A Moveable Feast
A Moveable Feast is a memoir by American author Ernest Hemingway about his years as a struggling young migrant journalist and writer in Paris in the 1920s. The book, first published in 1964, describes the author's apprenticeship as a young writer while he was married to his first wife, Hadley Richardson; the memoir consists of various personal accounts and stories by Hemingway. He provides specific addresses of apartments, bars and hotels — many of which can still be found in Paris today. Among other notable persons, people featured in the book include: Sylvia Beach, Hilaire Belloc, Aleister Crowley, John Dos Passos, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, Ford Madox Ford, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Ezra Pound, Evan Shipman, Gertrude Stein, Alice B. Toklas and Hermann von Wedderkop; the memoir was published posthumously based on Hemingway's manuscripts and notes by his fourth wife and widow, Mary Hemingway, in 1964, three years after Hemingway's death. An edition altered and revised by his grandson, Seán Hemingway, was published in 2009.
In November 1956, Hemingway recovered two small steamer trunks that he had stored in March 1928 in the basement of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. The trunks contained notebooks. Hemingway's friend and biographer A. E. Hotchner, with him in Paris in 1956 recounted the occasion of Hemingway's recovery of the trunks and notebooks: Having recovered his trunks, Hemingway had the notebooks transcribed, began working them up into the memoir that would become A Moveable Feast. After Hemingway's death in 1961, his widow Mary Hemingway, in her capacity as his literary executor, made final copy-edits to the manuscript prior to its publication in 1964. In a "Note" with which she prefaced the posthumously published 1964 edition of the work, she wrote: Gerry Brenner, a literary scholar at the University of Montana, other researchers have examined Hemingway's notes and the initial drafts of A Moveable Feast, which are in the collection of Ernest Hemingway's personal papers opened to the public in 1979, following the completion of the John F. Kennedy Library, where they are held in Boston.
In a paper titled "Are We Going to Hemingway's Feast?", Brenner undertook to document Mary Hemingway's editing process and questioned its validity. He concluded that some of her changes were misguided, others derived from questionable motives, he suggested that the changes appeared to contradict Mary's stated policy for her role as executor, to maintain a "hands off" approach. Brenner states that Mary changed the order of the chapters in Hemingway's final draft to "preserve chronology"; this change interrupted the series of juxtaposed character sketches of such individuals as Sylvia Beach, owner of the bookstore Shakespeare & Company, Gertrude Stein. The chapter titled "Birth of a New School", which Hemingway had dropped from his draft, was reinserted by Mary. Brenner alleges the most serious change was the deletion of Hemingway's lengthy apology to his first wife, Hadley; this apology appeared in various forms in every draft of the book. Brenner suggests. In contrast, Hotchner has said that he received a near final draft of A Moveable Feast in 1959, that the version Mary Hemingway published is the draft he had read then.
In his view, the original 1964 publication is the version that Hemingway intended, Mary Hemingway did not revise or add chapters on her own initiative, but carried out Ernest's intentions. Hotchner describes Hemingway's memoir as "a serious work", that Hemingway "certainly intended it for publication", contends: "Because Mary was busy with matters relating to Ernest’s estate, she had little involvement with the book.... What I read on the plane coming back from Cuba was what was published. There was no extra chapter created by Mary; the title of A Moveable Feast was suggested by Hemingway's friend and biographer A. E. Hotchner, who remembered Hemingway using the term in 1950. Hotchner's recollection of what Hemingway had said became the source of the epigraph on the title page for the posthumously published work in 1964; the term had been used earlier out of its traditional religious context by Albert Camus in his novel, The Stranger: "Masson remarked that we'd had a early lunch, but lunch was a movable feast, one had it when one felt like it."
The 1964 edition of Hemingway's Paris memoir consists of a "Preface" by Hemingway, a "Note" by his widow, 20 chapters, or individual parts or sections. Each of the chapters can be read as a stand-alone piece or entity, not dependent upon the context of the whole work, nor arranged in any chronological order—with titles descriptive of the subject matter of each, as follows: "A Good Café on the Place St.-Michel" "Miss Stein Instructs" "Une Génération Perdue" "Shakespeare and Company" "People of the Seine" "A False Spring" "The End of an Avocation" "Hunger Was Good Discipline" "Ford Madox Ford and the Devil's Disciple" "Birth of a New School" "With Pascin at the Domé" "Ezra Pound and His Bel Esprit" "A Strange Enough Ending" "The Man Who Was Marked for Death" "Evan Shipman at the Lilas" "An Agent of Evil" "Scott Fitzgerald" "Hawks Do Not Share" "A Matter of Measurements" "There Is Never Any End to Paris" The first published edition was edited from Hemingway's manuscripts and notes by his fourth wife and widow, Mary Hemingway, published posthumously in 1964, three years after Hemingway's death.
In 2009 a new edition, titled the "Restored Edition", was published by Seán Hemingway, assistant curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and grandson
The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises, a 1926 novel by American Ernest Hemingway, portrays American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights. An early and enduring modernist novel, it received mixed reviews upon publication. However, Hemingway biographer Jeffrey Meyers writes that it is now "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work", Hemingway scholar Linda Wagner-Martin calls it his most important novel; the novel was published in the United States in October 1926 by Scribner's. A year Jonathan Cape published the novel in London under the title Fiesta, it remains in print. Hemingway began writing the novel on his birthday—21 July—in 1925, finished the draft manuscript two months in September. After setting aside the manuscript for a short period, he worked on revisions during the winter of 1926; the basis for the novel was Hemingway's trip to Spain in 1925. The setting was unique and memorable, depicting sordid café life in Paris and the excitement of the Pamplona festival, with a middle section devoted to descriptions of a fishing trip in the Pyrenees.
Hemingway's sparse writing style, combined with his restrained use of description to convey characterizations and action, demonstrates his "Iceberg Theory" of writing. The novel is a roman à clef: the characters are based on real people in Hemingway's circle, the action is based on real events. Hemingway presents his notion that the "Lost Generation"—considered to have been decadent and irretrievably damaged by World War I—was in fact resilient and strong. Hemingway investigates the themes of love and death, the revivifying power of nature, the concept of masculinity. In the 1920s Hemingway lived in Paris, was foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, traveled to Smyrna to report about the Greco–Turkish War, he wanted to use his journalism experience to write fiction, believing that a story could be based on real events when a writer distilled his own experiences in such a way that, according to biographer Jeffrey Meyers, "what he made up was truer than what he remembered". With his wife Hadley Richardson, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, Spain, in 1923, where he was following his recent passion for bullfighting.
The couple returned to Pamplona in 1924—enjoying the trip immensely—this time accompanied by Chink Dorman-Smith, John Dos Passos, Donald Ogden Stewart and his wife. The two stayed at the hotel of his friend Juanito Quintana; that year, they brought with them a different group of American and British expatriates: Hemingway's Michigan boyhood friend Bill Smith, Stewart divorced Duff, Lady Twysden, her lover Pat Guthrie, Harold Loeb. In Pamplona, the group disintegrated. Hemingway, attracted to Duff, was jealous of Loeb, on a romantic getaway with her. Against this background was the influence of the young matador from Ronda, Cayetano Ordóñez, whose brilliance in the bullring affected the spectators. Ordóñez honored Hemingway's wife by presenting her, from the bullring, with the ear of a bull he killed. Outside of Pamplona, the fishing trip to the Irati River was marred by polluted water. Hemingway had intended to write a nonfiction book about bullfighting, but decided that the week's experiences had presented him with enough material for a novel.
A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday, he began writing what would become The Sun Also Rises. By 17 August, with 14 chapters written and a working title of Fiesta chosen, Hemingway returned to Paris, he finished the draft on 21 September 1925, writing a foreword the following weekend and changing the title to The Lost Generation. A few months in December 1925, Hemingway and his wife spent the winter in Schruns, where he began revising the manuscript extensively. Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January, and—against Hadley's advice—urged him to sign a contract with Scribner's. Hemingway left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pauline, he returned to Schruns to finish the revisions in March. In June, he was in Pamplona with both Pfeiffer. On their return to Paris, Richardson asked for a separation, left for the south of France. In August, alone in Paris, Hemingway completed the proofs, dedicating the novel to his son.
After the publication of the book in October, Hadley asked for a divorce. Hemingway maneuvered Boni & Liveright into terminating their contract so he could have The Sun Also Rises published by Scribner's instead. In December 1925 he wrote The Torrents of Spring—a satirical novella attacking Sherwood Anderson—and sent it to his publishers Boni & Liveright, his three-book contract with them included a termination clause should they reject a single submission. Unamused by the satire against one of their most saleable authors, Boni & Liveright rejected it and terminated the contract. Within weeks Hemingway signed a contract with Scribner's, who agreed to publish The Torrents of Spring and all of his subsequent work. Scribner's published the novel on 22 October 1926, its first edition consisted of 5090 copies. Cleonike Damianakes illustrated the dust jacket with a Hellenistic design of a seated, robed woman, her head bent to her shoulder, eyes closed, one hand holding an apple, her shoulders and a thigh exposed.
Editor Maxwell Perkins intended "Cleon's respectably sexy" design to attract "the feminine readers who control the destinies of so many novels". Two
The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway
The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigía Edition, is a posthumous collection of Ernest Hemingway's short fiction, published in 1987. It contains the classic First Forty-Nine Stories plus a number of other works and a foreword by his sons. Only a small handful of stories published during Hemingway's lifetime are not included in The First Forty-Nine. Five stories were written concerning the Spanish Civil War: "The Denunciation", "The Butterfly and the Tank", "Night Before Battle", "Under The Ridge", "Nobody Ever Dies". Excepting "Nobody Ever Dies", these stories were collected in a posthumous 1969 volume with his play, entitled The Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Spanish Civil War. Chicote's bar and the Hotel Florida in Madrid are recurrent settings in these stories. In March 1951, Holiday magazine published two of Hemingway's short children's stories, "The Good Lion" and "The Faithful Bull". Two more short stories were to appear in Hemingway's lifetime: "Get A Seeing-Eyed Dog" and "A Man Of The World", both in the December 20, 1957 issue of the Atlantic Monthly.
The seven unpublished stories included in The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigía Edition are "A Train Trip", "The Porter", "Black Ass at the Cross Roads", "Landscape with Figures", "I Guess Everything Reminds You of Something", "Great News from the Mainland", "The Strange Country". In addition, this volume includes "An African Story", derived from the unfinished and edited posthumous novel The Garden of Eden, two parts of the 1937 novel To Have And Have Not, "One Trip Across" and "The Tradesman's Return", in their original magazine versions; the collection is not, despite the title, complete. After Hemingway's suicide, Scribner put out a collection called The Nick Adams Stories which contains many old stories collected in The First Forty-Nine as well as some unpublished pieces. From the new material, only "The Last Good Country" and "Summer People" are included in this volume. For the Hemingway short fiction completist, some readers may turn to the Everyman's Library The Collected Stories, published in the UK only, introduced by James Fenton.
Eschewing the pieces collected in The Garden of Eden and To Have and Have Not, Fenton's collection includes all the pieces from The Nick Adams Stories as well as a number of pieces of juvenilia and pre-Paris stories. Stories from The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber The Capital of the World The Snows of Kilimanjaro Old Man at the Bridge From Three Stories and Ten Poems Up in Michigan In Our Time On the Quai at Smyrna Indian Camp The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife The End of Something The Three-Day Blow The Battler A Very Short Story Soldier's Home The Revolutionist Mr, and Mrs. Elliot Cat in the Rain Out of Season Cross-Country Snow My Old Man Big Two-Hearted River, Part I Big Two-Hearted River, Part II Men Without Women The Undefeated In Another Country Hills Like White Elephants The Killers Che Ti Dice La Patria? Fifty Grand A Simple Enquiry Ten Indians A Canary for One An Alpine Idyll A Pursuit Race Today is Friday Banal Story Now I Lay Me Winner Take Nothing After the Storm A Clean, Well-Lighted Place The Light of the World God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen The Sea Change A Way You'll Never Be The Mother of a Queen One Reader Writes Homage to Switzerland A Day's Wait A Natural History of the Dead Wine of Wyoming The Gambler, the Nun, the Radio Fathers and Sons From To Have and Have Not One Trip Across The Tradesman's Return Uncollected stories published in Hemingway's lifetime The Denunciation The Butterfly and the Tank Night Before Battle Under the Ridge Nobody Ever Dies The Good Lion The Faithful Bull Get a Seeing-Eyed Dog A Man of the World First published in The Nick Adams Stories Summer People The Last Good Country From The Garden of Eden An African Story A Train Trip The Porter Black Ass at the Crossroads Landscape with Figures I Guess Everything Reminds You of Something Great News from the Mainland The Strange Country
The Dangerous Summer
The Dangerous Summer is a nonfiction book by Ernest Hemingway published posthumously in 1985 and written in 1959 and 1960. The book describes the rivalry between bullfighters Luis Miguel Dominguín and his brother-in-law, Antonio Ordóñez, during the "dangerous summer" of 1959, it has been cited as Hemingway's last book. The Dangerous Summer is an edited version of a 75,000-word manuscript Hemingway wrote between October 1959 and May 1960 as an assignment from LIFE Magazine. Hemingway summoned his close friend Will Lang Jr. to come to Spain to deliver the story to LIFE Magazine. The book was edited from the original manuscript by his American publisher Charles Scribner's Sons. A 30,000-word extract from the script was published in three consecutive installments in LIFE during September 1960. Popular author James Mitchener wrote the 33-page introduction which includes Michener's personal knowledge of bullfights and famous matadors, a comprehensive glossary of terms related to each stage of a bullfight, unvarnished personal anecdotes of Hemingway.
The book charts the rise of Antonio Ordóñez during a season of bullfights during 1959. During a fight on May 13, 1959, in Aranjuez, Ordóñez is badly gored but remains in the ring and kills the bull, a performance rewarded by trophies of both the bull's ears, its tail, a hoof. By contrast, Luis Miguel Dominguín is famous as a bullfighter and returns to the ring after several years of retirement. Less gifted than Ordóñez, his pride and self-confidence draw him into an intense rivalry with the newcomer, the two meet in the ring several times during the season. Starting the season supremely confident, Dominguín is humbled by this competition. While Ordóñez displays breathtaking skill and artistry in his fights, performing dangerous, classical passés, Dominguín resorts to what Hemingway describes as "tricks", moves that look impressive to the crowd but that are much safer. Dominguín is gored badly at a fight in Valencia, Ordóñez is gored shortly afterwards. Less than a month the two bullfighters meet in the ring again for what Hemingway described as "one of the greatest bullfights I have seen", "an perfect bullfight unmarred by any tricks."
From the six bulls which they fight, the pair win ten ears, four tails and two hooves as trophies, an extraordinary feat. Their final meeting takes place in Bilbao, with Dominguín receiving a near-fatal goring and Ordóñez demonstrating absolute mastery by performing the recibiendo kill, one of the oldest and most dangerous moves. Ordóñez's recibiendo requires three attempts, displaying the fighter's artistry and bravery that Hemingway likens to that of legendary bullfighter Pedro Romero. Review in The New York Times by William Kennedy
Islands in the Stream (novel)
Islands in the Stream is the first of the posthumously published works of Ernest Hemingway. The book was intended to revive Hemingway’s reputation after the negative reviews of Across the River and Into the Trees, he began writing it in 1950 and advanced through 1951. The work, rough but finished, was found by Mary Hemingway among 332 works Hemingway left behind at his death. Islands in the Stream was meant to encompass three stories to illustrate different stages in the life of its main character, Thomas Hudson; the three different parts of the novel were to be titled "The Sea When Young", "The Sea When Absent" and "The Sea in Being". These titles were changed, into what are now its three acts: "Bimini", "Cuba", "At Sea". Early in 1950 Hemingway started work on a "sea trilogy", to consist of three sections: "The Sea When Young"; the last was published in 1952 as the Sea. He wrote an unpublished story, "Sea-Chase", which his wife and editor combined with the previous stories about the islands, renamed them as Islands in the Stream, published in 1970.
The first act, "Bimini", begins with an introduction to the character of Thomas Hudson, a typical Hemingway stoic male figure. Hudson is a renowned American painter who finds tranquility on the island of Bimini, in the Bahamas, a far cry from his usual adventurous lifestyle. Hudson’s strict routine of work is interrupted when his three sons arrive for the summer and is the setting for most of the act. Introduced in this act is the character of Roger Davis, a writer, one of Hudson’s oldest friends. Though similar to Hudson, by struggling with an unmentioned internal conflict, Davis seems to act as a more dynamic and outgoing image of Hudson’s character; the act ends with Hudson receiving news of the death of his two youngest children soon after they leave the island. "Cuba" takes place soon thereafter during the Second World War in Havana, Cuba where the reader is introduced to an older and more distant Hudson who has just received news of his oldest son’s death in the war. This second act introduces us to a more cynical and introverted Hudson who spends his days on the island drinking and doing naval reconnaissance for the US military aboard Hudson's yacht, converted to an auxiliary patrol boat.
"At Sea", the final act, follows Hudson and a team of irregulars aboard their boat as they track and pursue survivors of a sunken German U-boat along the Jardines del Rey archipelago on the northern coast of Cuba. Hudson becomes intent on finding the fleeing Germans after he finds they massacred an entire village to cover their escape; the novel ends with a shoot-out and the destruction of the Germans in one of the tidal channels surrounding Cayo Guillermo. Hudson is mortally wounded in the gun battle, although the ending is ambiguous. During the chase, Hudson stops questioning the deaths of his children; this chapter rings with influences of Hemingway’s earlier work For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway used many of his real life experiences and relatives, to form his stories and base his characters on. Henry Strater, an American painter, spent the summer with Hemingway fishing on Bimini in 1935, he is shown in the adjacent picture standing next to what was believed to be a 1,000 pound Marlin, half eaten by sharks while Strater landed the fish.
While on Bimini and Sara Murphy, good friends of Hemingway, lost their young son, Baoth, to illness. Hemingway's grief for the loss is captured in letters to the Murphys. During WW II, Hemingway hunted for U-Boats aboard his boat Pilar, his boat was outfitted with communications gear provided by the US Embassy in Havana. Hemingway Archives, John F. Kennedy Library
"The Revolutionist" is an Ernest Hemingway short story published in his first American volume of stories In Our Time. Written as a vignette for his earlier Paris edition of the collection, titled in our time, he rewrote and expanded the piece for the 1925 American edition published by Boni & Liveright, it is only one of two vignettes rewritten as short stories for the American edition. The story is about a young Hungarian magyar communist revolutionary fleeing the Hungarian White Terror to Italy. There he visits museums, where he sees some Renaissance paintings he likes, while declaring his dislike for the painter Mantegna. "The Revolutionist" has received scant attention from literary critics with only a cursory examination of the art mentioned in the short story. Literary critics have speculated whether Hemingway's intended meaning in his allusion to Mantegna's Dead Christ is meant to highlight the importance of realism as opposed to idealism, or whether it is a reminder of the character's pain and the pain suffered by an entire generation.
In the story a Magyar communist revolutionist travels by train through Italy visiting art galleries. He admires Giotto and Piero della Francesca, but not Mantegna, he buys reproductions of the pieces which he wraps and stows carefully. When he reports to a second character, who acts as the story's narrator, the two take a train to Romagna; the narrator sends the young man on to Milan from where he is to cross to safety across the Alps into Switzerland via Aosta. The narrator provides him with addresses for contacts in Milan and tells him about the Montegnas to be seen there—which the young Communist again explains he dislikes; the story ends with the narrator saying: "The last I heard of him the Swiss had him in a jail near Sion." The piece was written in 1923 or 1924, when Hemingway lived in Paris with his first wife Hadley Richardson. A year earlier all of his manuscripts were lost when Hadley packed them in a suitcase, stolen. Acting on Ezra Pound's advice that he had lost no more than the time it took to write the pieces, Hemingway either recreated them or wrote new vignettes and stories."The Revolutionist" was included as a vignette in the 1924 Paris edition of in our time published by Bill Bird's Three Mountain's Press.
Of the 18 vignettes contained in the volume, only two were rewritten as short stories for the American edition, published in 1925 by Boni & Liveright. "The Revolutionist" was one. It has autobiographical allusions to Milan. In 1918, at age 19 Hemingway recuperated for six months at a hospital in Milan after suffering a mortar hit on the Italian front. There, Hemingway fell in love with Red Cross nurse Agnes von Kurowsky. Although seven years his senior, Hemingway loved her and the two were to marry on his return to the US at the end of his recuperation. However, after Hemingway went home, he was devastated when Kurowsky broke off the romance in a letter, telling him of her engagement to an Italian officer; the background of "The Revolutionist" is based on the 1919 Hungarian White Terror, caused when Communist iconoclasm resulted in a bloody and violent backlash leading to a period of severe repression, from which the young Magyar revolutionist flees. At over a page long, the piece is variously considered a vignette or a story.
It lacks a plot, does no more than capture a moment of time in the characters' lives. The piece is an early experiment in Hemingway's "theory of omission"—later to be known as the Iceberg Theory—in which nonessential information is left out or hinted at; the story has attracted little attention from literary critics and much of that examines the allusions to Renaissance painters. Early biographers such as Carlos Baker dismissed the piece as a sketch. Hemingway was an art lover, he said that "seeing pictures" was one of five things he cared about, going on to say, "And I could remember all the pictures." Aldous Huxley caused a minor literary dispute when he made derisive remarks about Hemingway's allusion to the "bitter nail holes" of Mantegna's Dead Christ in A Farewell to Arms. Of the six references to Mantegna in the entire Hemingway canon, two occur in "The Revolutionist". Mentioning Mantegna twice in such a short story signals it is an important point; the picture depicts Christ in death as a human figure with a robust physiognomy in the days before resurrection and ascension.
Critic Kenneth Johnston says that for a Renaissance viewer the painting would have a much different effect than for a young man of the lost generation "who would see... an acute reminder that life if painful and painfully short." Hemingway was fascinated by scenes of the crucifixion, according to Johnston, seeing it symbolic of sacrifice, "the ultimate in pain and courage", writing that to Hemingway's young man in "The Revolutionist", "the bitter nail holes of Mantegna's Christ symbolize the painful price of sacrifice". Hemingway scholar Charles Oliver speculates Mantegna's social rise from humble beginnings could be construed as offensive to the young communist's values. Critics suggest the young Magyar's dislike of the artist means he rejects Mantegna's realism while conversely the narrator embraces Mantegna and his realism. Johnston
The Snows of Kilimanjaro (short story)
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is a short story by Ernest Hemingway. It was first published in Esquire magazine in 1936, it was republished in The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories in 1938, The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories in 1961, is included in The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigía Edition. The story opens with a paragraph about Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, called the “House of God.” There, lies the frozen carcass of a leopard near the summit. No one knows. We are introduced to Harry, a writer dying of gangrene, Helen, with him on safari in Africa, they are stranded because a bearing in their truck's engine burnt out. Harry's situation makes him irritable, he speaks about his impending death in a matter-of-fact, sarcastic way that upsets Helen, he quarrels with her over minute things, from whether he should drink a whiskey and soda, to whether she should read to him. Helen is concerned for his welfare, but Harry's frustration makes him talk unpleasantly towards her.
Harry begins to ruminate on his life experiences, which have been many and varied, on the fact that he feels he has never reached his potential as a writer because he has chosen to make his living by marrying wealthy women. In italicized portions of the text that are scattered throughout the story, Hemingway narrates some of Harry's experiences in a stream-of-consciousness style. Harry's first memories consist of traveling around Europe following a battle: hiding a deserter in a cottage and skiing in the mountains, playing cards during a blizzard, hearing about a bombing run on a train full of Austrian officers. Harry falls asleep and wakes in the evening to find Helen returning from a shooting expedition, he meditates on how she is thoughtful and good to him, how she is not to blame that his talent as a writer has been destroyed. Helen, he remembers, is a rich widow who lost her husband and a child, was bored by a series of lovers, "acquired" Harry because "she wanted some one that she respected with her".
Harry recalls how he developed gangrene two weeks earlier: they had been trying to get a picture of some waterbuck, Harry scratched his right knee on a thorn. He had not applied iodine right away, the wound got infected; as Helen returns to drink cocktails with Harry, they make up their quarrel. Harry's second memory sequence begins, he recalls how he once patronized prostitutes in Constantinople "to kill his loneliness", pining for the first woman he fell in love with, with whom he quarreled in Paris and broke up. Harry had a fight with a British soldier over an Armenian prostitute, left Constantinople for Anatolia, after running from a group of Turkish soldiers, "he had seen the things that he could never think of and still he had seen much worse". Harry recalls that upon his return to Paris, his then-wife inquired about a letter, from Harry's first love—a reply to the letter he wrote to that woman while being in Constantinople. Helen and Harry eat dinner, Harry has another memory—this time of how his grandfather's log house burned down.
He relates how he fished in the Black Forest, how he lived in a poor quarter of Paris and felt a kinship with his poor neighbors. Next, he remembers a ranch and a boy he turned in to the sheriff after the boy protected Harry's horse feed by shooting and killing a thief. Harry ponders: "That was one story, he knew at least twenty good stories from out there and he had never written one. Why?". He felt once again that he'd prefer to be in a different company rather than with Helen, as "rich were dull". Next, his thoughts wander to beating the fear of death, the limits of being able to bear pain, he remembers an officer named Williamson, hit by a bomb, to whom Harry subsequently fed all his morphine tablets. Harry considers; as Harry lies on his cot remembering, he feels the overwhelming presence of death and associates it with the hyena, spotted running around the edge of the campsite. He is unable to speak. Helen, has him moved into the tent for the night. Harry dreams that it is morning, that a man called Compton has come with a plane to rescue him.
He watches the landscape go by beneath him. He sees the snow-covered top of Mt. Kilimanjaro, knows, where he is bound. Helen wakes up in the middle of the night to a strange hyena cry, finds Harry unresponsive on his cot. "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is regarded as one of Hemingway's greatest works, holding its own alongside The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms. The short story was published in August 1936 in Esquire magazine. A film adaptation of the short story, directed by Henry King, written by Casey Robinson, starring Gregory Peck as Harry, Susan Hayward as Helen, Ava Gardner as Cynthia Green appeared in 1952; the film's ending does not mirror the story's ending. Short story text