A happening is a performance, event, or situation meant to be considered art as performance art. The term was first used by Allan Kaprow during the 1950s to describe a range of art-related event or multiple events. Happenings occur anywhere and are multi-disciplinary, with a nonlinear narrative and the active participation of the audience. Key elements of happenings are planned but artists sometimes retain room for improvisation; this new media art aspect to happenings eliminates the boundary between its viewer. In the late 1960s due to the depiction in films of hippie culture, the term was used much less to mean any gathering of interest from a pool hall meetup or a jamming of a few young people to a beer blast or fancy formal party. Allan Kaprow first coined the term "happening" in the spring of 1959 at an art picnic at George Segal's farm to describe the art pieces that were going on; the first appearance in print was in Kaprow's famous "Legacy of Jackson Pollock" essay, published in 1958 but written in 1956.
"Happening" appeared in print in one issue of the Rutgers University undergraduate literary magazine, Anthologist. The form was imitated and the term was adopted by artists across the U. S. Germany, Japan. Jack Kerouac referred to Kaprow as "The Happenings man", an ad showing a woman floating in outer space declared, "I dreamt I was in a happening in my Maidenform brassiere". Happenings are difficult to describe, in part because each one is unique and different from one another. One definition comes from Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort in The New Media Reader, "The term'Happening' has been used to describe many performances and events, organized by Allan Kaprow and others during the 1950s and 1960s, including a number of theatrical productions that were traditionally scripted and invited only limited audience interaction." Another definition is, "a purposefully composed form of theatre in which diverse alogical elements, including nonmatrixed performing, are organized in a compartmented structure".
However, Canadian theatre critic and playwright Gary Botting, who himself had "constructed" several happenings, wrote in 1972: "Happenings abandoned the matrix of story and plot for the complex matrix of incident and event."Kaprow was a student of John Cage, who had experimented with "musical happenings" at Black Mountain College as early as 1952. Kaprow combined the visual arts with discordant music. "His happenings incorporated the use of huge constructions or sculptures similar to those suggested by Artaud," wrote Botting, who compared them to the "impermanent art" of Dada. "A happening explores negative space in the same way. It is a form of symbolism: actions concerned with'now' or fantasies derived from life, or organized structures of events appealing to archetypal symbolic associations." A "Happening" of the same performance will have different outcomes because each performance depends on the action of the audience. In New York City "Happenings" became quite popular though many had neither seen nor experienced them.
Happenings can be a form of participatory new media art, emphasizing an interaction between the performer and the audience. In his Water, Robert Whitman had the performers drench each other with coloured water. "One girl squirmed between wet inner tubes struggling through a large silver vulva." Claes Oldenburg, best known for his innovative sculptures, used a vacant house, his own store, the parking lot of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Los Angeles for Injun, World's Fair II and AUT OBO DYS. The idea was to break down the fourth wall between spectator. For some happenings, everyone present is included in the making of the art and the form of the art depends on audience engagement, for they are a key factor in where the performers' spontaneity leads. Happenings had no set rules, only vague guidelines that the performers follow based on surrounding props. Unlike other forms of art, Happenings that allow chance to enter are ever-changing; when chance determines the path the performance will follow, there is no room for failure.
As Kaprow wrote in his essay, "'Happenings' in the New York Scene", "Visitors to a Happening are now and not sure what has taken place, when it has ended when things have gone'wrong'. For when something goes'wrong', something far more'right,' more revelatory, has many times emerged". Kaprow's piece 18 Happenings in 6 Parts is cited as the first happening, although that distinction is sometimes given to a 1952 performance of Theater Piece No. 1 at Black Mountain College by John Cage, one of Kaprow's teachers in the mid-1950s. Cage stood reading from a ladder, Charles Olson read from another ladder, Robert Rauschenberg showed some of his paintings and played wax cylinders of Édith Piaf on an Edison horn recorder, David Tudor performed on a prepared piano and Merce Cunningham danced. All these things took place among the audience rather than on a stage. Happenings flourished in New York City in early 1960s. Key contributors to the form included Carolee Schneemann, Red Grooms, Robert Whitman, Jim Dine Car Crash, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Delford Brown, Lucas Samaras, Robert Rauschenberg.
Some of their work is documented in Michael Kirby's book Happenings. Kaprow claimed that "some of us will become famous, we will have proven once again that the only success occurred when there was a lack of it". In 1963 Wolf Vostell made the Happening TV-Burying at the Yam Festival in coproduction with the Smolin Gallery and in 1964 the Happening Y
7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration is a work of land art by the German artist Joseph Beuys. It was first publicly presented in 1982 at the documenta 7. With the help of volunteers, Beuys planted 7,000 oak trees over several years in Kassel, each with an accompanying basalt stone. In response to the extensive urbanization of the setting the work was an long and large-scale artistic and ecological intervention with the goal of enduringly altering the living space of the city; the project, though at first controversial, has become an important part of Kassel's cityscape. The project was of enormous scope, met with some controversy. While the biggest difficulty of the project was raising the money, the project had its share of opponents. Much of it was political, from the conservative state government dominated by the Christian Democrats.. Some people thought the black stone markers were ugly piling pink stones on the sites in 1982 as a prank. A motorcyclist had died as a result of one of the stone markers.
However, as more trees were planted people's perception of the project as a parking lot destroyer had met with increasing tolerance.“I think the tree is an element of regeneration which in itself is a concept of time. The oak is so because it is a growing tree with a kind of solid heart wood, it has always been a form of sculpture, a symbol for this planet since the Druids, who are called after the oak. Druid means oak, they used their oaks to define their holy places. I can see such a use for the future.... The tree planting enterprise provides a simple but radical possibility for this when we start with the seven thousand oaks.” "The planting of seven thousand oak trees is only a symbolic beginning. Contrary to its initiative, progressive features such a symbolic beginning requires a marker, in this instance a basalt column. Future goals for the project included: a) an ongoing scheme of tree planting to be extended throughout the world as part of a global mission to effect environmental & social change "the purpose of educational activities".
Beuys' art works and performances are not about amusing the audience. It is an awakening message from the tradition, a recognition of the whole based upon a new concept of beauty that extends beyond the instant gratification. "I not only want to stimulate people, I want to provoke them." It is a movement from the tradition, the expected, the established for an inclusive openness. Completed in 1987 by his son, Wenzel, on the first anniversary of his father's death, the project is still maintained by the city. Beuys' 7000 Oaks work is an example of the thread that links the Situationist International's approach to art and its re-creation by new groups continues to evolve through a new generation of conscious organizations that merge art and environmental issues in their work. In 2000, the Center for Art and Visual Culture developed the Joseph Beuys Sculpture Park and Joseph Beuys Tree Partnership and planted over 350 trees in various parks in Baltimore Parks with the help of over 500 volunteers including children from local schools.
The project was organized around Beuys' philosophy that ‘everyone can be an artist’ by acknowledging the creativity inherent in volunteers planting trees on their own. The goal of the project was to “extend the traditional role of the art gallery so the gallery extends out into the city”. 1982 in art The Letters of Utrecht Living sculpture Social sculpture Beuys, Joseph. Gespräche über Bäume. Wangen FIU-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-928780-11-7. Database. "Joseph Beuys, 7000 Oaks". Dia Art Foundation. Retrieved 25 May 2012
Allan Kaprow was an American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art. He helped to develop the "Environment" and "Happening" in the late 1950s and 1960s, as well as their theory, his Happenings — some 200 of them — evolved over the years. Kaprow shifted his practice into what he called "Activities", intimately scaled pieces for one or several players, devoted to the study of normal human activity in a way congruent to ordinary life. Fluxus, performance art, installation art were, in turn, influenced by his work. Kaprow began his early education in Arizona where he attended boarding school, he would attend the High School of Music and Art in New York where his fellow students were the artists Wolf Kahn, Rachel Rosenthal and the future New York gallerist Virginia Zabriskie. As an undergraduate at New York University, Kaprow was influenced by John Dewey's book Art as Experience, he studied in philosophy as a graduate student. He received his MA degree from Columbia University in art history.
He started in the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts in 1947. It was here that he started with a style of action painting, which influenced his Happenings pieces in years to come, he went on to study composition with John Cage in his class at the New School for Social Research, painting with Hans Hofmann, art history with Meyer Schapiro. Kaprow started his studio career as a painter, co-founded the Hansa and Reuben Galleries in New York and became the director of the Judson Gallery. With John Cage's influence, he became less and less focused on the product of painting, instead on the action. Kaprow began teaching at Rutgers University in 1953. While there, he helped to create the Fluxus group, along with professors Robert Watts, Geoffrey Hendricks and Roy Lichtenstein, artists George Brecht and George Segal, undergraduates Lucas Samaras and Robert Whitman. Through a long teaching career, he taught at Rutgers until 1961, Pratt Institute from 1960 to 1961, the State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1961 to 1966, the California Institute of the Arts from 1966 to 1974, before serving as a full-time faculty member at the University of California, San Diego, where he taught from 1974 to 1993.
In 1958, Kaprow published the essay "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock". In it he demands a "concrete art" made of everyday materials such as "paint, food and neon lights, water, old socks, a dog, movies." In this particular text, he uses the term "happening" for the first time stating that craftsmanship and permanence should be forgotten and perishable materials should be used in art. The "Happenings" first started as scripted events, in which the audience and performers followed cues to experience the art. To Kaprow, a Happening was "A game, an adventure, a number of activities engaged in by participants for the sake of playing." Furthermore, Kaprow says that the Happenings were "events that, put happen." There was no structured beginning, middle, or end, there was no distinction or hierarchy between artist and viewer. It was the viewer's reaction that decided the art piece, making each Happening a unique experience that cannot be replicated; these "Happenings" represent. It is participatory and interactive, with the goal of tearing down the wall a.k.a. "the fourth wall" between artist and observers, so observers are not just "reading" the piece, but interacting with it, becoming part of the art.
One such work, titled Eighteen Happenings in Six Parts, involved an audience moving together to experience elements such as a band playing toy instruments, a woman squeezing an orange, painters painting. His work evolved, became less scripted and incorporated more everyday activities. Another example of a Happening he created involved bringing people into a room containing a large abundance of ice cubes, which they had to touch, causing them to melt and bringing the piece full circle. Kaprow's most famous happenings began around 1961 to 1962, when he would take students or friends out to a specific site to perform a small action, he gained significant attention in September 1962 for his Words performance at the Smolin Gallery. However, the ritualistic nature of his happenings is nowhere better illustrated than in Eat, which took place in a cave with irregular floors criss-crossed with puddles and streams; as Canadian playwright Gary Botting described it, "The'visitors' entered through an old door, walked down a dark, narrow corridor and up steps to a platform illuminated by an ordinary light bulb.
Girls offered white wine to each visitor. Apples and bunches of bananas dangled from the ceiling and a girl fried banana fritters on a hotplate. In a small cave, entered only by climbing a ladder, a performer cut and distributed boiled potatoes. In a log hut and jam were served. Bread was stuffed between the logs; the visitors could drink at random for an hour. There was no dialogue other than that used in the interaction of the visitors with the performers." Botting noted that Eat appealed to all the senses and superadded to, the rhythmic, repeated ticking of metronomes set at the pace of a human heartbeat, simulating ritualistic drumming. Furthermore, "The'visitors' were involved physically and mystically (by the'mystery' of what is beyond the walls of the hut or in the inner cave." In short, Kaprow developed techniques to prompt a creative response from the audience, encouraging audience members to make their own connections between ideas and events. In his own w
Vito Acconci was an influential American performance and installation artist, whose diverse practice included sculpture, architectural design, landscape design. His foundational performance and video art was characterized by "existential unease," exhibitionism, discomfort and provocation, as well as wit and audacity, involved crossing boundaries such as public–private, consensual–nonconsensual, real world–art world, his work is considered to have influenced artists including Laurie Anderson, Karen Finley, Bruce Nauman, Tracey Emin, among others. Acconci was interested in radical poetry, but by the late 1960s, he began creating Situationist-influenced performances in the street or for small audiences that explored the body and public space. Two of his most famous pieces were Following Piece, in which he selected random passersby on New York City streets and followed them for as long as he was able, Seedbed, in which he claimed that he masturbated while under a temporary floor at the Sonnabend Gallery, as visitors walked above and heard him speaking.
In the late-1970s, he turned to sculpture and design increasing the scale of his work, if not his art world profile. Over the next two decades he developed public artworks and parks, airport rest areas, artificial islands and other architectural projects that embraced participation and playfulness. Notable works of this period include: Personal Island, designed for the Netherlands. Retrospectives of Acconci's work have been organized by the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Contemporary Art and his work is in numerous public collections, including those of the Museum of Modern Art and Whitney Museum of American Art, he has been recognized with fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, American Academy in Rome. In addition to his art and design work, Acconci taught at many higher learning institutions. Acconci died on April 28, 2017 in Manhattan at age 77. Born Vito Hannibal Acconci in the Bronx, New York in 1940, Acconci attended a Roman Catholic elementary school, high school, college.
He received a BA in literature from the College of the Holy Cross in 1962 and an MFA in literature and poetry from the University of Iowa. He noted: "There wasn't a woman in my classroom between kindergarten and graduate school." Acconci began his career as a poet and self-publishing the poetry magazine 0 TO 9 with Bernadette Mayer in the late 1960s. Produced in quantities of 100 to 350 copies per issue on a mimeograph machine, the magazine mixed contributions by both poets and artists. In the late 1960s, Acconci transformed himself into a performance and video artist using his own body as a subject for photography, film and performance. Most of his early work incorporated subversive social comment, his performance and video work was marked by confrontation and Situationism. In the mid-1970s, Acconci expanded his métier into the world of audio/visual installations. One installation/performance work from this period his best known work, is Seedbed. In Seedbed Acconci lay hidden underneath a gallery-wide ramp installed at the Sonnabend Gallery, masturbating while vocalizing into a loudspeaker his fantasies about the visitors walking above him on the ramp.
One motivation behind Seedbed was to involve the public in the work's production by creating a situation of reciprocal interchange between artist and viewer. Cindy Nemser was the first art critic to write about Acconci for Arts Magazine in 1971. Nemser later did an interview with Acconci which became the cover piece for Arts Magazine. In the article "Video: the Aesthetics of Narcissism," Rosalind Krauss refers to aspects of Narcissism apparent in the video work of Acconci. “A line of sight begin Acconci’s plane of vision ends on the eyes of his projected double.” Krauss uses this description to underline aspects of narcissism in the Vito Acconci work Centers. In the piece Acconci is filming himself pointing directly at himself for about 25 minutes. Krauss goes on to explain the psychological basis behind the actions of video in comparison to discussions of object art. In the 1980s, Acconci turned to permanent installations. During this time he invited viewers to create artwork by activating machinery that erected shelters and signs.
One of the most prominent examples of these temporary installations is titled Instant House, first created in 1980, but was exhibited in the summer of 2012 at the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego. In January 1983, Acconci was a visiting artist at Middlebury College. During that time, he completed Way Station I, his first permanent installation; the work sparked immense controversy on the college's campus, was set on fire and destroyed in 1985. Despite this, the sculpture marked a transition for Acconci's career from performance artist to architectural designer, he turned to the creation of furniture and prototypes of houses and gardens in the late 1980s, in 1988 the artist founded Acconci Studio, which focused on theoretical design and building. Acconci Studio is located on Jay Street in Brooklyn. Acconci designed the United Bamboo store in Tokyo in 2003 and collaborated on concept designs for interactive art vehicle Mister Ar
Woman's Building (Los Angeles)
The Woman's Building was a non-profit arts and education center located in Los Angeles, California. The Woman's Building focused on feminist art and served as a venue for the women's movement and was spearheaded by artist Judy Chicago, graphic designer Sheila Levrant de Bretteville and art historian Arlene Raven; the center was open from 1973 until 1991. During its existence, the Los Angeles Times called the Woman's Building a "feminist mecca." The time: mid-'70s. The place: the Feminist Studio Workshop to become the Woman's Building; the quest: to find themselves, to make art, to change the culture. In 1973, CalArts teachers artist Judy Chicago, graphic designer Sheila Levrant de Bretteville and art historian Arlene Raven were finished with trying to offer feminist education in a male-dominated institution like CalArts; that year they founded the Feminist Studio Workshop. FSW was one of the first independent art schools for women, revolved around a workshop environment, allowing women to develop their artistic skills and knowledge outside a traditional educational environment.
The vision of FSW was that art should not be separated from activities related to the women's movement. FSW met in de Bretteville's home, in November 1973 the three women began renting a workshop space in a vacant building near MacArthur Park, calling it the Woman's Building after a building from the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. FSW sublet space in the building to performance art groups, the Sisterhood Bookstore, the Associated Women's Press, local chapters of the National Organization for Women and the Women's Liberation Union, three galleries: Womanspace Gallery, Gallery 707, Grandview. In 1975, the building that FSW was renting was sold, they, along with the other tenants, moved to a former Standard Oil Company building from the 1920s. In the 1940s the building had been converted into a warehouse, consisting of three floors of open space, making it ideal for FSW's classes and exhibitions; the space was the first arts organization to locate itself in downtown Los Angeles, contributing to the revitalization of the area during the 1970s and 1980s.
FSW became the main tenant as the previous smaller tenants left, decided to hire an administrator and create a board of directors to handle the growth of the organization. FSW obtained funding from memberships, fund-raising and grants. Numerous programs and groups formed out of FSW, they offered a two-year program in interdisciplinary arts, such as performing, graphics and writing. Deena Metzger started the writing program. Readers in the series included Meridel LeSueur, Honor Moore, Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, they hosted large-scale exhibitions and social events. From 1976 to 1980 the Feminist Art Workers toured the Midwest with interactive performance and installation artworks. A performance group called the Waitresses formed, who performed in restaurants using the waitress as a metaphor for women in society; the Incest Awareness Project consisted of a series of interactive exhibitions from 1978–79, including a video installation, Equal Time and Equal Space, directed by Nancy Angelo, in which audience members would sit surrounded by video monitors playing videos of incest survivors sharing their experiences.
A group piece, In Mourning and in Rage, created by Suzanne Lacy and Leslie Labowitz, featured 10 tall women, wearing 7-foot-tall head extensions, draped in black, standing on the steps of the Los Angeles City Hall. Each woman represented a statistic of violence against women. Works such as these are credited with shaping the contemporary performance art scene. Artist Sheila Levrant de Bretteville designed a necklace of an eyebolt on a chain, meant to represent "strength without a fist". In 1979 artists from the Woman's Building issued a nationwide call for lesbian artists to organize exhibitions of their work as part of the Great American Lesbian Art Show. In 1981 the Feminist Studio Workshop closed, due to the diminishing demand for alternative education. With FSW's closure, the programs of the Woman's Building were altered to cater to the needs of working women; the building's hours were reduced and two thirds of it rented to artists for studio space. That year all three of the founding members left, former students Terry Wolverton, Sue Maberry and Cheri Gaulke led the organization.
They began the Vesta Awards, an annual fundraiser. That year, the Woman's Building founded the Women's Graphic Center Typesetting and Design, a for-profit business designed to strengthen their finances and support the artistic endeavors of the Building, they provided phototypesetting, graphic design and printing services. However, in 1988 the Women's Graphic Center closed, the income for staff salaries disappeared. Wolverton served as sole executive director from 1988 to April 1989 before leaving. Pauli De Witt replaced Wolverton, staying only and failing to rescue the organization financially. After she left, a 13-member board ran the Woman's Building; the Woman's Building never recovered and despite pushes to move to another location, they closed the gallery and performance space in 1991. They continued to hold the Vesta Awards, with keynote speaker Lucy Lippard and proceeds going towards an oral history of the organization. In 1991, Sandra Golvin, President of the Board of Directors, donated the Woman's Building records to the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art.
Other archival collections of materials are at the Getty Research Institute and the ONE Archives, both in Los Angeles. The Woman's Building and its legacy was the subject of a ma
Bas Jan Ader
Bastiaan Johan Christiaan "Bas Jan" Ader was a Dutch conceptual and performance artist, photographer. His work was in many instances presented as photographs and film of his performances, he made performative installations. Ader was lost at sea in 1975, attempting to cross the Atlantic Ocean from the American coast to England sailing in a thirteen-foot sailboat, his deserted vessel was found off the coast of Ireland on 18 April 1976, offering few clues as to his fate. Born on 19 April 1942, Ader grew up in a small village in the Dutch province of Groningen, his parents were both Calvinist ministers. His father was executed in 1944 by the Nazis for his large scale endeavors to help Jewish compatriots to escape the Holocaust. During adolescence, Ader took art classes at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam, in the United States during a study abroad program. Ader graduated from the Otis College of Art and Design in 1965 with a BFA, from the Claremont Graduate University in 1967. After graduating, he taught at various institutions, including Mt. San Antonio College, Immaculate Heart College, the University of California, Irvine.
Ader created a handful of photographs as well as several short black-and-white films in which he is the sole performer. One of his most famous works, I'm too sad to tell you, consists of a 3-minute silent black-and-white movie of him crying, several photographs and a post card mailed to his friends with the inscription "I'm too sad to tell you". Other films include him sitting on a chair on a pitched roof until he falls, one where he is hanging on a branch until his grip gives out and he falls into a stream, a film in which he rides his bike into a canal. In 1969–70 he anonymously published the satirical conceptual art magazine Landslide with his friend William Leavitt; the magazine featured "interviews" with nonexistent artists, such as "Brian Shitart", pranks such as "expandable sculpture", five packing peanuts in an envelope. Although satirical of conceptual art, the magazine itself is considered a work of conceptual art. In 1973 he made the work'In search of the miraculous', a series of photographs showing a lonely figure wandering through the night in L.
A, searching everywhere with a torchlight. It was the first part of a triptych; the second part would be the record of his Atlantic crossing, the third part a similar night time search somewhere in the Netherlands, again to be recorded in a series of photographs. He had arranged for a choir to sing sea shanties at a gallery in Los Angeles before his departure from Cape Cod. A similar performance was planned upon his arrival in a museum in Netherlands. Due to his loss at sea, the triptych was never completed; the title "In Search of the Miraculous" was a reference to P. D. Ouspensky's mystical book In Search of the Miraculous. On 9 July 1975, Ader set off in a 13 ft modified "Guppy 13" pocket cruiser named Ocean Wave, to make his single-handed west–east crossing of the North Atlantic, he estimated. His unmanned boat was found nine months after he had set sail, floating nearly vertically in the water, bow down, 200 nautical miles due west of Land's End, 100 nautical miles SW of Ireland. Ocean Wave was found by Spanish fishermen who took her to A Coruña from where she was stolen somewhere between 18 May and 7 June 1976.
It is unknown. It is the source of much speculation. Sightings of him and his boat off the American East Coast and the Azores are unconfirmed. Ader was an accomplished sailor, having been one of a two-handed crew, sailing a yacht from Morocco to California in 1962-63, his brother Erik, an experienced ocean sailor, thinks that the fixed point on the boat to which his life line was attached was ripped out when he fell overboard in heavy weather. His conclusion is based on interviews with people in Spain who saw his retrieved boat before it was stolen. Ader's mother, Johanna Adriana Ader-Appels, wrote the poem "From the Deep Waters of Sleep" on 12 October 1975, after having what she described as a premonition of his death:"From the deep waters of sleep I wake up to consciousness. In the distance I hear a train rumbling in the early morning, it passes the border. It will stop." "I feel my heart beating too. It will go on beating for some time, it will stop. I wonder; when he passed the border of birth, I laid him at my breast.
He was small then." "A white body of a man, rocked in the arms of the waves,Is small too." "What are we in the infinity of ocean and sky? A small baby at the breast of eternity." "Have you heard of happinessSpringing from a deep well of sorrow? Of love, springing from pain and despondency and death? Such is mine." Psalm 30:2 In 1961, Ader exhibited his works at three galleries in Washington DC and received a positive review in The Washington Post. He became a minor sensation, being interviewed by The Voice of America and by the press in his native Holland. In 1967, he gained his Master of Fine Arts with his project Implosion at Claremont Graduate School. During his lifetime, Ader had solo exhibitions at the Chouinard Art School, Los Angeles, the Pomona College Museum of Art, the galleries Art & Project, Kabinett für Aktuelle Kunst, Bremerhaven and the Claire S. Copley Gallery, blogs.getty.edu. Ader held a two-person exhibition with William Leavitt at the Nova Scotia School of Art and Design, a conceptual hotbed at the time, as well as a number of group exhibitions in Europe a
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the