Milo Yiannopoulos, or pen name Milo Andreas Wagner, is a British polemicist, political commentator, public speaker and writer. Yiannopoulos is a former editor for Breitbart News who describes himself as a "cultural libertarian". Through his speeches and writings, he ridicules Islam, feminism, social justice, political correctness. Much of the work at Breitbart which brought Yiannopoulos to national attention was inspired by the ideas of neo-Nazis and white nationalists. In October 2017, leaked emails revealed that Yiannopoulos had solicited neo-Nazi and white supremacist figures on the alt-right for feedback and story ideas in his work for the website Breitbart; the leaked emails showed that his book and many of his Breitbart articles were ghost-written by a Breitbart colleague. Yiannopoulos was educated at Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys, he studied at the University of Manchester and Wolfson College, but failed to gain a degree from either. He began working in technology journalism for The Daily Telegraph before co-running The Kernel, an online magazine, devoted to technology journalism, in 2011–13.
He was one of the first journalists to cover the Gamergate controversy. In 2015 he began work at Breitbart, attracting attention for his opinions and the company's association with the alt-right, he relocated to the United States, where he became a vocal supporter of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign. In July 2016 he was permanently banned from Twitter for what the company cited as "inciting or engaging in the targeted abuse or harassment of others", referring to a racist harassment campaign against African-American actress Leslie Jones Twitter says Yiannopoulos inspired. Yiannopoulos has been accused of supporting paedophilia; the allegation arose from several video clips in which he said that sexual relationships between 13-year-old boys and adult men and women can be "perfectly consensual" and positive experiences for the boys. Following the release of the video, Yiannopoulos was forced out of his position at Breitbart, his invitation to speak before the Conservative Political Action Conference was revoked, a contract to publish his autobiography with Simon & Schuster was cancelled.
Yiannopoulos has said that he is not a supporter of paedophilic relationships and that his statements that ostensibly support them were attempts to cope with his own victimhood, as an object of child abuse by unnamed older men. Born as Milo Hanrahan, Yiannopoulos was raised in Kent, England, his father is of half-Irish descent. Yiannopoulos claims, he described his biological father as "terrifying", remarking at one point, "I would think, if my dad is just a doorman, why do we have such a nice house? I saw it on The Sopranos". Raised by his mother and her second husband, Yiannopoulos has stated that he did not have a good relationship with his stepfather. Yiannopoulos has spoken of. In a previous interview, he told The Times: "My mother never stopped that stuff happening with my stepdad, she just let it go on. I don't want to go too much into it... it's ancient history. But I did not have a happy time." He is described as a practising Roman Catholic, but states that he is Jewish. As a teenager, Yiannopoulos lived with his paternal grandmother Petronella, whose surname he adopted.
In January 2019, Yiannopoulos performed a song written by Kirk Franklin. The song chronicles a desire to place Jesus above fame. Yiannopoulos was educated at Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys in Canterbury from which he has said he was expelled, he dropped out before graduating. In a 2012 interview, he said of dropping out, "I try to tell myself I'm in good company, but it doesn't say great things about you unless you go on to terrific success in your own right". Yiannopoulos is a U. S. resident alien on O-1 visa status. He married his long-term boyfriend, an African-American man, in Hawaii, in September 2017; the couple prefer at present to keep the identity of his husband secret. After university, Yiannopoulos secured a job at The Catholic Herald, he was interested in becoming a theatre critic. However, Yiannopoulos' break came with his interest in technology journalism while investigating the subject of women in computing in 2009 for The Daily Telegraph. Yiannopoulos organised a method of ranking the most promising technology start-ups in Europe, The Telegraph Tech Start-Up 100, in 2011.
It operated through an events company called Wrong Agency, started by Yiannopoulos and David Rosenberg, a friend from the University of Cambridge but the company was dissolved shortly after the ceremony that awarded the top start-up. Mike Butcher of TechCrunch said the main prize had been given to music-streaming service Spotify though his casting vote had gone to the controversial payday loan company Wonga, because The Telegraph considered Wonga's reputation objectionable. Together with university friends David Rosenberg and David Haywood Smith, journalist Stephen Pritchard and former Telegraph employee Adrian McShane, Yiannopoulos launched The Kernel in November 2011 to "fix European technology journalism"; the Kernel was at that time owned by Sentinel Media. In 2012, the online magazine became embroiled in a legal dispute with one of its contributors after he said it failed to pay money o
Piyush "Bobby" Jindal is an American politician, the 55th Governor of Louisiana between 2008 and 2016, served as a U. S. Congressman and as the vice chairman of the Republican Governors Association. In 1996, Jindal was appointed secretary of the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals and in 1999, at age 28, he was appointed as the youngest president in the history of the University of Louisiana System. In 2001, President George W. Bush appointed Jindal as principal adviser to the U. S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, he first ran for governor of Louisiana in 2003, but lost in the run-off election to Democratic candidate, Kathleen Blanco. In 2004, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, becoming the second Indian American in Congress, was re-elected in 2006. Jindal ran for governor again in the 2007 election and won, making him, at 36 years old, the second youngest governor of Louisiana after Huey P. Long, 35 when he was elected in 1928. Jindal was re-elected in 2011 in a landslide.
He was the first Indian American governor, the only one until South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley assumed office in 2011. On June 24, 2015, Jindal announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination in the 2016 presidential election, he suspended his campaign in November 2015, subsequently announcing his support for Marco Rubio, who suspended his campaign on March 15, 2016. Piyush Jindal was born on June 1971 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he is the first of two sons of Raj and Amar Jindal, from India. His father is a civil graduate of Guru Nanak Dev University and Punjab University, his mother is a graduate of Rajasthan University and worked in nuclear physics at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. Before immigrating to the United States, both his parents were lecturers at an Indian engineering college. At the time of their move to the U. S. Raj Jindal was to be a doctoral candidate in physics, they left Punjab in January 1971, six months before their son was born.
Jindal's paternal grandfather was a merchant from Khanpur and his maternal grandfather was a Ferozepur banker. The family settled near Louisiana State University. Jindal attended Baton Rouge Magnet High School, graduating in 1988. While in high school, he competed in tennis tournaments, started various enterprises such as a computer newsletter, retail candy business, a mail-order software company, he spent free time working in the stands at LSU football games. Jindal graduated from Brown University in 1992 at the age of 20, with honors in two majors and public policy. Jindal was one of only 50 students nationwide admitted to the Program in Liberal Medical Education, guaranteeing him a place at Brown Medical School, he has been credited with leading Brown University's College Republicans student group. Jindal was named to the 1992 USA Today All-USA Academic Team, he applied to and was accepted by both Harvard Medical School and Yale Law School, but studied as a Rhodes Scholar where he received an MLitt in political science with an emphasis in health policy from New College, Oxford in 1994.
The subject of his thesis was "A needs-based approach to health care". After completing his studies at Oxford, Jindal turned down an offer to study for a D. Phil. in politics because his family couldn't afford to pay for his studies. Instead, Jindal joined the consulting firm Company, he interned in the office of Rep. Jim McCrery of Louisiana, where McCrery assigned him to work on healthcare policy. In 1993, U. S. Representative Jim McCrery introduced him to Governor Mike Foster. In 1996, Foster appointed Jindal as Secretary of the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, an agency that represented about 40 percent of the state budget and employed over 12,000 people. Foster called Jindal a genius. Jindal was 24 at the time. During his tenure, Louisiana's Medicaid program went from bankruptcy with a $400 million deficit into three years of surpluses totaling $220 million. Jindal was criticized during the 2007 campaign by the Louisiana AFL-CIO for closing some local clinics to reach that surplus.
Under Jindal's term, Louisiana nationally rose to third place in child healthcare screenings, with child immunizations rising, introduced new and expanded services for the elderly and the disabled. In 1998, Jindal was appointed executive director of the National Bipartisan Commission on the Future of Medicare, a 17-member panel charged with devising plans to reform Medicare. In 1999, at the request of the Louisiana governor's office and the Louisiana State Legislature, Jindal examined how Louisiana might use its $4.4 billion share of the tobacco settlement. In 1998, Jindal received the Samuel S. Beard Award for greatest public service by an individual 35 years old or under, an award given annually by Jefferson Awards. At 28 years of age in 1999, Jindal was appointed to become the youngest-ever president of the University of Louisiana System, the nation's 16th largest system of higher education with over 80,000 students. In March 2001, he was nominated by President George W. Bush to be Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services for Planning and Evaluation.
He was unanimously confirmed by a vote of the United States Senate and began serving on July 9, 2001. In that position, he served as the principal policy adviser to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, he resigned from that post on February 2003, to return to Louisiana and run for governor. He was assigned to help
Glenn Lee Beck is an American conservative political commentator, radio host and television producer. He is the CEO, owner of Mercury Radio Arts, the parent company of his television and radio network TheBlaze, he hosts the Glenn Beck Radio Program, a popular talk-radio show nationally syndicated on Premiere Radio Networks. Beck hosts the Glenn Beck television program, which ran from January 2006 to October 2008 on HLN, from January 2009 to June 2011 on the Fox News Channel and airs on TheBlaze. Beck has authored six New York Times–bestselling books. In April 2011, Beck announced that he would "transition off of his daily program" on Fox News, but would continue to team with Fox. Beck's last daily show on the network was June 30, 2011. In 2012, The Hollywood Reporter named Beck on its Digital Power Fifty list. Beck launched TheBlaze in 2011 after leaving Fox News, he hosts an hour-long afternoon program, The Glenn Beck Program, on weekdays, a three-hour morning radio show. Beck is the producer of For the Record on TheBlaze.
Beck's supporters praise him as a constitutional stalwart promoting limited government, low taxes, gun rights, free speech and defending traditional American values, while his critics contend he promotes conspiracy theories and employs incendiary rhetoric for ratings. Glenn Lee Beck was born in Everett, the son of Mary Clara and William Beck, who lived in Mountlake Terrace, Washington, at the time of their son's birth; the family moved to Mount Vernon, where they owned and operated City Bakery in the downtown area. He is descended from German immigrants who came to the United States in the 19th century. Beck was raised as a Roman Catholic and attended Immaculate Conception Catholic School in Mount Vernon. Glenn and his older sister moved with their mother to Sumner, attending a Jesuit school in Puyallup. On May 15, 1979, while out on a small boat with a male companion, Beck's mother drowned just west of Tacoma, Washington, in Puget Sound; the man who had taken her out in the boat drowned. A Tacoma police report stated that Mary Beck "appeared to be a classic drowning victim", but a Coast Guard investigator speculated that she could have intentionally jumped overboard.
Beck has described his mother's death as a suicide in interviews during television and radio broadcasts. After their mother's death and his older sister moved to their father's home in Bellingham, where Beck graduated from Sehome High School in June 1982.[ Beck regularly vacationed with his maternal grandparents, Ed and Clara Janssen, in Iowa. In the aftermath of his mother's death and subsequent suicide of his stepbrother, Beck has said he used "Dr. Jack Daniel's" to cope. At 18, following his high school graduation, Beck relocated to Provo and worked at radio station KAYK. Feeling he "didn't fit in", Beck left Utah after six months, taking a job at Washington, D. C.'s WPGC in February 1983. While working at WPGC, Beck met his first wife, Claire. In 1983, the couple married and had two daughters and Hannah. Mary developed cerebral palsy as a result of a series of strokes at birth in 1988; the couple divorced in 1994 amid Beck's struggles with substance abuse. He is a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, has said he has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Beck admitted that the family problems ranging from the divorce to his substance abuse had a severe negative impact on his children. By 1994, Beck was suicidal, he imagined shooting himself to the music of Kurt Cobain, he credits Alcoholics Anonymous with helping him achieve sobriety. He said he stopped drinking alcohol and smoking cannabis in November 1994, the same month he attended his first AA meeting. Beck said that he had gotten high every day for the previous 15 years, since the age of 16. In 1996, while working for a New Haven area radio station, Beck took a theology class at Yale University, with a written recommendation from Senator Joe Lieberman, a Yale alumnus, a fan of Beck's show at the time. Beck enrolled in an "Early Christology" course, but soon withdrew, marking the extent of his post-secondary education. Beck began a "spiritual quest" in which he "sought out answers in churches and bookstores"; as he recounted in his books and stage performances, Beck's first attempt at self-education involved reading the work of six wide-ranging authors, constituting what Beck jokingly calls "the library of a serial killer": Alan Dershowitz, Pope John Paul II, Adolf Hitler, Billy Graham, Carl Sagan, Friedrich Nietzsche.
During this time, Beck's Mormon friend and former radio partner Pat Gray argued in favor of the "comprehensive worldview" offered by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an offer that Beck rejected until a few years later. In 1999, Beck married his second wife, Tania. After they went looking for a faith on a church tour together, they joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in October 1999 at the urging of his daughter Mary. Beck was baptized by his old friend, current-day co-worker Pat Gray. Beck and his current wife Tania have had two children together and Cheyenne; until April 2011, the couple lived in New Canaan, with the four children. Beck announced in July 2010 that he had been diagnosed with macular dystrophy, saying "A couple of weeks ago I went to the doctor because of my eyes, I can't focus my eyes, he did all kinds of tests and he said,'you have macular dystrophy... you could go blind in the next year. Or, you might not.'" The disorder can make it difficult to read, dri
Michelle Malkin is an American conservative blogger, political commentator and businesswoman. Her weekly syndicated column appears in a number of websites, she is a Fox News contributor and has been a guest on MSNBC, C-SPAN, national radio programs. Malkin has written four books published by Regnery Publishing, she founded Hot Air. Michelle Malkin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Philippine citizens Rafaela – a homemaker and teacher – and Apolo DeCastro Maglalang, a physician-in-training. Several months prior to Malkin's birth, her parents had immigrated to the United States on an employer-sponsored visa. After her father finished his medical training, the family moved to New Jersey. Malkin has a younger brother, she has described her parents as Ronald Reagan Republicans who were "not politically active". Malkin, a Roman Catholic, attended Holy Spirit Roman Catholic High School, where she edited the school newspaper and aspired to become a concert pianist. Following her graduation in 1988, she enrolled at Oberlin College.
Malkin changed her major to English. During her college years, she worked as a press inserter, tax preparation aide, network news librarian, her first article for the paper criticized Oberlin's affirmative action program and received a "hugely negative response" from other students on campus. She graduated in 1992 and described her alma mater as "radically left-wing". Malkin began her journalism career at the Los Angeles Daily News, working as a columnist from 1992 to 1994. In 1995, she worked in Washington, D. C. as a journalism fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a free-market, anti-government regulation, libertarian think tank. In 1996, she moved to Seattle, where she wrote columns for The Seattle Times. Malkin became a nationally syndicated columnist with Creators Syndicate in 1999. For years, Malkin was a frequent commentator for Fox News and a regular guest host of The O'Reilly Factor. In 2007, she announced that she would not return to The O'Reilly Factor, claiming that Fox News had mishandled a dispute over derogatory statements made about her by Geraldo Rivera in a Boston Globe interview.
Since 2007, she has concentrated on her writing and public speaking, although she still appears on television especially with Sean Hannity and with Greta Van Susteren on Fox News and Fox & Friends once a week. Malkin founded the websites Hot Air, a conservative internet broadcast network, Twitchy, a Twitter content curation site. Malkin has written six books, her first book, Invasion: How America Still Welcomes Terrorists and Other Foreign Menaces was a New York Times bestseller. In 2004, she wrote In Defense of Internment: The Case for'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror, defending the U. S. government's internment of 112,000 Japanese Americans in prison camps during World War II, arguing that the same procedures could be used on Arab- and Muslim-Americans today. The book engendered harsh criticism from several Asian American civil rights organizations; the Historians' Committee for Fairness, an organization of scholars and professional researchers, condemned the book for not having undergone peer review and argued that its central thesis is false.
As a result of the controversy, the Hawaii-based newspaper MidWeek dropped her column in August 2004. Malkin responded: "I'm not Asian, I'm American", described the comparison to Coulter as "a compliment". Malkin's third book, Unhinged: Exposing Liberals Gone Wild, was released in October 2005. Culture of Corruption: Obama and His Team of Tax Cheats and Cronies, Malkin's fourth book, was released in July 2009 and was a The New York Times Non-Fiction, Hardcover Best Seller for six weeks. Malkin said she hoped the book would "shatter the myths of hope and change in the new politics in Washington", described the Obama administration as run by "influence peddlers, power brokers and wealthy people", called it "one of the most corrupt administrations in recent memory", she discussed chapter two of the book, "Bitter Half: First Crony Michelle Obama", on NBC's Today show. She described Michelle Obama as "steeped in the politics of the Daley machine", as having based her professional career on nepotism and "old white boy" network connections.
Who Built That: Awe-Inspiring Stories of American Tinkerpreneurs, released May 2015, presents stories of American inventors and business people, directly challenging the "you didn't build that" statement made by President Barack Obama on July 13, 2012. Sold Out: How High-Tech Billionaires & Bipartisan Beltway Crapweasels Are Screwing America's Best & Brightest Workers, M. Malkin and J. Miano, Simon & Schuster Audio/Mercury Ink In June 2004, Malkin launched a political blog, MichelleMalkin.com. A 2007 memo from the National Republican Senatorial Committee described Malkin as one of the five "best-read national conservative bloggers", Technorati ranks MichelleMalkin.com in its "Top 100 blogs of all types". In 2011, the people search company PeekYou claimed that Malkin had the largest digital footprint of any political blogger. After she criticized hip hop artist Akon for "degrading women" in a Vent episode, Akon's record label, Universal Music Group, forced YouTube to remove the video by issuing a DMCA takedown notice, but decided to retract this notice after the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined Malkin and Hot Air in contesting the removal as a misuse of copyright law.
She continued to contribute fr
An Inconvenient Book
An Inconvenient Book: Real Solutions to the World's Biggest Problems is a 2007 political narrative written and edited by conservative commentator Glenn Beck The title of An Inconvenient Book is a parody of the title of Al Gore's 2006 documentary An Inconvenient Truth. One section of the book provides a critical response to Gore's views on global warming. Beck discusses his political views on a number of subjects. Issues include Beck’s claims that the free market provides the best way to fight global warming, divorce rates, Beck's perceptions of liberal bias on school campuses, the income gap, perceived anti-Americanism of the United Nations, illegal immigration. Publishers Weekly described An Inconvenient Book as "a good read for conservatives," referring to Beck's lighthearted tone, "at his best when most absurd, funniest when he's his own target." On the content, the reviewer says "While informative, as in his chapter on global warming, Beck is sometimes tedious when dealing with Islam and education."An Inconvenient Book entered The New York Times Best Seller List at Number 1 under the category Hardcover Nonfiction, stayed in the list for 17 weeks.
Glenn Beck's book page An Inconvenient Book on Amazon.com
HarperCollins Publishers L. L. C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Penguin Random House, Simon & Schuster. The company is a subsidiary of News Corp.. The name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row, an American publishing company acquired in 1987, together with UK publishing company William Collins, acquired in 1990; the worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray. HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and China; the company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints. In 1989, Collins was bought by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, the publisher was combined with Harper & Row, which NewsCorp had acquired two years earlier. In addition to the simplified and merged name, the logo for HarperCollins was derived from the torch logo for Harper and Row, the fountain logo for Collins, which were combined into a stylized set of flames atop waves.
In 1999, News Corporation purchased the Hearst Book Group, consisting of William Morrow & Company and Avon Books. These imprints are now published under the rubric of HarperCollins. HarperCollins bought educational publisher Letts and Lonsdale in March 2010. In 2011, HarperCollins announced; the purchase was completed on July 11, 2012, with an announcement that Thomas Nelson would operate independently given the position it has in Christian book publishing. Both Thomas Nelson and Zondervan were organized as imprints, or "keystone publishing programs," under a new division, HarperCollins Christian Publishing. Key roles in the reorganization were awarded to former Thomas Nelson executives. In 2012, HarperCollins acquired part of the trade operations of John Son in Canada. In 2014, HarperCollins acquired Canadian romance publisher Harlequin Enterprises for C$455 million. Brian Murray, the current CEO of HarperCollins, succeeded Jane Friedman, CEO from 1997 to 2008. Notable management figures include Lisa Sharkey, current senior vice president and director of creative development and Barry Winkleman from 1989 to 1994.
In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, HarperCollins, four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which HarperCollins and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing, it was announced to employees and later in the day on November 5, 2012, that HarperCollins was closing its remaining two U. S. warehouses, in order to merge shipping and warehousing operations with R. R. Donnelley in Indiana; the Scranton, PA warehouse closed in September 2013 and a Nashville, TN warehouse, under the name Thomas Nelson, in the winter of 2013. Several office positions and departments continued to work for HarperCollins in Scranton, but in a new location.
The Scranton warehouse closing eliminated 200 jobs, the Nashville warehouse closing eliminated up to 500 jobs. HarperCollins closed 2 U. S. warehouses, one in Williamsport, PA in 2011 and another in Grand Rapids, MI in 2012. “We have taken a long-term, global view of our print distribution and are committed to offering the broadest possible reach for our authors," said HarperCollins Chief Executive Brian Murray, according to Publishers Weekly."We are retooling the traditional distribution model to ensure we can competitively offer the entire HarperCollins catalog to customers regardless of location.” Company officials attribute the closings and mergers to the growing demand for e-book formats and the decline in print purchasing. HarperCollins maintains the backlist of many of the books published by their many merged imprints, in addition to having picked up new authors since the merger. Authors published by Harper include Mark Twain, the Brontë sisters and William Makepeace Thackeray. Authors published by Collins include H. G. Wells and Agatha Christie.
HarperCollins acquired the publishing rights to J. R. R. Tolkien's work in 1990 when Unwin Hymen was bought; this is a list of some of the more noted books, series, published by HarperCollins and their various imprints and merged publishing houses. The Hobbit, J. R. R. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings, J. R. R. Tolkien The Art of Loving, Erich Fromm Master and Commander, Patrick O'Brian the Leaphorn and Chee books, Tony Hillerman The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien Collins English Dictionary, a major dictionary Sharpe series, Bernard Cornwell Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo, Hayden Herrera, adapted into the 2002 film Frida The History of Middle-earth series, J. R. R. Tolkien Weaveworld, Clive Barker the Paladin Poetry Series Of Gravity & Angels, Jane Hirshfield The
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was co-founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane, his brothers Richard and John, as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, only becoming a separate company the following year. Penguin revolutionised publishing in the 1930s through its inexpensive paperbacks, sold through Woolworths and other high street stores for sixpence, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market. Penguin's success demonstrated. Penguin had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, the arts, science. Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House, an emerging conglomerate, formed in 2013 by the merger with American publisher Random House. Penguin Group was wholly owned by British Pearson PLC, the global media company which owned the Financial Times, but in the new umbrella company it retains only a minority holding of 25% of the stock against Random House owner, German media company Bertelsmann, which controls the majority stake.
It is one of the largest English-language publishers known as the "Big Six", now the "Big Five", along with Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of The Bodley Head with the books distributed from the crypt of Holy Trinity Church Marylebone. Only paperback editions were published until the "King Penguin" series debuted in 1939, latterly the Pelican History of Art was undertaken: these were unsuitable as paperbacks because of the length and copious illustrations on art paper so cloth bindings were chosen instead. Penguin Books has its registered office in the City of Westminster, England. Anecdotally, Lane recounted how it was his experience with the poor quality of reading material on offer at Exeter train station that inspired him to create cheap, well designed quality books for the mass market; however the question of how publishers could reach a larger public had been the subject of a conference at Rippon Hall, Oxford in 1934 which Lane had attended.
Though the publication of literature in paperback was associated with poor quality lurid fiction, the Penguin brand owed something to the short-lived Albatross imprint of British and American reprints that traded in 1932. Inexpensive paperbacks did not appear viable to Bodley Head, since the deliberately low price of 6d. Made profitability seem unlikely; this helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights for some works more cheaply than he otherwise might have done since other publishers were convinced of the short term prospects of the business. In the face of resistance from the traditional book trade it was the purchase of 63,000 books by Woolworths Group that paid for the project outright, confirmed its worth and allowed Lane to establish Penguin as a separate business in 1936. By March 1936, ten months after the company's launch on 30 July 1935, one million Penguin books had been printed; this early flush of success brought expansion and the appointment of Eunice Frost, first as a secretary as editor and as a director, to have a pivotal influence in shaping the company.
It was Frost who in 1945 was entrusted with the reconstruction of Penguin Inc after the departure of its first managing director Ian Ballantine. Penguin Inc had been incorporated in 1939 in order to satisfy US copyright law, had enjoyed some success under its vice president Kurt Enoch with such titles as What Plane Is That and The New Soldier Handbook despite being a late entrant into an well established paperback market. From the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. Avoiding the illustrated gaudiness of other paperback publishers, Penguin opted for the simple appearance of three horizontal bands, the upper and lower of which were colour-coded according to which series the title belonged to. In the central white panel, the author and title were printed in Gill Sans and in the upper band was a cartouche with the legend "Penguin Books"; the initial design was created by the 21-year-old office junior Edward Young, who drew the first version of the Penguin logo. Series such as Penguin Specials and The Penguin Shakespeare had individual designs.
The colour schemes included: orange and white for general fiction and white for crime fiction and white for travel and adventure, dark blue and white for biographies and white for miscellaneous and white for drama. Lane resisted the introduction of cover images for several years; some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look. From 1937 and on, the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the 1990s when a merge with Viking involved the head office moving to London; the Second World War saw the company established as a national institution, though it had no formal role, Penguin was integral to the war effort thanks in no small part to the publication of such bestselling manuals as Keeping Poultry and Rabbits on Scraps and Aircraft Recognition and supplying books for the services and British POWs. Penguin printed some 600 titles and started nineteen new series in the six years of the war and a time of enormous increase in the demand for books Penguin enjoyed a privileged place among its peers.
Paper rationing was the besetting problem of publishers during wartime, with the fall of France cutting off supp