Truthiness is the belief or assertion that a particular statement is true based on the intuition or perceptions of some individual or individuals, without regard to evidence, intellectual examination, or facts. Truthiness can range from ignorant assertions of falsehoods to deliberate duplicity or propaganda intended to sway opinions; the concept of truthiness has emerged as a major subject of discussion surrounding U. S. politics during the 1990s and 2000s because of the perception among some observers of a rise in propaganda and a growing hostility toward factual reporting and fact-based discussion. American television comedian Stephen Colbert coined the term truthiness in this meaning as the subject of a segment called "The Wørd" during the pilot episode of his political satire program The Colbert Report on October 17, 2005. By using this as part of his routine, Colbert satirized the misuse of appeal to emotion and "gut feeling" as a rhetorical device in contemporaneous socio-political discourse.
He applied it to U. S. President George W. Bush's nomination of Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court and the decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Colbert ascribed truthiness to other institutions and organizations, including Wikipedia. Colbert has sometimes used a Dog Latin version of the term, "Veritasiness". For example, in Colbert's "Operation Iraqi Stephen: Going Commando" the word "Veritasiness" can be seen on the banner above the eagle on the operation's seal. Truthiness was named Word of the Year for 2005 by the American Dialect Society and for 2006 by Merriam-Webster. Linguist and OED consultant Benjamin Zimmer pointed out that the word truthiness had a history in literature and appears in the Oxford English Dictionary, as a derivation of truthy, The Century Dictionary, both of which indicate it as rare or dialectal, to be defined more straightforwardly as "truthfulness, faithfulness". Responding to claims by Michael Adams that the word existed with a different meaning, Colbert said: "Truthiness is a word I pulled right out of my keister".
Stephen Colbert, portraying his character Dr. Stephen T. Colbert, chose the word truthiness just moments before taping the premiere episode of The Colbert Report on October 17, 2005, after deciding that the scripted word – "truth" – was not ridiculous enough: "We're not talking about truth, we're talking about something that seems like truth – the truth we want to exist", he explained, he introduced his definition in the first segment of the episode, saying: "Now I'm sure some of the'word police', the'wordinistas' over at Webster's are gonna say,'Hey, that's not a word'. Well, anybody who knows me knows. They're elitist. Telling us what is or isn't true. Or what did or didn't happen."When asked in an out-of-character interview with The Onion's A. V. Club for his views on "the'truthiness' imbroglio that's tearing our country apart", Colbert elaborated on the critique he intended to convey with the word: Truthiness is tearing apart our country, I don't mean the argument over who came up with the word...
It used to be, everyone was entitled to their own opinion, but not their own facts. But that's not the case anymore. Facts matter not at all. Perception is everything. It's certainty. People love the President because he's certain of his choices as a leader if the facts that back him up don't seem to exist. It's the fact that he's certain, appealing to a certain section of the country. I feel a dichotomy in the American populace. What is important? What you want to be true, or what is true?... Truthiness is'What I say is right, anyone else says could be true.' It's not only that I feel it to be true. There's not only an emotional quality. During an interview on December 8, 2006, with Charlie Rose, Colbert stated: I was thinking of the idea of passion and emotion and certainty over information, and what you feel in your gut, as I said in the first Wørd we did, sort of a thesis statement of the whole show – however long it lasts – is that sentence, that one word, that's more important to, I think, the public at large, not just the people who provide it in prime-time cable, than information.
On his April 2, 2009 episode of The Colbert Report, Colbert added an addendum to the definition: a word so straight that it drives men wild. After Colbert's introduction of truthiness, it became used and recognized. Six days after, CNN's Reliable Sources featured a discussion of The Colbert Report by host Howard Kurtz, who played a clip of Colbert's definition. On the same day, ABC's Nightline reported on truthiness, prompting Colbert to respond by saying: "You know what was missing from that piece? Me. Stephen Colbert, but I'm not surprised. Nightline's on opposite me..."Within a few months of its introduction by Colbert, truthiness was discussed in The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Weekly, the San Francisco Chronicle, the Chicago Tribune, Newsweek, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News, the Associated Press, Editor & Publisher, The Huffington Post, Chicago Reader, CNET, on ABC's Nightline, CBS's 60 Minutes, The Oprah Winfrey Show. The February 13, 2006 issue of Newsweek featured an article on The Colbert Report titled "The Truthiness Teller", recounting the career of the word truthiness since its popularization by Colbert.
In its issue of October 25, 2005, eight days after the premiere episode of the Report, The New York Times ran its third article on The Colbert Report, "Bringing Out the Absurdity of the News". The article discussed the segment on "truthiness", although the Times misreported the word as "trustiness". In its November 1, 2005 issue, the Tim
A proverb is a simple, traditional saying that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are metaphorical and use formulaic language. Collectively, they form a genre of folklore; some proverbs exist in more than one language because people borrow them from languages and cultures similar to theirs. In the West, the Bible and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs. Not all Biblical proverbs, were distributed to the same extent: one scholar has gathered evidence to show that cultures in which the Bible is the "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible," whereas another shows that, of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, eleven are from the Bible; however every culture has its own unique proverbs. What is a proverb? Lord John Russell observed poetically that a "proverb is the wit of one, the wisdom of many." But giving the word "proverb" the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, although scholars quote Archer Taylor's argument that formulating a scientific "definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking...
An incommunicable quality tells us that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial," many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize its essential characteristics. More constructively, Mieder has proposed the following definition, "A proverb is a short known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth and traditional views in a metaphorical and memorizable form and, handed down from generation to generation". Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, maxims and proverbial comparisons." Based on Persian proverbs and Ameri propose the following definition: "A proverb is a short sentence, well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony, well-known among people for its fluent wording, clarity of expression, simplicity and generality and is used either with or without change".
There are many sayings in English that are referred to as "proverbs", such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, rejects including such sayings among proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically'No!'" The definition of "proverb" has changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled "A Yorkshire proverb" in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, "as throng as Throp's wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth"; the changing of the definition of "proverb" is noted in Turkish. In other languages and cultures, the definition of "proverb" differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, "aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones". Among the Bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate "proverb": ere and itan; the first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, the third was "linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse". Among the Balochi of Pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for "proverbs with background stories".
There are language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label "proverb riddles". Haste makes waste. You can catch more flies with honey. You can lead a horse to water; those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Fortune favours. A little learning is a dangerous thing, it ain't over till the fat lady sings It is better to be smarter than you appear than to appear smarter than you are. Good things come to those. A poor workman blames his tools. A dog is a man's best friend. An apple a day keeps the doctor away If the shoe fits, wear it! Honesty is the best policy Slow and steady wins the race Don't count your chickens before they hatch Practice makes perfect. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know Proverbs come from a variety of sources; some are, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry, songs, advertisements, literature, etc.
A number of the well known sayings of Jesus and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are based on stories the end of a story. For example, the proverb "Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat. Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such a J. R. R. Tolkien, some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society, such as the bumper sticker pictured below. C. S. Lewis' created proverb about a lobster in a pot, from the Chronicles of Narnia, has gained currency. In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have bec
Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The false information is caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism; the news is often reverberated as misinformation in social media but finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity; the relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, the popularity of social media the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have been implicated in generating and propagating fake news during elections. Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U. S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel; the term is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." Fake news is a neologism used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are false, have enormous traction in the culture, are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.
He did not include news, "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, by any definition, that's a lie."The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can be fake news; some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but the "character of online circulation and reception". Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news: satire or parody false connection misleading content false context impostor content manipulated content fabricated content In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.
In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news". Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news, negative of his presidency. In November 2017, Claire Wardle announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues, she now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems:'mis-information','dis-information', and'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm. Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Wei, in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping, its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu, the states of Qin and Yan, its capital was Handan, in modern Hebei Province. Zhao was home to administrative philosopher Shen Dao, sophist Gongsun Long and the Confucian Xun Kuang; the Zhao clan within Jin had accumulated power for centuries, including annexing the Baidi state of Dai for themselves during the mid-5th century BC. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin was divided up between three powerful ministers. In 403 BC, the king of Zhou formally recognized the existence of the State of Zhao along with two other States and Wei, marking the start of the Warring States Period.
At the onset of the Warring States period, Zhao was one of the weaker states. Despite its extensive territory, its northern border was subject to harassment by the Xiongnu and by other northern nomadic peoples. At the same time, Zhao was surrounded by strong states and lacked the military strength of Wei or the prosperity of Qi. Zhao became a pawn in the struggle between the states of Wei and Qi, this struggle came to a climax in 354 BC when Wei invaded Zhao, Zhao had to seek aid from Qi; the resulting Battle of Guiling was a major victory for Qi, it lessened the threat to Zhao's southern border. Zhao remained weak until the military reforms of King Wuling of Zhao; the soldiers of Zhao were ordered to dress like their Xiongnu neighbours and to replace war chariots with cavalry archers. This reform proved to be a brilliant strategy. With the advanced technology of the Chinese states and nomadic tactics, the cavalry of Zhao became a powerful force; the result was that the newly strengthened Zhao was evenly matched against its greatest enemy, the state of Qi.
Zhao demonstrated its enhanced military prowess by conquering the State of Zhongshan in 295 BC after a prolonged war, annexing territory from its neighbouring states of Wei and Qin. During this time, the cavalry of Zhao occasionally intruded into the state of Qi in campaigns against the state of Chu. Several brilliant military commanders of the period appeared concurrently, including Lian Po, Zhao She and Li Mu. Lian Po proved instrumental in defending Zhao against the Qin. Zhao She was most active in the east. Li Mu defended Zhao from the Xiongnu and from Qin. By the end of the Warring States Period, Zhao was the only state strong enough to oppose the powerful Qin state. An alliance with Wei against Qin commenced in 287 BC but ended in defeat at Huayang in 273 BC; the struggle culminated in the bloodiest battle of the whole period, the Battle of Changping in 260 BC. The troops of Zhao were defeated by Qin. Although the forces of Wei and Chu saved Handan from a follow-up siege by the victorious Qin, Zhao would never recover from the enormous loss of men in the battle.
In 229 BC, invasions led by the Qin general Wang Jian were opposed by Li Mu and his subordinate officer Sima Shang until 228 BC. Li Mu was one of the best generals of the Warring States era, although he was unable to defeat Wang Jian, Wang Jian was unable to make headway either; the invasion developed into a stalemate. Realizing that he had to get rid of Li Mu to conquer Zhao, the emperor of Qin, Qin Shihuang, attempted to sow discord among the Zhao leadership. Zhao King Youmiu fell for the scheme: acting on faulty advice from disloyal court officials and Qin infiltrators, he ordered the execution of Li Mu and relieved Sima Shang from his duties. Li Mu's replacement, Zhao Cong, was promptly defeated by Wang Jian. Qin captured King Youmiu and conquered Zhao in 228 BC. Prince Jia, the stepbrother of King Qian, was proclaimed King Jia at Dai and led the last Zhao forces against the Qin; the regime lasted until 222 BC, when the Qin army defeated his forces at Dai. In 154 BC, an unrelated Zhao, headed by Liu Sui, the Prince of Zhao kingdom, participated in the unsuccessful Rebellion of the Seven States against the newly installed second emperor of the Han dynasty.
Before the state of Qin unified China in 221 BC, each region had their own unique customs and culture, although they were all dominated by an upper class that shared a common culture. In the Yu Gong, a section of the Book of Documents, most composed in the 4th century BC, the author describes a China, divided into nine regions, each with its own distinctive peoples and products; the core theme of this section is that these nine regions are unified into one state by the travels of the eponymous sage, Yu the Great and by sending each region's unique goods to the capital as tribute. Other texts discussed these regional variations in culture and physical environments. One of these texts was Wuzi, a Warring States military treatise written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were linked to the physical environment and territory they live in. Of Zhao, he said: The two states of Han and Zhao train their troops rigorously but have difficulty in applying their skills to the battlefield.
Han and Zhao are states of the Central Plain. Theirs are a gentle p
The tiger is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside, it is an apex predator preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own; the tiger once ranged from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China. Today's tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans; the tiger is among the most popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams; the tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh and South Korea. The Middle English tigre and Old English tigras derive from Latin tigris; this was a borrowing of Classical Greek τίγρις'tigris', a foreign borrowing of unknown origin meaning'tiger' as well as the river Tigris.
The origin may have been the Persian word tigra meaning'pointed or sharp', the Avestan word tigrhi'arrow' referring to the speed of the tiger's leap, although these words are not known to have any meanings associated with tigers. The generic name Panthera is traceable to the Old French word'pantère', the Latin word panthera, the Ancient Greek word πάνθηρ'panther'; the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara means'pale yellow, white'. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name Panthera tigris; the tiger's closest living relatives were thought to be the Panthera species lion and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, that both may be more related to each other than to the lion and jaguar.
P. T. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date. Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China; this species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", it was functionally and also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage. Tigers grew in size in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene. Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java. The Wanhsien, Ngandong and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times. Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia and Sakhalin.
Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils due to insular dwarfism. Fossil remains of tigers were excavated in Sri Lanka, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene and Early Holocene; the Bornean tiger was present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times. The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data; the resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were separated during interglacial periods.
Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago. The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013, it was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of t