s, when Philadelphia's population grew beyond 40,000.
Moreover, according to the same population estimates, the population of 13th-century Cahokia was equal to or larger than the population of 13th-century London. One of the major problems that large centers like Cahokia faced was keeping a steady supply of food. A related problem was waste disposal for the dense population, Cahokia became unhealthy from polluted waterways; because it was such an unhealthy
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors, he was the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between wild populations. There is such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations. Domestication traits are fixed within all domesticates, were selected during the initial episode of domestication of that animal or plant, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations.
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses and Old World camelids, goats and pigs – was common. Given its importance to humans and its value as a model of evolutionary and demographic change, domestication has attracted scientists from archaeology, anthropology, zoology and the environmental sciences. Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey and numerous other species. Birds are widely kept as cagebirds, from songbirds to parrots; the longest established invertebrate domesticates are the silkworm. Terrestrial snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, others are bred for biological control.
The domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals. Domestication, from the Latin domesticus,'belonging to the house', is "a sustained multi-generational, mutualistic relationship in which one organism assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another organism in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest, through which the partner organism gains advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship, thereby benefitting and increasing the fitness of both the domesticator and the target domesticate." This definition recognizes both the biological and the cultural components of the domestication process and the impacts on both humans and the domesticated animals and plants. All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in, considered as the lead partner in the relationship.
This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants and pets far beyond that of their wild progenitors. Domesticates have provided humans with resources that they could more predictably and securely control and redistribute, the advantage that had fueled a population explosion of the agro-pastoralists and their spread to all corners of the planet. Houseplants and ornamentals are plants domesticated for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are called crops. Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens. Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock; this biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant–fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi.
Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The term is applied to vertebrate animals, includes increased docility and tameness, coat color changes, reductions in tooth size, changes in craniofacial morphology, alterations in ear and tail form, more frequent and nonseasonal estrus cycles, alterations in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, changed concentrations of several neurotransmitters, prolongations in juvenile behavior, reductions in both total brain size and of particular brain regions; the domestication of animals and plants began with the wolf at least 15,000 years before present, which led to a rapid shift in the evolution and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants. The sudden appearance of the domestic dog in the archaeological record was followed by livestock and crop domestication, the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet.
Around 10,000 YBP, a new way of life emerged for humans through the management and exploitation of plant and an
Winter squash is an annual fruit representing several squash species within the genus Cucurbita. It differs from summer squash in that it is harvested and eaten in the mature fruit stage when the seeds within have matured and the skin has hardened into a tough rind. At this stage, most varieties of this fruit can be stored for use during the winter. Winter squash is cooked before being eaten, the skin or rind is not eaten as it is with summer squash. In New Zealand and Australian English, the term "pumpkin" refers to the broader category called "winter squash". Squash is a frost-tender plant meaning. Winter squash seeds germinate best when the soil temperature is 21 to 35 °C, the warmer end of the range is optimal, it is harvested whenever the fruit has turned a deep, solid color and the skin is hard. Most winter squash is harvested in September or October in the Northern Hemisphere, before the danger of heavy frosts. Winter squash is a low-calorie food and a good source of complex vegetable carbohydrates and dietary fiber.
It is an excellent source of vitamin A, a great source of vitamin C, dietary fiber and manganese, a good source of folate, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B1, tryptophan, vitamin B6, vitamin B3 and vitamin B5. It is a source of iron and beta-carotene; the darker the skin is, the higher the beta-carotene content. Cucurbita maxima Ambercup squash Arikara squash Atlantic Giant Banana squash Buttercup squash Georgia candy roaster Hubbard squash Jarrahdale pumpkin Kabocha - "Hokkaido squash" Lakota squash Mooregold squash Red kuri squash - called "orange Hokkaido squash" or "baby red Hubbard squash" Turban squashCucurbita argyrosperma Cushaw squash Cucurbita moschata Butternut squash Dickinson pumpkin Long Island cheese pumpkin Fairytale pumpkin squash or Musquee de Provence Kent pumpkinCucurbita pepo Acorn squash Carnival squash Delicata squash Field pumpkin Heart of gold squash Spaghetti squash Sweet dumpling squash Autumn cup squash Calabaza Giraumon Gold nugget squash Sugar loaf squash List of squash and pumpkin dishes Sorting Cucurbita names
Sowing is the process of planting. An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as being sowed. Among the major field crops, oats and rye are sown and legumes are seeded and maize and soybeans are planted. In planting, wider rows are used, the intent is to have precise. In sowing, little if any soil is placed over the seeds, as seeds can be sown into the soil by maintaining a planting depth of about 2-3 times the size of the seed. For hand sowing, several sowing types exist; this method is much better. Hand is the process of casting handfuls of seed over prepared ground, or broadcasting. A drag or harrow is employed to incorporate the seed into the soil. Though labor-intensive for any but small areas, this method is still used in some situations. Practice is required to sow evenly and at the desired rate. A hand seeder can be used for sowing, though it is less of a help than it is for the smaller seeds of grasses and legumes. Hand sowing may be combined with pre-sowing in seed trays.
This allows the plants to come to strength indoors during cold periods. In agriculture, most seed is now sown using a seed drill; the drill places the seed at a measured distance below the soil, so that less seed is required. The standard design uses a fluted feed metering system, volumetric in nature. Rows are about 10–30 cm apart, depending on the crop species and growing conditions. Several row opener types are used depending on local tradition. Grain drills are most drawn by tractors, but can be pulled by horses. Pickup trucks are sometimes used. A seed rate of about 100 kg of seed per hectare is typical, though rates vary depending on crop species, soil conditions, farmer's preference. Excessive rates can cause the crop to lodge, while too thin a rate will result in poor utilisation of the land, competition with weeds and a reduction in the yield. Open-field planting refers to the form of sowing used in the agricultural context whereby fields are prepared generically and left open, as the name suggests, before being sown directly with seed.
The seed is left uncovered at the surface of the soil before germinating and therefore exposed to the prevailing climate and conditions like storms etc. This is in contrast to the seedbed method used more in domestic gardening or more specific agricultural scenarios where the seed is applied beneath the soil surface and monitored and manually tended to ensure more successful growth rates and better yields. Before sowing, certain seeds first require a treatment prior to the sowing process; this treatment may be seed scarification, seed soaking or seed cleaning with cold water. Seed soaking is done by placing seeds in medium hot water for at least 24 to up to 48 hours Seed cleaning is done with fruit, as the flesh of the fruit around the seed can become prone to attack from insects or plagues. Seed washing is done by submerging cleansed seeds 20 minutes in 50 degree Celsius water; this water kills any organisms. With infected tropical fruit such as lychees and rambutans, seed washing with high-temperature water is vital.
In addition to the mentioned seed pretreatments, seed germination is assisted when a disease-free soil is used. When trying to germinate difficult seed, prior treatment of the soil is vital; the two most used soil treatments are sterilisation. Depending on the necessity, pasteurisation is to be preferred. Sterilisation can be done when trying to grow difficult crops. To pasteurise the soil, the soil is heated for 15 minutes in an oven of 120 °C. Advance sowing Plant propagation Planter Priming Seed drill.