Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan, his birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village. At age 12, Bhai Jetha and his grandmother moved to Goindval; the boy thereafter served him. The daughter of Guru Amar Das got married to Bhai Jetha, he thus became part of Guru Amar Das's family; as with the first two Gurus of Sikhism, Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or "servant or slave of god ". Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581, he faced hostilities from the sons of Amar Das, shifted his official base to lands identified by Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for expanding the manji organization for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
He appointed his own son as his successor, unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das. Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi Khatri family in Lahore, his father was mother Daya Kaurboth of whom died when he was aged seven. He was brought up by his grandmother, he married the younger daughter of Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand and Guru Arjan. Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in Goindval town of Punjab. Of his three sons, Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru; the choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Arjan called as Minas, is alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind. However, alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction offer a different story, contradict this explanation on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Arjan.
The competing texts do acknowledge disagreement and describe Prithi Chand as having become the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev and disputing the succession of Guru Hargobind, the grandson of Ram Das. Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur", he started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.
The town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. Ram Das composed about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, he was a celebrated poet, composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian classical music. These cover a range of topics: One who calls himself to be a disciple of the Guru should rise before dawn and meditate on the Lord's Name. During the early hours, he should rise and bathe, cleansing his soul in a tank of nectar, while he repeats the Name the Guru has spoken to him. By this procedure he washes away the sins of his soul. – GGS 305 The Name of God fills my heart with joy.
My great fortune is to meditate on God's name. The miracle of God's name is attained through the perfect Guru, but only a rare soul walks in the light of the Guru's wisdom. – GGS 94 O man! The poison of pride is killing you. Your body, the colour of gold, has been discoloured by selfishness. Illusions of gradeur turn black. – GGS 776 Guru's Bani is part of Nanakshahi calendar and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. His compositions continue to be sung daily in Harimandir Sahib of Sikhism. Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode, it is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition. This was intermittently used, its use lapsed in late 18th century. However, sometime in 19th or 20th century by conflicting accounts, the composition of Ram Das came back in use along with Anand Karaj ceremony, replacing the Hindu ritual of circumambulation around the fire.
The composition of Ram
Guru Har Krishan
Guru Har Krishan' was the eighth of the ten Sikh Gurus. At the age of 5, he became the youngest Guru in Sikhism on 7 October 1661, succeeding his father, Guru Har Rai, he died of the disease in 1664 before reaching his 8th birthday. He is known as Bal Guru, sometimes spelled in Sikh literature as Hari Krishan Sahib, he is remembered in the Sikh tradition for saying "Baba Bakale" before he died, which Sikhs interpreted to identify his granduncle Guru Tegh Bahadur as the next successor. Guru Har Krishan Sahib had the shortest reign as Guru, lasting 5 months and 24 days. Har Krishan was born in Kiratpur in northwest Indian subcontinent to Guru Har Rai, his father, Guru Har Rai supported the moderate Sufi influenced Dara Shikoh instead of conservative Sunni influenced Aurangzeb as the two brothers entered into a war of succession to the Mughal Empire throne. After Aurangzeb won the succession war in 1658, he summoned Guru Har Rai in 1660 to explain his support for the executed Dara Shikoh. Guru Har Rai sent his elder son Ram Rai to represent him.
Aurangzeb kept the 13 year old Ram Rai as hostage, questioned Ram Rai about a verse in the Adi Granth – the holy text of Sikhs. Aurangzeb claimed. Ram Rai changed the verse to appease Aurangzeb instead of standing by the Sikh scripture, an act for which Guru Har Rai excommunicated his elder son, nominated the younger Har Krishan to succeed as the next Guru of Sikhism. Aurangzeb meanwhile rewarded Ram Rai, patronizing him with land grants in Dehra Dun region of the Himalayas. A few years after Guru Har Krishan assumed the role of Sikh leader, Aurangzeb summoned the young Guru to his court, with an apparent plan to replace him with his elder brother Ram Rai as the Sikh Guru. However, Har Rai contracted smallpox when he arrived in Delhi and his meeting with Aurangzeb was cancelled. On his deathbed, Har Krishan said, "Baba Bakale", died in 1664; the Sikh religious organization interpreted those words to mean that the next Guru is to be found in Bakale village, which they identified as Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhism.
Authentic literature with more details about Guru Har Krishan's life and times are scarce and not well recorded. Some of biographies about Guru Har Krishan about who his mother was, were written in the 18th century such as by Kesar Singh Chhibber, as well as in the 19th century, these are inconsistent. Sikhs.org Sikh-History.com
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh, born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru, his four sons died during his lifetime -- two in two executed by the Mughal army. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh continued the formalisation of the religion, wrote important Sikh texts, enshrined the scripture the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's eternal Guru. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, Mata Gujri, he was born in Patna, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. His birth name was Gobind Rai, a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.
In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled. His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, an Islamic satrap of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk; the young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699 – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him. His father made the attempt, but was arrested publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire. After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676; the education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery.
In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana. He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. Guru Gobind Singh had three wives: at age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur; the couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. at age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh. at age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa; the life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa, who played the key role in protecting the Sikhs long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769.
In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. According to the Sikh tradition, he asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa; this made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh.
Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword or dagger. Kacchera: short breeches, he announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating'halal' meat and adultery were forbidden; the Khalsas agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors. The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender. Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, continued "the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb", he introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya (poll tax on non-
Amrit Velā begins at the start of a new day, begins at 12:00 am and ends at 6:00 am, or before the dawning of the morning sun, used for daily meditation and recitation of Gurbani hymns. Sikhs start Amrit Vela at 2:00 am or earlier. Guru Nanak in the Japji Sahib says, "During the hours of Amrit velā, meditate on the grandeur of the one true Name." The importance of Amrit Vela is found throughout the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib states that "those who consider themselves a Sikh must wake up daily at Amrit Vela and be in tune with the Naam" In the Sikh Rehat Maryada, it is written to arise Amrit Velā, meditate on the divine Naam. Sikhs recite their morning Nitnem during Amrit Vela. Traditionally after Nitnem Sikhs meet with the Sangat to recite Asa di Var. Amrit Khalsa Meditation Nitnem Outline of Sikhism Sikh beliefs Sikhism Simran Singh, Puran; the Spirit Born People. Peshawar: Languages Department, Punjab. Singh, Raghbir. Bandginama. New Delhi: Atma Science Trust Singh, Randhir.'Autobiography of Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh.'Ludhiana: Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh Trust Definition of Amrit Vela Amritvela Cheat Sheet Q&A - Amrit Vela and Sadh Sangat #7 @ UCL Sikh Society Video Amrit Vela - Importance - Guru's Hukam Video Amrit Vela: Rise & Shine
Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73. Before becoming a Sikh, Amar Das had adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life. One day he heard his nephew's wife, Bibi Amro, reciting a hymn by Guru Nanak, was moved by it. Bibi Amro was the daughter of Guru Angad, the second and current Guru of the Sikhs. Amar Das persuaded Bibi Amro to introduce him to her father and in 1539, Amar Das, at the age of sixty, met Guru Angad and became a Sikh, devoting himself to the Guru. In 1552, before his death, Guru Angad appointed Amar Das as Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of Sikhism. Guru Amar Das was an important innovator in Sikhism, who introduced a religious organization called the Manji system by appointing trained clergy, a system that expanded and survives into the contemporary era, he wrote and compiled hymns into a Pothi that helped create the Adi Granth. Guru Amar Das helped establish the Sikh rituals relating to baby naming and funeral, as well as the practice of congregation and celebrations of festivals such as Diwali and Vaisakhi.
He founded centres of Sikh pilgrimage, picked the site for the Golden Temple. Guru Amar Das remained the leader of the Sikhs till age 95, named his son-in-law Bhai Jetha remembered by the name Guru Ram Das as his successor. Guru Amar Das was born to mother Bakht Kaur and father Tej Bhan Bhalla on 5 May 1479 in Basarke village in what is now called Amritsar district of Punjab, he married Mansa Devi and they had four children which they named as Mohri, Mohan and Bhani. Amar Das was a religious Hindu, reputed to have gone on some twenty pilgrimages into the Himalayas, to Haridwar on river Ganges. About 1539, on one such Hindu pilgrimage, he met a Hindu monk who asked him why he did not have a guru and Amar Das decided to get one. On his return, he heard Bibi Amro, the daughter of the Sikh Guru Angad, singing a hymn by Guru Nanak, he learnt from her about Guru Angad, with her help met the second Guru of Sikhism and adopted him as his spiritual Guru, much younger than his own age. He is famous in the Sikh tradition for his relentless service to Guru Angad, with legends about waking up in the early hours and fetching water for his Guru's bath and cooking for the volunteers with the Guru, as well devoting much time to meditation and prayers in the morning and evening.
Guru Angad named Amar Das his successor instead of naming of his surviving son Shri Chand. After Amar Das became the third Guru, he continued his pilgrimages to religious sites, one of, authenticated in a hymn of the Guru Granth Sahib as being to Kurukshetra in January 1553, he died in 1574, like other Sikh Gurus he was cremated, with the "flowers" immersed into harisar. The use of fire being most appropriate way was explained by Guru Nanak in religious terms of god Agni burning the trap of death, Guru Amar Das was consigned to the same tradition. Guru Amar Das emphasised both spiritual pursuits as well an ethical daily life, he encouraged his followers to wake up before dawn, do their ablutions and meditate in silent seclusion. A good devotee, taught Amar Das, should be truthful, keep his mind in control, eat only when hungry, seek company of pious men, worship the Lord, make an honest living, serve holy men, not covet another's wealth and never slander others, he recommended holy devotion with Guru image in his follower's heart.
He was a reformer, discouraged veiling of women's faces as well as sati. He encouraged the Kshatriya people to fight in order to protect people and for the sake of justice, stating this is Dharma. Guru Amar Das started the tradition of appointing manji, introduced the dasvandh system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating, he started and inaugurated the 84-level step well called baoli at Goindval with a resting place, modeled along the lines of the Indian tradition of dharmsala, which became a Sikh pilgrimage center. He met the Mughal Emperor Akbar. According to the Sikh legend, he neither received Akbar nor was Akbar directly ushered to him, rather the Guru suggested that Akbar like everyone sit on the floor and eat in the langar with everyone before their first meeting. Akbar, who sought to encourage tolerance and acceptance across religious lines accepted the suggestion.
The Sikh hagiographies called janam-sakhis mention that Guru Amar Das persuaded Akbar to repeal the tax on Hindu pilgrims going to Haridwar. Guru Amar Das composed the rapturous hymn called Anand and made it a part of the ritual of Sikh marriage called "Anand Karaj", which means "blissful event"; the Anand hymn is sung, in contemporary times, not only during Sikh weddings but at major celebrations. Parts of the "Anand hymn" are recited in Sikh temples every evening, at the naming of a Sikh baby, as well as during a Sikh funeral, it is a section of the Anand Sahib composition of Guru Amar Das, printed on pages 917 to 922 of the Adi Granth and set to the "Ramkali" raga. Guru Amar Das's entire Anand Sahib composition is a linguistic mix of Panjabi and Hindi languages, reflecting Guru Amar Das' upbringing and background; the hymn celebrates the freedom from suffering and anxiety, the union of the soul with t
Guru Arjan 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib, he was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who became Guru Ram Das, Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century, he completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one-tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization; the Masand not only collected these funds but taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region.
The dasvand financed the building of langars. Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam, he refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture, his martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. Arjan was born in Goindval to Jetha Sodhi. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, her husband Jetha Sodhi came to be known as Guru Ram Das. Arjan's birthplace site is now memorialized as the Gurdwara Chaubara Sahib, he had two brothers: Mahadev. Various Sikh chroniclers give his birth year as 1553 or 1563, the latter is accepted by scholarly consensus as the actual year of birth with 15 April as the accepted birth date. Arjan spent the first 11 years of his life in Goindwal and the next seven years with his father in Ramdaspur.
Per Sikh tradition, he had stayed for two years in Lahore during his youth after being sent by his father to attend the wedding of his first cousin Sahari Mal's son as well as to establish a Sikh congregation. He was appointed as the Sikh Guru in 1581 after the death of his father. Ram Das was a Khatri of the Sodhi sub-caste. With Arjan's succession, the Guruship remained in the Sodhi family of Ram Das. Arjan had Prithi Chand and Mahadev. Guru Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru. Mahadev, the middle brother chose the life of an ascetic, his choice of Arjan as successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The stories in the Sikh tradition about the succession dispute around Guru Arjan are inconsistent. In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community; the Sikhs following Guru Arjan called the Prithi Chand faction as Minas, who are alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind, befriended Mughal agents.
However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction contradict this version. They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Guru Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan; the competing texts do acknowledge their disagreement. They state Prithi Chand left Amritsar, became the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and one who disputed the succession of Guru Hargobind as the next Guru; the mainstream Sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, Hargobind as the sixth Guru. Arjan, at age 18, became the fifth Guru in 1581 inheriting the title from his father. After his execution by the Muslim officials of the Mughal Empire, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606 CE. Guru Arjan's martyrdom in Mughal custody has been one of the defining though controversial issues in Sikh history. Most Mughal historians considered Guru Arjan's execution as a political event, stating that the Sikhs had become formidable as a social group, Sikh Gurus became involved in the Punjabi political conflicts.
A similar theory floated in early 20th-century, asserts that this was just a politically-motivated single execution. According to this theory, there was an ongoing Mughal dynasty dispute between Jahangir and his son Khusrau suspected of rebellion by Jahangir, wherein Guru Arjan blessed Khusrau and thus the losing side. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, therefore he ordered the Guru's execution; the Sikh tradition has a competing view. It states that the Guru's execution was a part of the ongoing persecution of the Sikhs by Islamic authorities in the Mughal Empire, that the Mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the Panth. According to Jahangir's autobiography Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, too many people were becoming persuaded by Guru Arjan's teachings and if Guru Arjan did not become a Muslim, the Sikh Panth had to be extinguished. In 1606 CE, the Guru was imprisoned in Lahore Fort, where by some accounts he was tortured and executed, by other accounts the method of his death remains unresolved.
The traditional Sikh account states that the Mughal emperor Jahangir demanded a fine of 200,000 rupees and demanded that Guru Arjan erase some of the hymns in the text that he found offensive. The Gu
The Five Ks
In Sikhism, the Five Ks are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699. They are: Kesh, Kara and Kirpan; the Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni "Sikh way of life". A Sikh who has taken Amrit and keeps all five Ks are known as Khalsa or Amritdhari Sikh, while a Sikh who has not taken Amrit but follows the teachings of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is called a Sahajdhari Sikh; the Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times. The Kesh, or uncut, long hair, is considered by Sikhs as an indispensable part of the human body. Long known as a sign of spiritual devotion, it emulates the appearance of Guru Gobind Singh and is one of the primary signs by which a Sikh can be and identified. A Sikh never trims any hair as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God's creation.
The uncut long hair and the beard, in the case of men, form the main kakār for Sikhs. The turban is a spiritual crown, a constant reminder to the Sikh that they are sitting on the throne of consciousness and are committed to living according to Sikh principles. Guru Gobind Singh told his Sikhs: "Khaalsa mero roop hai khaas. Khaalsa mai ho karo nivaas... The Khalsa is my image. Within the Khalsa I reside." Wearing a turban declares sovereignty, self-respect and piety. A noted figure in Sikh history is Bhai Taru Singh, martyred when he refused to get his Kesh cut. Comb the hair twice a day, covering it with turban, to be tied from fresh. A Kangha is a small wooden comb, it is supposed to be worn only at all times. Combs help to clean and remove tangles from the hair, is a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organized; the comb keeps the hair tidy, a symbol of not just accepting what God has given, but an injunction to maintain it with grace. The Guru Granth Sahib said.
In the Guru's time, some holy men let their hair become dirty. The Guru said; the Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times. The Kara is a constant reminder to always remember that whatever a person does with their hands has to be in keeping with the advice given by the Guru; the Kara is an iron/steel circle to symbolise God as never ending. It is a symbol of being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs. ਸੀਲ ਜਤ ਕੀ ਕਛ ਪਹਿਰਿ ਪਕਿੜਓ ਹਿਥਆਰਾ ॥ The sign of true chastity is the Kachera, you must wear this and hold weapons in hand. The Kachera is a shalwar-undergarment with a tie-knot worn by baptized Sikhs; the Kachera was made part of the five Ks as a symbol of a Sikh soldier's willingness to be ready at a moment's notice for battle or for defence. The confirmed Sikh wears a Kachera every day; some go to the extent of wearing a Kacheraye while bathing, to be ready to at a moment's notice, changing into the new one a single leg at a time, so as to have no moment where they are unprepared.
Further, this garment allowed the Sikh soldier to operate in combat and without any hindrance or restriction, because it was easy to fabricate, maintain and carry compared to other traditional under-garments of that era, like the dhoti. The Kachera symbolises self-respect, always reminds the wearer of mental control over lust, one of the Five Evils in Sikh philosophy. Kachera follow a practical and roomy design, it features an embedded string that circles the waist which can be tightened or loosened as desired, knotted securely. The Kachera can be classed between underwear and an outer garment, as in appearance it does not reveal private anatomy, looks and wears like shorts; as with all of the Five Ks, there is equality between men and women, so women are expected to wear it. Considering the hot climate in India, the Kachera is worn by men as an outer garment, keeping the wearer cool and being practical in manual work such as farming, but it is not considered respectful for women to wear the Kachera as an outer garment as it is considered too revealing.
ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਹੀਨ ਕਬਹੂ ਨਹਿ ਹੋਈ, ਰਿਹਤਵੰਤ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਸੋਈ ॥Those who never depart his/her arms, they are the Khalsa with excellent rehats. The Kirpan is a dagger. All Sikhs should wear kirpan on their body at all times as a defensive side-arm, just as a police officer is expected to wear a side-arm when on duty, its use is only allowed in the protection of others. It stands for bravery and protecting the innocent; the kirpan is kept sharp and is used to defend others, such as those who are oppressed by harsh rulers, women who are raped in the streets, or a person, being robbed or beaten. The true Sikh cannot turn a blind eye to such evils, thinking that they are "someone else's concern." It is the duty of the true Sikh to help those who suffer unjustly, by whatever means available, whether that means alerting the police, summoning help, or defending those wh